Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, is a member of the British royal family. She is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the British throne. Instead of using the title Princess of Wales, she uses the title Duchess of Cornwall, her husband's secondary designation. In Scotland, she is known as the Duchess of Rothesay. Camilla is the eldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife Rosalind Cubitt, the daughter of Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe, she was raised in East Sussex and South Kensington in England, was educated in England and France. In 1973, Camilla married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, they divorced in 1995. Camilla was in a relationship with the Prince of Wales before and after their previous marriages; the relationship became publicised in the media and attracted worldwide scrutiny. In 2005, it culminated in a civil marriage at Windsor Guildhall, followed by a televised Anglican blessing at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle; as Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla assists the Prince of Wales on his official duties.
She is the patron, president and a member of numerous charities and organisations. Since 1994, she has taken action on earning honours and awards, she has raised awareness in areas including rape and sexual abuse, animal welfare and poverty. Camilla Rosemary Shand was born at King's College Hospital, London, on 17 July 1947, she grew up in The Laines – an 18th-century country house in Plumpton, East Sussex – and a three-storey house in South Kensington, her family's second home. Her parents were British Army officer turned his wife, Rosalind, she has a younger sister, Annabel Elliot, had a younger brother, Mark Shand. Her maternal great-grandmother, Alice Keppel, was a mistress of King Edward VII from 1898 to 1910. On 1 November 1947, Camilla was baptised at East Sussex. Camilla's mother was a housewife, while her father had various business interests after retiring from the army, he was most notably a partner in Block and Block, a firm of wine merchants in South Audley Street, Mayfair joining Ellis and Vidler of Hastings and London.
During her childhood years, Camilla became an avid reader due to the influence of her father, who read to her frequently. She grew up with dogs and cats, and, at a young age, learnt how to ride a pony by joining Pony Club camps which garnered her frequent rosettes at community gymkhanas. According to her, childhood "was perfect in every way". Biographer Gyles Brandreth describes her background and childhood:Camilla is described as having had an "Enid Blyton sort of Childhood". In fact, it was much grander than that. Camilla, as a little girl, may have had some personality traits of George, the tomboy girl among the Famous Five, but Enid Blyton’s children were middle-class children and The Shands, without question, belonged to the upper class; the Shands had position and they had help—help in the house, help in the garden, help with children. They were gentry, they opened their garden for the local Conservative Party Association summer fête. Enough said. At the age of five, Camilla was sent to a co-educational school in Ditchling village.
She left Dumbrells aged ten to attend Queen's Gate School in South Kensington. Her classmates at Queen's Gate knew her as "Milla". One of the teachers at the school was the writer Penelope Fitzgerald, who taught French and remembered Camilla as "bright and lively". Camilla left Queen's Gate with one O-level in 1964. At the age of sixteen, she travelled abroad to attend the Mon Fertile finishing school in Tolochenaz, Switzerland. After completing her course in Switzerland, she made her own decision and travelled to France to learn French and French literature at the University of London Institute in Paris for six months. On 25 March 1965, Camilla was a debutante in one of 311 that year. After moving from home, she shared a small flat in Kensington with her friend Jane Wyndham, niece of decorator Nancy Lancaster, she moved into a larger flat in Belgravia, which she shared with her landlady Lady Moyra Campbell, the daughter of the Duke of Abercorn, with Virginia Carington, daughter of the politician Lord Carrington.
