Canberra is the capital city of Australia. With a population of 410,301, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall; the city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory, 280 km south-west of Sydney, 660 km north-east of Melbourne. A resident of Canberra is known as a Canberran. Although Canberra is the capital and seat of government, many federal government ministries have secondary seats in state capital cities, as do the Governor-General and the Prime Minister; the site of Canberra was selected for the location of the nation's capital in 1908 as a compromise between rivals Sydney and Melbourne, Australia's two largest cities. It is unusual among Australian cities, being an planned city outside of any state, similar to Washington, D. C. in the United States, or Brasília in Brazil. Following an international contest for the city's design, a blueprint by American architects Walter Burley Griffin and Marion Mahony Griffin was selected and construction commenced in 1913.
The Griffins' plan featured geometric motifs such as circles and triangles, was centred on axes aligned with significant topographical landmarks in the Australian Capital Territory. The city's design was influenced by the garden city movement and incorporates significant areas of natural vegetation; the growth and development of Canberra were hindered by the World Wars and the Great Depression, which exacerbated a series of planning disputes and the ineffectiveness of a procession of bodies that were created in turn to oversee the development of the city. The national capital emerged as a thriving city after World War II, as Prime Minister Sir Robert Menzies championed its development and the National Capital Development Commission was formed with executive powers. Although the Australian Capital Territory is now self-governing, the Commonwealth Government retains some influence through the National Capital Authority; as the seat of the government of Australia, Canberra is the site of Parliament House, the official residence of the Monarch's representative the Governor-General, the High Court and numerous government departments and agencies.
It is the location of many social and cultural institutions of national significance, such as the Australian War Memorial, Australian National University, Royal Australian Mint, Australian Institute of Sport, National Gallery, National Museum and the National Library. The Australian Army's officer corps is trained at the Royal Military College and the Australian Defence Force Academy is located in the capital; the ACT is independent of any state to prevent any one state from gaining an advantage by hosting the seat of Commonwealth power. The ACT has voting representation in the Commonwealth Parliament, has its own Legislative Assembly and government, similar to the states; as the city has a high proportion of public servants, the Commonwealth Government contributes the largest percentage of Gross State Product and is the largest single employer in Canberra, although no longer the majority employer. Compared to the national averages, the unemployment rate is the average income higher. Property prices are high, in part due to comparatively restrictive development regulations.
The word "Canberra" is popularly claimed to derive from the word Kambera or Canberry, claimed to mean "meeting place" in Ngunnawal, one of the Indigenous languages spoken in the district by Aboriginal Australians before European settlers arrived, although there is no clear evidence to support this. An alternative definition has been claimed by numerous local commentators over the years, including the Ngunnawal elder Don Bell, whereby Canberra or Nganbra means "woman's breasts" and is the indigenous name for the two mountains, Black Mountain and Mount Ainslie, which lie opposite each other. In the 1860s, the name was reported by Queanbeyan newspaper owner John Gale to be an interpretation of the name nganbra or nganbira, meaning "hollow between a woman's breasts", referring to the Sullivans Creek floodplain between Mount Ainslie and Black Mountain. An 1830s map of the region by Major Mitchell indeed does mark the Sullivan's Creek floodplain between these two mountains as "Nganbra". "Nganbra" or "Nganbira" could have been anglicised to the name "Canberry", as the locality soon become known to European settlers.
R. H. Cambage in his 1919 book Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales, Part X, the Federal Capital Territory noted that Joshua John Moore, the first settler in the region, named the area Canberry in 1823 stating that "there seems no doubt that the original was a native name, but its meaning is unknown."' Survey plans of the district dated 1837 refer to the area as the Canberry Plain. In 1920, some of the older residents of the district claimed that the name was derived from the Australian Cranberry which grew abundantly in the area, noting that the local name for the plant was canberry. Although popularly pronounced or, the original pronunciation at its official naming in 1913 was. Before white settlement, the area in which Canberra would be constructed was seasonally inhabited by Indigenous Australians. Anthropologist Norman Tindale suggested the principal group occupying the region were the Ngunnawal people, while the Ngarigo lived to the south of the ACT, the Wandandian to the east, the Walgulu to the south, Gandangara people to the north and Wiradjuri to the north-west.
