Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the End of World War II in Europe; the revolt began as a student protest, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Hungarian Parliament building, calling out on the streets using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the radio building to try to broadcast the students' demands, was detained; when the delegation's release was demanded by the protesters outside, they were fired upon from within the building by the State Security Police, known as the ÁVH. One student was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd; this was the start of the revolution. As the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital.
The revolt spread across Hungary, the government collapsed. Thousands organised into militias, battling the Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned, former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers' councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working People's Party and demanded political changes. A new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had stopped, a sense of normality began to return. Appearing open to negotiating a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded other regions of the country; the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, 200,000 Hungarians fled as refugees. Mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter.
By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. These Soviet actions, while strengthening control over the Eastern Bloc, alienated many Western Marxists, leading to splits and/or considerable losses of membership for communist parties in capitalist states. Public discussion about the revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense debate. At the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989, 23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria. In 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union; the Red Army was able to force back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders, by 1944 was advancing towards Hungary. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began armistice negotiations with the Allies.
These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up the pro-Axis Government of National Unity. Both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in late 1944. Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. After World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy. However, the Hungarian Communist Party, a Marxist–Leninist group who shared the Soviet government's ideological beliefs wrested small concessions in a process named salami tactics, which sliced away the elected government's influence, despite the fact that it had received only 17% of the vote. After the elections of 1945, the portfolio of the Interior Ministry, which oversaw the Hungarian State Security Police, was transferred from the Independent Smallholders Party to a nominee of the Communist Party.
The ÁVH employed methods of intimidation, falsified accusations and torture to suppress political opposition. The brief period of multi-party democracy came to an end when the Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Hungarian Working People's Party, which stood its candidate list unopposed in 1949; the People's Republic of Hungary was declared. The Hungarian Working People's Party set about to modify the economy into socialism by undertaking radical nationalization based on the Soviet model. Writers and journalists were the first to voice open criticism of the government and its policies, publishing critical articles in 1955. By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union, staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution. Hungary became a communist state under the authoritarian leadership of Mátyás Rákosi. Under Rákosi's reign, the Security Police began a series of purges, first within the Communist Party to end opposition to Rákosi's reign.
The victims were labeled as "Titoists", "western agents", or "Trotskyists" for as insignificant a crime as spending time in the West to participate in the Spanish Civil War. In total, about half of all the middle and lower level party officials—at least 7,000 people—were purged. From 1950 to 1952, the Security Police forcibly relocated thousands of people to obtain property and housing for the Working People's Party members, to remove the threat of the intellectual
Wallington, New Jersey
Wallington is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 11,335, reflecting a decline of 248 from the 11,583 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 755 from the 10,828 counted in the 1990 Census. Wallington was created as a borough on January 2, 1895, based on a referendum held on December 31, 1894, from area taken from Bergen Township and Saddle River Township; the borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through New Jersey, in which 26 boroughs were formed in Bergen County alone in 1894, with Wallington the last of the 26 to be formed by an 1894 referendum. Sections of Wallington were ceded to Garfield in 1898; the borough is said to have been named for Walling Van Winkle, who built a home in the future borough. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.034 square miles, including 0.983 square miles of land and 0.051 square miles of water.
The borough borders Carlstadt, East Rutherford, South Hackensack and Wood-Ridge in Bergen County, the city of Passaic in Passaic County across the Passaic River. The borough is located 15 miles northwest of Midtown Manhattan; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 11,335 people, 4,637 households, 2,990.865 families residing in the borough. The population density was 11,528.6 per square mile. There were 4,946 housing units at an average density of 5,030.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 85.48% White, 3.23% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 5.57% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 3.86% from other races, 1.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.81% of the population. There were 4,637 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.03. In the borough, the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 91.6 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $58,724 and the median family income was $66,414. Males had a median income of $46,632 versus $40,968 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $27,350. About 7.0% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.8% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed 25 households in 2010, a decrease from the 30 counted in 2000; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 11,583 people, 4,752 households, 3,041 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 11,632.5 people per square mile. There were 4,906 housing units at an average density of 4,927.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 87.60% White, 2.67% African American, 0.09% Native American, 4.98% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.32% from other races, 2.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.70% of the population. There were 4,752 households out of which 25.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.05. In the borough the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 33.9% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $45,656, the median income for a family was $55,291. Males had a median income of $40,077 versus $30,503 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $24,431. About 4.8% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.8% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over. The most common ancestries were Polish, Italian and German. At 51.5%, Wallington has one of the highest per capita levels of Polish ancestry in the area. Wallington was ranked seventh nationwide and first in New Jersey among municipalities in the United States by percentage of population with Polish ancestry as of the 2000 Census; each December, Wallington holds a holiday parade. Fire departments and ambulances from the surrounding area put Christmas lights on their trucks. There is a contest to determine; the winning department gets a trophy.
Samuel Nelkin County Park is located on Parkview Drive. It has a playground, tennis courts, athletic fields, a dog park, picnic areas, a shallow, artificial pond for fishing. Bowlero Wallington is a bowling alley that has 48 lanes, an arcade and bar. Wallington is governed under the Boroug
Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county in the U. S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 948,406, an increase of 4.8% from the 2010 United States Census, which in turn represented an increase of 20,998 from the 884,118 counted in the 2000 Census. Located in the northeastern corner of New Jersey and its Gateway Region, Bergen County is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area and is directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, to which it is connected by the George Washington Bridge. Bergen County has no large cities, its most populous place, with 43,010 residents at the time of the 2010 census, is Hackensack, its county seat. Mahwah covered the largest area of any municipality, at 26.19 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $75,849, the fourth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 45th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Bergen County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, with a median household income of $81,708 per the 2010 Census, increasing to an estimated $84,677 in 2014, 18% higher than the $71,919 median statewide.