Virginia was married to Camilla's uncle Henry Cubitt from 1973 until 1979. Camilla worked as a secretary for a variety of firms in the West End and was employed as a receptionist by the decorating firm Sibyl Colefax & John Fowler in Mayfair. In her spare time, she became a passionate horse-rider and attended equestrian activities, she had a passion for painting, which led to her private tutoring with an artist, although most of her work "ended up in the bin". Other interests were fishing and gardening. In the late 1960s, Camilla met Andrew Parker Bowles—then a Guards officer and lieutenant in the Blues and Royals— through his younger brother, Simon Parker Bowles, who worked for her father's wine firm in Mayfair. After an on and off relationship for years and Camilla announced their engagement in The Times in 1973,marrying on 4 July that year in a Roman Catholic ceremony at the Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks in London. Camilla was 25 years old and Parker Bowles 33, her wedding dress was designed by British fashion house Bellville Sassoon, the bridesmaids included Parker Bowles' goddaughter Lady
A hostage is a person, held by one of two belligerent parties to the other or seized as security for the carrying out of an agreement, or as a preventive measure against war. In contemporary usage, it means someone, seized by a criminal abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative, law enforcement, or government to act, or refrain from acting, in a particular way under threat of serious physical harm to the hostage after expiration of an ultimatum. A person who seizes one or more hostages is known as a hostage-taker; the English word "hostage" derives from French ostage, modern otage, from Late Latin obsidaticum, the state of being an obses, "hostage", from Latin obsideō, but an etymological connection was supposed with Latin hostis. This long history of political and military use indicates that political authorities or generals would agree to hand over one or several hostages in the custody of the other side, as guarantee of good faith in the observance of obligations; these obligations would be in the form of signing of a peace treaty, in the hands of the victor, or exchange hostages as mutual assurance in cases such as an armistice.
Major powers, such as Ancient Rome and the British who had colonial vassals, would receive many such political hostages offspring of the elite princes or princesses who were treated according to their rank and put to a subtle long-term use where they would be given an elitist education or even a religious conversion. This would influence them culturally and open the way for an amicable political line if they ascended to power after release; this caused the element gīsl = "hostage" in many old Germanic personal names, thus in placenames derived from personal names, for example Isleworth in west London from Old English Gīslheres wyrð. The practice of taking hostages is ancient, has been used in negotiations with conquered nations, in cases such as surrenders and the like, where the two belligerents depended for its proper carrying out on each other's good faith; the Romans were accustomed to take the sons of tributary princes and educate them at Rome, thus holding a security for the continued loyalty of the conquered nation and instilling a possible future ruler with ideas of Roman civilization.
The practice was commonplace in the Imperial Chinese tributary system between the Han and Tang dynasties. The practice continued through the early Middle Ages; the Irish High King Niall of the Nine Hostages got his epithet Noígiallach because, by taking nine petty kings hostage, he had subjected nine other principalities to his power. This practice was adopted in the early period of the British occupation of India, by France in her relations with the Arab tribes in North Africa; the position of a hostage was that of a prisoner of war, to be retained till the negotiations or treaty obligations were carried out, liable to punishment, to death, in case of treachery or refusal to fulfil the promises made. The practice of taking hostages as security for the carrying out of a treaty between civilized states is now obsolete; the last occasion was at the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ending the War of the Austrian Succession, when two British peers, Henry Bowes Howard, 11th Earl of Suffolk, Charles, 9th Baron Cathcart, were sent to France as hostages for the restitution of Cape Breton to France.
In France, after the revolution of Prairial, the so-called law of hostages was passed, to meet the royalist insurrection in La Vendée. Relatives of émigrés were taken from disturbed districts and imprisoned, were liable to execution at any attempt to escape. Sequestration of their property and deportation from France followed on the murder of a republican, four to every such murder, with heavy fines on the whole body of hostages; the law only resulted in an increase in the insurrection. Napoleon in 1796 had used similar measures to deal with the insurrection in Lombardy. In times the practice of official war hostages may be said to be confined to either securing the payment of enforced contributions or requisitions in an occupied territory and the obedience to regulations the occupying army may think fit to issue. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the Germans took as hostages the prominent people or officials from towns or districts when making requisitions and when foraging, it was a general practice for the mayor and adjoint of a town which failed to pay a fine imposed upon it to be seized as hostages and retained till the money was paid.