Archaeological evidence of settlement in the region includes inhabited rock shelters, rock paintings and engravings, burial places and quarry sites as well as stone tools and arrangements. Artefacts suggests early human activity occurred at some po
University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966, it is composed over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center, its enrollment is 25,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students with over 170,000 alumni in 152 countries, including James Gosling, who invented the Java computer language, Garrett Camp, who co-founded Uber, former Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, former Canadian astronaut Robert Thirsk, Lululemon Athletica founder, Chip Wilson. A member of the U15, the University of Calgary is one of Canada's top research universities; the university has a sponsored research revenue of $380.4 million, with total revenues exceeding $1.2 billion, one of the highest in Canada.
Being in Calgary, with Canada's highest concentration of engineers and geoscientists, the university maintains close ties to the petroleum and geoscience industry through the Department of Geosciences and the Schulich School of Engineering while maintaining a history of environmental research and leadership through the Faculty of Environmental Design, the School of Public Policy and the Faculty of Law. The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada; the main campus covers 200 hectares. The University of Calgary was established in 1966, but its roots date back more than half a century earlier to the establishment of the Normal School in Calgary in 1905; the Alberta Normal School was established in Calgary to train primary and secondary school teachers in the new province. The Calgary Normal School was absorbed by the University of Alberta's Faculty of Education in 1945, operated as a part of its Calgary branch campus, a satellite campus of the University of Alberta.
Operating from the west wing of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, the Calgary University Committee was formed 1946, in an effort to lobby for separate permanent facilities for the branch campus. In July 1957, the University of Alberta signed a one dollar lease with the City of Calgary, for 121.4 hectares of land. In 1958, the University of Alberta changed the name of the branch campus to the "University of Alberta in Calgary," and unveiled plans for new permanent facilities on the leased land; the new campus opened its first permanent facilities in October 1960, the Arts and Education Building, the Science and Engineering Building. In May 1965, the satellite campus was granted academic and financial autonomy from the University of Alberta. In the following year, in April 1966, the institution was formally made into an independent university, with the passage of the Universities Act by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research.
The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was a link between the bodies to perform institutional leadership. In the early 20th century, professional education expanded beyond theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the university's first president, Herbert Stoker Armstrong, held a strong belief that "although the university is accountable to the society that supports it, the university must insist on playing a leadership role in intellectual matters if it is to be worthy of the name."During the late 1960s, the University of Calgary's campus expanded with new buildings for engineering and science, the opening of the new University Theatre in Calgary Hall and, in 1971, the launch of the program in architecture.
In addition, the Banff Centre affiliated with the University of Calgary in 1966. The University of Calgary played a central role in facilitating and hosting Canada's first winter olympic games, the XV Olympic Winter Games in 1988. In May 2001, the University of Calgary tartan was accredited in a ceremony presided over by the president of the Scottish Tartans Society, the director of the Register of All Publicly Known Tartans; the accreditation ceremony for the university's tartan was the first to take place in Canada. Use of the black and gold tartan is limited to formal ceremonies, a small number of items sold by the University; the tartan is used by the university's pipe band. On January 4, 2018, 21-year-old Connor Neurauter was sentenced to 90-days in jail, 2 years probation and had to register as a sex offender in Kamloops, B. C after obtaining and threatening to share photos of a minor under 16, it was revealed that Neurauter would not serve his sentence until May 2018, in order to allow him to finish his semester at the University of Calgary.