The county hosts an extensive park system totaling nearly 9,000 acres. The origin of the name of Bergen County is a matter of debate, it is believed that the county is named for one of the earliest settlements, Bergen, in modern-day Hudson County. However, the origin of the township's name is debated. Several sources attribute the name to Bergen, while others attribute it to Bergen, North Holland in the Netherlands; some sources say that the name is derived from one of the earliest settlers of New Amsterdam, Hans Hansen Bergen, a native of Norway, who arrived in New Netherland in 1633. At the time of first European contact, Bergen County was inhabited by Native American people the Lenape Nation, whose sub-groups included the Tappan and Rumachenanck, as named by the Dutch colonists; some of their descendants are included among the Ramapough Mountain Indians, recognized as a tribe by the state in 1980. Their ancestors had moved into the mountains to escape encroachment by English colonists, their descendants reside in the northwest of the county, in nearby Passaic County and in Rockland County, New York, tracing their Lenape ancestry to speakers of the Munsee language, one of three major dialects of their language.
Over the years, they absorbed other ethnicities by intermarriage. In the 17th century, the Dutch considered the area comprising today's Bergen and Hudson counties as part of New Netherland, their colonial province of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch claimed it after Henry Hudson explored Newark Bay and anchored his ship at Weehawken Cove in 1609. From an early date, the Dutch began to import African slaves to fill their labor needs. Bergen County was the largest slaveholding county in the state; the African slaves were used for labor at the ports to support shipping, as well as for domestic servants and farm labor. Early settlement attempts by the Dutch included Pavonia and Achter Col, but the Native Americans repelled these settlements in Kieft's War and the Peach Tree War. European settlers returned to the western shores of the Hudson River in the 1660 formation of Bergen Township, which would become the first permanent European settlement in the territory of present-day New Jersey. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, on August 27, 1664, New Amsterdam's governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English Navy.
The English organized the Province of New Jersey in 1665 splitting the territory into East Jersey and West Jersey in 1674. On November 30, 1675, the settlement Bergen and surrounding plantations and settlements were called Bergen County in an act passed by the province's General Assembly. In 1683, Bergen was recognized as an independent county by the Provincial Assembly. Bergen County consisted of only the land between the Hudson River and the Hackensack River, extending north to the border between East Jersey and New York. In January 1709, the boundaries were extended to include all of the current territory of Hudson County and portions of the current territory of Passaic County; the 1709 borders were described as follows: "Beginning at Constable's Hook, so along the bay and Hudson's River to the partition point between New Jersey and the province of New York. † The line between East and West Jersey here referred to is not the line adopted and known as the Lawrence line, run by John Lawrence in September and October 1743.
It was the compromise line agreed upon between Governors Daniel Coxe and Robert Barclay in 1682, which ran a little north of Morristown to the Passaic River. This line being afterward objected to by the East Jersey proprietors, the latter procured the running of the Lawrence line. Bergen was the location of several battles and troop movements during the American Revolutionary War. Fort Lee's location on the bluffs of the New Jersey Palisades, opposite Fort Washington in Manhattan, made it a strategic position during the war. In November 1776, the Battle of Fort Lee took place as part of a British plan to capture George Washington and to crush the Contin
The Record (Bergen County)
The Record is a newspaper in North Jersey, United States. It serves Bergen County, though it covers Hudson and Passaic counties as well, it has the second largest circulation behind The Star-Ledger. Its editor is Daniel Sforza; the Record was under the ownership of the Borg family from 1930 on and the family went on to form North Jersey Media Group, which bought its competitor, the Herald News. Both papers are now owned by Gannett Company, which purchased the Borgs' media assets in July 2016. For years, The Record had its primary offices in Hackensack with a bureau in Wayne. Following the purchase of the competing Herald News of Passaic, both papers began centralizing operations in what is now Woodland Park, where The Record is located. In 1930 John Borg, a Wall Street financier, bought The Record. From 1952 to 1963 the circulation of The Record doubled and its coverage changed from local to regional, it was one of the papers whose editorial position was in favor of the Metropolitan Regional Council In 1974, writers in the area voted The Record first in the categories of writing and local coverage.
It provided different local news coverage for various areas in its distribution range. In 1983, the paper had a daily circulation of just over 149,000 with its readership described as "upscale". On September 12, 1988, its afternoon publication and delivery changed to early morning; when combined with more centralized distribution requiring carriers to have automobiles, many "youth carriers" were put out of work. The paper's approach to coverage made it "read like a magazine". Rather than a focus on breaking news on its front page, it featured "The Patch," a thematic topic or investigative report. In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, a photographer for The Record, Thomas E. Franklin, took a photograph of three firefighters raising an American flag over the rubble of what had been the World Trade Center; this became an iconic photo known as Raising the Flag at Ground Zero. A follow-up story by Jeannine Clegg, a reporter for The Record, about the flag raising efforts by the firemen that led to the photo appeared in the newspaper on September 14, 2011.
The Record owns the rights to the photograph, but has licensed it in exchange for donations to September 11 causes, as long as the photo is used in a "dignified and proper manner" for non-commercial purposes. William A. Caldwell, Pulitzer Prize-winning former columnist Mike Kelly Robert Leckie, rejoined The Record after returning from World War II. John R. MacArthur John Tierney Kaavya Viswanathan The Record's and North Jersey Media Group website The Record website