Another case where hostages have been taken in modern warfare has been the subject of much discussion. In 1870 the Germans found it necessary to take special measures to put a stop to train-wrecking by parties in occupied territory not belonging to the recognized armed forces of the enemy, an illegitimate act of war. Prominent citizens were placed on the engine of the train so that it might be understood that in every accident caused by the hostility of the inhabitants their compatriots will be the first to suffer; the measure seems to have been effective. In 1900 during the Second Boer War, by a proclamation issued at Pretoria, Lord Roberts adopted the plan for a similar reason, but shortly afterwards it was abandoned; the Germans between the su
Theatr Clwyd is a regional arts centre 1 mile from Mold, Flintshire, in northeast Wales. It opened as Theatr Clwyd in 1976, but was known between 1998 and 2015 as Clwyd Theatr Cymru, before reverting to its original name; the complex contains five auditoria: The Anthony Hopkins Theatre The Emlyn Williams Theatre Studio 2 The Clwyd Room Cinema. The complex forms part of the County Civic Centre at Mold, being adjacent to the Shire Hall, it was built at the instigation of the former Flintshire County Council before it was abolished in the local government reorganisation of 1974 and replaced by Clwyd County Council, the complex was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1976 under the artistic direction of George Roman. Toby Robertson was the theatre's artistic director between 1985 and 1992. Robertson introduced several leading actors, including Vanessa Redgrave, Sir Michael Hordern and Timothy Dalton, to the theatre. Robertson was succeeded as artistic director by Helena Kaut-Howson, followed by Terry Hands from 1997 to 2015.
Hands' successor, Tamara Harvey, was appointed in June 2015. HTV Wales had offices and a studio at the site from the late 1970s to the mid 1980s, but production was scaled back following the opening of the company's new studio complex at Culverhouse Cross in Cardiff. A small news operation remained in Mold until the late 1990s but closed when HTV moved its North Wales news operations to Colwyn Bay and Wrexham; the name of the complex was changed in 1998 to reflect the reorganisation of local government at that time which abolished Clwyd as a county and brought Flintshire back into existence, although defined by different borders from the original ones. However, in 2015 it reverted to its original name. Apart from hosting visiting theatre companies, Theatr Clwyd is home to Wales' major drama producing theatre company, under the artistic direction of Tamara Harvey, which stages their own productions throughout the year and regularly performs on tour around Wales and the UK. Theatr Clwyd was famous for, among many other things, hosting the successful second stage performance of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.
Media related to Clwyd Theatr Cymru at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, butane, ethylene, or natural gas. The light is produced either directly by the flame by using special mixes of illuminating gas to increase brightness, or indirectly with other components such as the gas mantle or the limelight, with the gas functioning as a fuel source. Before electricity became sufficiently widespread and economical to allow for general public use, gas was the most popular method of outdoor and indoor lighting in cities and suburbs. Early gas lights were ignited manually, but many designs are self-igniting. Gas lighting today is used for camping, where the high energy density of a hydrocarbon fuel, combined with the modular nature of canisters allows bright and long lasting light to be produced cheaply and without complex equipment. In addition, some urban historical districts retain gas street lighting, gas lighting is used indoors or outdoors to create or preserve a nostalgic effect.
Early lighting fuels consisted of olive oil, fish oil, whale oil, sesame oil, nut oil, similar substances. These were the most used fuels until the late 18th century. Chinese records dating back 1,700 years note the use of natural gas in the home for light and heat via bamboo pipes to the dwellings; the ancient Chinese of the Spring and Autumn period made the first practical use of natural gas for lighting purposes around 500 B. C. where they used bamboo pipelines to transport and carry both brine and natural gas for many miles. Public illumination preceded the adoption of gaslight by centuries. In 1417, Sir Henry Barton, Lord Mayor of London, ordained "lanterns with lights to be hung out on the winter evenings between Hallowtide and Candlemasse." Paris was first lit by an order issued in 1524, and, in the beginning of the 16th century, the inhabitants were ordered to keep lights burning in the windows of all houses that faced the streets. In 1668, when some regulations were made for improving the streets of London, the residents were reminded to hang out their lanterns at the usual time, and, in 1690, an order was issued to hang out a light, or lamp, every night as soon as it was dark, from Michaelmas to Christmas.