On January 6, the University of Calgary said that they were "reviewing the situation"
2016 Yukon general election
The 38th general election in Yukon, took place on November 7, 2016 to return members to the 34th Yukon Legislative Assembly. The election was fought over issues relating to the economy, the environment, First Nations reconciliation and the merits of a territorial carbon tax; the incumbent Yukon Party government, led by Darrell Pasloski, was defeated by the third party Liberal Party of Sandy Silver, ending 14 years of Yukon Party rule. Premier Darrell Pasloski lost his own seat. August 17, 2012: Darius Elias resigns as interim Liberal leader and sits as an independent. July 8, 2013: Darius Elias crosses the floor to the Yukon Party. March 1, 2014: Sandy Silver agrees to lead the Liberal Party. May 10, 2016: David Laxton stepped down as Speaker and as a member of the Yukon Party caucus to sit as an Independent MLA due to personal reasons, it would come out that the resignation was due to an allegation of sexual harassment leveled at Laxton. One month the Yukon Party would bar Laxton from running for the party in the upcoming election.
June 8, 2016: Education Minister and veteran territorial and municipal politician Doug Graham announces he will not seek re-election in his riding of Porter Creek North. June 15, 2016: Currie Dixon, minister for Community Services, announces he will not seek a second term as MLA for Copperbelt North. In 2011, Dixon became the Yukon's youngest-ever cabinet minister at the age of 26. Aug. 11, 2016: After saying he would not run in the upcoming territorial election, Education Minister Doug Graham announced he would seek the Yukon Party nomination in Whitehorse Centre. Graham has been the Yukon Party MLA for Porter Creek North since 2011. October 7, 2016: Premier Darrell Pasloski calls the election for November 7, 2016, starting the official 31-day campaign period. HI During the campaign, the issues of economic diversification, environmental management, First Nations reconciliation were central themes, as was each party's stance on fracking; the announcement that the federal government would impose a national carbon tax affected the political direction of the campaign, with the Yukon Party vowing to fight any effort to impose a carbon tax on the Yukon.
The incumbent Yukon Party, led by Darrell Pasloski since 2011, had governed the Yukon since 2002 when it defeated the Yukon Liberal Party. While the Yukon Party had been re-elected in 2011 during a commodity boom, by 2016 the Yukon economy was in a recession. Leading into the 2016 campaign, the Yukon Party was drawing criticism over its poor relationship with First Nations, its stance on the environment, access to healthcare, a perceived mismanagement of the Yukon economy; the Yukon Party ran on a campaign of True North. Central to this campaign was prioritizing the creation of jobs, growing the economy, keeping taxes low, it adamantly opposed the federal carbon tax. The Yukon Party entered the 2016 campaign with ten of its twelve MLAs seeking re-election, albeit it with two running in different ridings; the Yukon New Democratic Party, led by Liz Hanson, had been the Official Opposition since 2011. The party had been critical of the Yukon Party's relationship with First Nations, its stewardship of the economy, its management of government services such as healthcare.
The Yukon New Democratic Party ran on a campaign of Building a Better Yukon. The party emphasized the need for a change in government, championed causes such as improving the healthcare system, transparent government, First Nations reconciliation, economic diversification, it supported investing a federal carbon tax in green energy and low income supports. All six Yukon New Democratic Party MLAs sought re-election; the Yukon Liberal Party, led by Sandy Silver, held only one seat after Darius Elias joined the Yukon Party. The Liberal platform, Be Heard, promoted economic diversification, responsible environmental management, improving First Nations relations; the Liberals promised to return funds raised from a federal carbon tax back to Yukoners. Despite having only one seat, the party gained visibility in late 2015 following the election the Liberal Party of Canada to a majority government; the Yukon Liberal Party had led in the two opinion polls prior to the election period, despite holding just one seat in the legislature – Sandy Silver's district of Klondike.
The Liberals gained attention due to a series of high-profile contested nominations that helped build the profile of their candidates and party in the lead up to the campaign. The Yukon Green Party, led by Frank De Jong, running in its second election, championed the issue of climate change and electoral reform, it opposed the public funding of Catholic schools. The Green Party had no incumbent MLAs leading into the election, but managed to run five candidates during the campaign. Controversy arose when the Chief Electoral Officer launched two inquiries during the campaign, citing concerns about proxy voting, special ballots, purposeful misinformation by all three candidates in the Mountainview riding, as well as the use of proxy votes by Liberal candidate Tamara Goeppel in the Whitehorse Centre riding; the Chief Electoral Officer ruled that there was no wrongdoing in Mountainview, but her inquiry into Whitehorse Centre led the RCMP to press charges in February 2017. The election marked a continued trend in the turnout at advance polls, which had doubled in each of the previous two elections.