By an Act of the Common Council in 1716, all housekeepers, whose houses faced any street, lane, or passage, were required to hang out, every dark night, one or more lights, to burn from six to eleven o'clock, under the penalty of one shilling as a fine for failing to do so. In coal mining and escaping gases were known for their adverse effects rather than their useful qualities. Coal miners described two types of gases, one called the choke damp and the other fire damp. In 1667, a paper detailing the effects of these gases was entitled, "A Description of a Well and Earth in Lancashire taking Fire, by a Candle approaching to it. Imparted by Thomas Shirley, Esq an eye-witness." Stephen Hales was the first person who procured a flammable fluid from the actual distillation of coal. His experiments with this object are related in the first volume of his Vegetable Statics, published in 1726. From the distillation of "one hundred and fifty-eight grains of Newcastle coal, he states that he obtained one hundred and eighty cubic inches of air, which weighed fifty-one grains, being nearly one third of the whole."
These results seemed to have passed without notice for several years. In the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1733, some properties of coal-gas are detailed in a paper called, "An Account of the Damp Air in a Coal-pit of Sir James Lowther, sunk within Twenty Yards of the Sea." This paper contained some striking facts relating to the flammability and other properties of coal-gas. The principal properties of coal-gas were demonstrated to different members of the Royal Society, showed that after keeping the gas some time, it still retained its flammability; the scientists of the time still saw no useful purpose for it. John Clayton, in an extract from a letter in the Philosophical Transactions for 1735, calls gas the "spirit" of coal and discovered its flammability by an accident; this "spirit" happened to catch fire, by coming in contact with a candle as it escaped from a fracture in one of his distillatory vessels. By preserving the gas in bladders, he entertained his friends, by exhibiting its flammability.
It took many years of development and testing before gas lighting for the stage was commercially available. Gas technology was installed in just about every major theatre in the world, but gas lighting was short-lived. It took nearly 200 years for gas to become accessible for commercial use. A Flemish alchemist, Jan Baptista van Helmont, was the first person to formally recognize gas as a state of matter, he would go on to identify several types including carbon dioxide. Over one hundred years in 1733, Sir James Lowther had some of his miners working on a water pit for his mine. While digging the pit they hit a pocket of gas. Lowther took it home to do some experiments, he noted, "The said air being put into a bladder … and tied close, may be carried away, kept some days, being afterwards pressed through a small pipe into the flame of a candle, will take fire, burn at the end of the pipe as long as the bladder is pressed to feed the flame, when taken from the candle after it is so lighted, it will continue burning till there is no more air left in the bladder to supply the flame."
Lowther had discovered the principle behind gas lighting. In the 18th century William Murdoch stated: "the gas obtained by distillation fro
The Cambridge Theatre is a West End theatre, on a corner site in Earlham Street facing Seven Dials, in the London Borough of Camden, built in 1929–30 for Bertie Meyer on an "irregular triangular site". It was designed by Wimperis and Guthrie; the theatre is notable for its elegant and clean lines of design. The theatre was refurbished in 1950—the original gold and silver décor was painted over in red, candelabras and chandeliers were added. In 1987, to restore the original décor, the theatre was once again refurbished, this time by Carl Toms; the theatre has a circular entrance foyer, with Grinling's bronze frieze depicting nude figures in exercise poses, the theme continues into the main foyer, with dancing nudes, marble pilaster up lighters and concealed lighting. English Heritage notes the Cambridge Theatre is a rare and early example of a London theatre adopting the moderne, expressionist style pioneered in Germany during the 1920s, it marked a conscious reaction to the design excesses of contemporary cinemas.