In the 2016 election, advanced turnout doubled again, with 6,437 voters casting advance or special ballots. This represented more; the Yukon Liberal Party was elected to a majority government on November 2016, with 11/19 seats. The 2016 election resulted in one of the single-largest gain of
Old Crow, Yukon
Old Crow is a community in the Canadian Territory of Yukon, Canada. It had 221 inhabitants as of 2016, most of them belonging to the Gwichʼin-speaking Aboriginal Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. Located in a periglacial environment, the community is situated on the Porcupine River in the far northern part of the territory. Old Crow is the only Yukon community that cannot be reached by car, requiring visitors to fly in to Old Crow Airport in order to reach it, it is a dry community. A large number of human modified animal bones have been discovered in the Old Crow area, notably at Bluefish Caves, located near the shores of the Arctic Ocean, that have been dated to 25,000-40,000 years ago by carbon dating, several thousand years earlier than accepted human habitation of North America. An indigenous chief named Deetru` K`avihdik "Crow-May-I-Walk", helped settle a community here around the 1870s; the town was named after him. The village was founded around muskrat trapping; the people of Old Crow are dependent on the Porcupine caribou herd for clothing.
The Porcupine caribou herd migrates to the coastal plain in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska to give birth to their young. Many citizens of Old Crow believe the herd is being threatened by oil-drilling in the ANWR and have been involved in lobbying to prevent it. Old Crow Airport provides year-round transportation to other communities. During winter time, a temporary winter road is sometimes built to transport freight into Old Crow. Old Crow is served by Northwestel since 1971; the long distance connection relied on a microwave relay at Rat Pass near the Yukon/NWT border, which provide a radio-telephone base station along the Dempster Highway, but it was out of service in winter when weather conditions made helicopter access hazardous. In the late 1980s, a satellite ground station was installed in Old Crow, providing more reliable service; the long distance connection is noteworthy for two minor incidents. In 1985, the Yukon territorial election was covered by live television coverage for the first time, sent by satellite to Toronto for switching into the network stations in Yukon.
On 11 September 2001, the satellite connection went out of service, an aircraft bringing a technician to repair it was challenged by Canadian Forces aircraft for violating the closure of airspace throughout North America. The community operated its own television transmitter to carry CBC television signals from satellite; the current status of this transmitter is unknown since the CBC in 2012 closed down analog transmitters it owned. The community has APTN television, as well as CHON-FM and CKRW transmitters and a community-owned transmitter picking up CBC station CHAK-AM in Inuvik. Old Crow has a cold subarctic climate. Average annual temperature is −8.3 °C. Old Crow experiences annual temperature average daily highs of 20.2 °C in July and average daily lows of −33.5 °C in January. Record high temperature was 32.8 °C on August 30, 1976 and the lowest was −59.4 °C on January 5, 1975. Old Crow has little precipitation with an average annual snowfall of 141.4 centimetres and 154.8 millimetres of rainfall.
As Old Crow is located north of the Arctic Circle, it experiences polar day or midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. The midnight sun is between May 5 and August 8 inclusive, while the polar night starts around December 14 and ends by December 29. Edith Josie, journalist Old Crow's official website Vuntut Gwitchin Government website Old Crow: Land of the Vuntut Gwitch'in Community profile Webpage about the Old Crow Airport on the Canadian Owners & Pilots Association Places to Fly Airport Directory Watch The Challenge in Old Crow, a National Film Board of Canada documentary
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada
The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, referred to by its applied title under the Federal Identity Program as Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies relating to Aboriginal peoples in Canada, that comprise the First Nations, Métis. The department is overseen by two cabinet ministers, the Minister of Crown–Indigenous Relations and the Minister of Indigenous Services, its headquarters are in downtown Gatineau, Quebec. Pursuant to the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Act the term "Indian" remains in the department's legal name, although the term "Indigenous" is used in its applied title under the Federal Identity Program. First Nation, has been used since the 1970s instead of the word "Indian", which some people found offensive; the term "Indian" is used for legal and historical documents such as Status Indians as defined by the Indian Act. For example, the term "Indian" continues to be used in the historical and legal document, the Canadian Constitution and federal statutes.
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada used the term Inuit in referring to "an Aboriginal people in Northern Canada, who live in Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Northern Quebec and Northern Labrador. The word means "people" in the Inuit language — Inuktitut; the singular of Inuit is Inuk." Eskimo is found in historical documents about Canadian Inuit. The term "Aboriginal" is used when referring to the three groups of indigenous peoples as a whole, it is used by Aboriginal people who live within Canada who claim rights of sovereignty or Aboriginal title to lands. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada is one of the federal government departments responsible for meeting the Government of Canada's obligations and commitments to First Nations, Inuit and Métis, for fulfilling the federal government's constitutional responsibilities in the North. INAC's responsibilities are determined by numerous statutes, negotiated agreements and relevant legal decisions. Most of the Department's programs, representing a majority of its spending - are delivered through partnerships with Aboriginal communities and federal-provincial or federal-territorial agreements.
INAC works with urban Indigenous people, Métis and Non-Status Indians. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada supports indigenous peoples and Northerners in their efforts to: improve social well-being and economic prosperity. INAC works with urban First Nations, Métis and Non-Status Indians through the Office of the Federal Interlocutor. INAC manages the resources and lands of federal lands, including land and subsurface leases and resource royalties. In 1755, the British Crown established the British Indian Department; the Indian Governors General held control of Indian Affairs, but delegated much of their responsibility to a series of Civil Secretaries. In 1860, the responsibility for Indian affairs was transferred from the government of Great Britain to the Province of Canada and the responsibility for Indian Affairs was given to the Crown Lands Department Commissions Responsible for Indian Affairs; the federal government's legislative responsibilities for Indians and Inuit derive from section 91 of the Constitution Act, 1867 and responsibility was given to the Secretary of State for the Provinces Responsible for Indian Affairs.
In 1876, the Indian Act, which remains the major expression of federal jurisdiction in this area, was passed and a series of treaties were concluded between Canada and the various Indian bands across the country. The responsibility for Indian Affairs and Northern Development rested with various government departments between 1873 and 1966; the Minister of the Interior held the position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs after the Indian Affairs Department was established in 1880. In 1939, federal jurisdiction for Indian peoples was interpreted by the courts to apply to the Inuit. A revised Indian Act was passed in 1951. From 1950 to 1965, the Indian Affairs portfolio was carried by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. On October 1, 1966, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development was created as a result of the Government Organization Act, 1966. Effective June 13, 2011, the department began using the applied title Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada in addition to the legal name of the department.
The Northern Development part of the department has its origins in the Department of the Interior, a body created by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald for the purpose of administering the Dominion Lands Act of 1872; when the Department of the Interior dissolved in 1936, Indian Affairs fell under the purview of the Department of Mines and Resources. However, the need for social and health-care services in the North led to the establishment of the Northern Administration and Lands branch in 1951, which led to the creation of the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources in 1953; this became the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966. Under the Federal Identity Program, the department is known as Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Beginning in the e
Thomas Joseph Mulcair is a retired Canadian politician from Quebec who served as the leader of the New Democratic Party of Canada from 2012 to 2017. A Member of Parliament for the electoral district of Outremont in Quebec from 2007 to 2018, he was selected as the leader of the NDP at a leadership election on March 24, 2012, on the fourth ballot, he served as Leader of the Official Opposition until the NDP lost just over half of its seats in the 2015 federal election and resumed third-place status. During a leadership review vote, held at the 2016 federal NDP convention, 52% of the delegates voted to hold a leadership election. Mulcair stated. Convention delegates, in an emergency motion, voted to give the party up to two years to choose a new head. Mulcair announced in May 2016 that he would retire from politics, would not contest his riding in the next federal election, he resigned his seat on August 3, 2018 in order to accept a position in the political science department of the University of Montreal.