Theatres looked for a new style appropriate to the greater sophistication of their entertainment and found it in the Germanic moderne forms of simple shapes enlivened by concealed lighting, shiny steelwork and touches of bright colour. The theatre was Grade II listed in January 1999. Productions at the Cambridge Theatre have been characterised by short runs interspersed with several dark periods and the theatre was used for trade film shows in the late 1930s and again in 1969 as a cinema. Notable productions include Joan Sims in Breath of spring by Peter Coke in 1958, Tommy Steele in Half a Sixpence in 1963, Bruce Forsyth in Little Me in 1964, The Black Mikado, in the late 1970s the Kander and Ebb musical Chicago ran for 590 performances. More the'rock'n'roll' musical Return to the Forbidden Planet, based on Shakespeare's The Tempest and used 1950s and 1960s songs opened in September 1989 and lasted until early 1993, winning the Olivier Award for Best New Musical—beating the favourite, Miss Saigon.
The controversial show Jerry Springer - The Opera had a run from 14 October 2003 – 19 February 2005. This was followed by a month run of illusionist Derren Brown's Something Wicked This Way Comes tour, before the London première of Flying Music's Dancing in the Streets, which opened on 7 July 2005; this finished its run on 22 April 2006 and Chicago moved across Theatreland from the Adelphi Theatre to continue its London run into its tenth year at the theatre that hosted the show in the 1970s. It opened at the Cambridge on Friday 28 April. Chicago cancelled all performances post 27 August 2011. Matilda the Musical commenced performances at The Cambridge from 18 October 2011, with an official opening night on 22 November 2011; as of April 2017, Matilda became the longest running production in the theatre's history. Grease by Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey, starring at various times Shane Richie and Ben Richards Great Balls of Fire The Beautiful Game by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Ben Elton Fame Our House by Madness and Tim Firth Jerry Springer - The Opera, starring David Soul Something Wicked this Way Comes, starring Derren Brown Dancing in the Streets Chicago Matilda the Musical Guide to British Theatres 1750–1950, John Earl and Michael Sell pp. 102 ISBN 0-7136-5688-3 Cambridge Theatre homepage
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Pride and Prejudice (1980 TV series)
Pride and Prejudice is a 1980 BBC television serial, adapted by British novelist Fay Weldon from Jane Austen's novel of the same name published in 1813. This five-episode dramatisation stars Elizabeth Garvie as Elizabeth Bennet and David Rintoul as Mr. Darcy, it was broadcast in 1981 by PBS television as part of Masterpiece Theatre. The novel has been the subject of numerous television and film adaptations — this was the fifth adaptation for the BBC. Other BBC television versions aired in 1938, 1952, 1958, 1967 and 1995. Elizabeth Garvie as Elizabeth Bennet David Rintoul as Fitzwilliam Darcy Peter Settelen as George Wickham Priscilla Morgan as Mrs. Bennet Moray Watson as Mr. Bennet Sabina Franklyn as Jane Bennet Natalie Ogle as Lydia Bennet Tessa Peake-Jones as Mary Bennet Clare Higgins as Kitty Bennet Osmund Bullock as Charles Bingley Marsha Fitzalan as Caroline Bingley Jennifer Granville as Mrs. Hurst Edward Arthur as Mr. Hurst Irene Richard as Charlotte Lucas Malcolm Rennie as Mr. Collins Elizabeth Stewart as Lady Lucas Peter Howell as Sir William Lucas Judy Parfitt as Lady Catherine de Bourgh Moir Leslie as Anne de Bourgh Emma Jacobs as Georgiana Darcy Desmond Adams as Colonel Fitzwilliam Shirley Cain as Mrs. Phillips Barbara Shelley as Mrs. Gardiner Michael Lees as Mr. Gardiner Pride and Prejudice on IMDb Pride and Prejudice at AllMovie