He has been hired as an on-air political analyst for CJAD, CTV News Channel, TVA. A lawyer by profession, Mulcair joined the federal NDP in 1974, he was the provincial Member of the National Assembly of Quebec for the riding of Chomedey in Laval from 1994 to 2007, holding the seat for the Liberal Party of Quebec. He served as the Minister of Sustainable Development and Parks from 2003 until 2006, in the Liberal government of Premier Jean Charest. Elected MP for Outremont in a by-election in 2007, he was named co-Deputy Leader of the NDP shortly afterwards, has won re-election to his seat, three times. On May 26, 2011, he was named the New Democratic Party's Opposition House Leader and served as the NDP's Quebec lieutenant, a post he held until being named party leader. Prior to entering politics, Mulcair was a senior civil servant in the Quebec provincial government, ran a private law practice, taught law at the university level. Mulcair was born in 24 October 1954 at The Ottawa Hospital in Ottawa.
He is the son of Jeanne, a school teacher, Harry Donnelly Mulcair, who worked in insurance. He is the second-oldest of the couple's ten children, grew up bilingual, his father was of Irish descent and his mother was of French-Canadian, more distant Irish, ancestry. His maternal great-great-grandfather was the 9th Premier of Quebec, Honoré Mercier, through his mother, Mulcair is a three times great-grandson of the 1st post-Confederation Quebec premier, Pierre-Joseph-Olivier Chauveau. Mulcair was raised in Laval, just north of Montreal, he graduated from Laval Catholic High School, in Social Sciences from CEGEP Vanier College. When Mulcair started law school at 18, he had to borrow money from his sister to buy textbooks, he paid his way through school by working construction jobs and graveling roofs. Mulcair graduated from McGill University in 1977 with degrees in civil law. During his penultimate year, he was elected president of the McGill Law Students Association, sat on the council of the McGill Student Union.
He has been married to Catherine Pinhas since 1976. The couple have two sons; the oldest, Matt, is a sergeant in the Quebec provincial police and married to Jasmyne Côté, an elementary school teacher. Mulcair and Pinhas's second son, Greg, is an aerospace engineer who teaches physics and engineering technologies at John Abbott College and is married to Catherine Hamé, a municipal councilor. Mulcair has dual Canadian and French citizenship, is fluently bilingual in English and French, he calls himself "Thomas" in French. The Mulcairs moved to Quebec City in 1978, Mulcair was called to the Bar of Quebec in 1979, he worked in the Legislative Affairs branch in Quebec's Ministry of Justice and in the Legal Affairs Directorate of the Superior Council of the French Language. In 1983 Mulcair became director of legal affairs at Alliance Quebec. During that time, he played a role in amending Bill 101, the Charter of the French language, in opposition to the goals of Quebec separatists. In 1985 he began a private law practice, was named the reviser of the statutes of Manitoba following the Supreme Court of Canada ruling in the Reference re Manitoba Language Rights case.
Mulcair taught law courses to non-law students at Concordia University, at the Saint Lawrence Campus of Champlain Regional College in Sainte-Foy, at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. He served as commissioner of the Appeals Committee on the Language of Instruction. Mulcair was president of the Office des professions du Québec, where he introduced reforms to make disciplinary hearings more transparent, led a major effort to have cases of alleged sexual abuse of patients decisively dealt with. Mulcair was a board member of the group Conseil de la langue française, at the time of his appointment to the'Office des Professions' he had been serving as president of the English speaking Catholic Council. Mulcair first entered the National Assembly in the 1994 election, winning the riding of Chomedey as a member of the Quebec Liberal Party. Mulcair claims he ran as a Liberal because at the time, it was the only credible federalist provincial party in Quebec. In that era, Quebec was the only province where the NDP was not organized.
He was re-elected in 1998, again in 2003 when the Liberals ousted the Parti Québécois in the provincial election
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a