Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition, that adults shared with children before publishing existed; the development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. After printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were created for adults and adapted for a younger audience. Since the fifteenth century much literature has been aimed at children with a moral or religious message; the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is known as the "Golden Age of Children's Literature", because many classic children's books were published then. There is no single or used definition of children's literature, it can be broadly defined as anything that children read or more defined as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, or drama intended for and used by children and young people.
One writer on children's literature defines it as "all books written for children, excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, non-fiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries and other reference materials". However, others would argue that comics should be included: "Children's Literature studies has traditionally treated comics fitfully and superficially despite the importance of comics as a global phenomenon associated with children"; the International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature notes that "the boundaries of genre... are not fixed but blurred". Sometimes, no agreement can be reached about whether a given work is best categorized as literature for adults or children; some works defy easy categorization. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was written and marketed for young adults, but it is popular among adults; the series' extreme popularity led The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for children's books.
Despite the widespread association of children's literature with picture books, spoken narratives existed before printing, the root of many children's tales go back to ancient storytellers. Seth Lerer, in the opening of Children's Literature: A Reader's History from Aesop to Harry Potter, says, "This book presents a history of what children have heard and read... The history I write of is a history of reception." Early children's literature consisted of spoken stories and poems that were used to educate and entertain children. It was only in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood, that a separate genre of children's literature began to emerge, with its own divisions and canon; the earliest of these books were educational books, books on conduct, simple ABCs—often decorated with animals and anthropomorphic letters. In 1962, French historian Philippe Ariès argues in his book Centuries of Childhood that the modern concept of childhood only emerged in recent times.
He explains that children were in the past not considered as different from adults and were not given different treatment. As evidence for this position, he notes that, apart from instructional and didactic texts for children written by clerics like the Venerable Bede and Ælfric of Eynsham, there was a lack of any genuine literature aimed at children before the 18th century. Other scholars have qualified this viewpoint by noting that there was a literature designed to convey the values and information necessary for children within their cultures, such as the Play of Daniel from the 12th century. Pre-modern children's literature, tended to be of a didactic and moralistic nature, with the purpose of conveying conduct-related and religious lessons. During the 17th century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them; the English philosopher John Locke developed his theory of the tabula rasa in his 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that the mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, that data is added and rules for processing are formed by one's sensory experiences. A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. Locke himself emphasized the importance of providing children with "easy pleasant books" to develop their minds rather than using force to compel them, he suggested that picture books be created for children. In the nineteenth century, a few children's titles became famous as classroom reading texts. Among these were the fables of Aesop and Jean de la Fontaine and Charles Perraults's 1697 Tales of Mother Goose; the popularity of these texts led to the creation of a number of nineteenth-century fantasy and fairy tales for children which featured magic objects and talking animals. Another influence on this shift in attitudes came from Puritanism, which stressed the importance of individual salvation.
Puritans were concerned with the spiritual welfare of their children, there was a large growth in the publication of "good godly books" aimed squarely at children. Some of the most popular works were by James Janeway, but the most enduring book from this movement, still read toda
Mason, New Hampshire
Mason is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,382 at the 2010 census. Mason, together with Wilton, is home to Russell-Abbott State Forest. Mason was first known as "Number One", the easternmost in a line of border towns including area allotted to the Province of New Hampshire after its border with neighboring Massachusetts was fixed in 1739; the town was granted its own charter in 1749 by colonial governor Benning Wentworth, in 1768 his nephew, Governor John Wentworth, named it in honor of New Hampshire's founder, Captain John Mason, who along with Sir Ferdinando Gorges had been granted the territory in 1622 by the Council of New England. In 1629 the land grant was split between the two proprietors, with Gorges retaining the eastern portion of the territory, Mason holding the patent with title to the land that became New Hampshire. Greenville was set off from Mason in 1872. Near the center of Mason is the boyhood home of Samuel Wilson, the meat-supplier, believed to have inspired the Uncle Sam character.
The private house is today identified by a state historical marker. Another prominent local figure was Elizabeth Orton Jones, an author and teacher better known as "Twig." Jones is noted for her recording of town history and her dedication to Andy's Summer Playhouse, a renowned youth theater founded in Mason. Pickity Place, a local cottage built in 1759 by Ebenezer Blood, was the model for the grandmother's house in Jones' 1948 illustrated version of Little Red Riding Hood. Pickity Place was created by Judith Walter, it was the home of Ron Harry, Boston Garden organist from 1983–1995 and for the Boston Celtics in the TD Banknorth Garden until his death in 2004. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 24.0 square miles, of which 23.9 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Mason is drained by Spaulding Brook; the town's highest point is 1,100 feet above sea level, on an unnamed summit near the border with Greenville. Mason is bordered by New Ipswich and Greenville to the west, Wilton to the north, Milford to the northeast, Brookline to the east, Ashby and Townsend, Massachusetts to the south.
The town is served by state routes 31, 123 and 124. Wilton, New Hampshire Milford, New Hampshire Brookline, New Hampshire Townsend, Massachusetts Ashby, Massachusetts New Ipswich, New Hampshire Greenville, New Hampshire As of the census of 2000, there were 1,147 people, 433 households, 328 families residing in the town; the population density was 48.0 people per square mile. There were 455 housing units at an average density of 19.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.08% White, 0.17% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.44% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.96% of the population. There were 433 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.8% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.2% were non-families. 18.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.02. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $60,433, the median income for a family was $61,908. Males had a median income of $43,558 versus $26,042 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,503. About 3.6% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.3% of those under age 18 and 4.9% of those age 65 or over. Mason is north of the Massachusetts border, with the center of town 5 kilometers from the state line. At the center of town are five public buildings: the library, elementary school, meetinghouse and police station, all situated where Darling Hill, Old Ashby, Merriam Hill, Meetinghouse Hill and Valley roads meet.
The students at the public middle and high school are tuitioned to Milford, northeast of Mason. To the west is Greenville, location of the shared post office. On Depot Road, a kilometer down the hill from town center, is the Volunteer Fire and EMS Department and Town Highway Department. John Boynton, founder of Worcester Polytechnic Institute F. Ross Holland, Jr. historian Elizabeth Orton Jones, children's book author and illustrator Samuel Wilson, meat-packer and origin of Uncle Sam Walter A. Wood, US congressman Town of Mason official website Mason Police Department SAU 89 Unofficial town website Mason Public Library Mason Grapevine Newsletter Mason NH Gazette Newsletter New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile State of New Hampshire Information on Mason Mason Genealogy, History & Town Records Mason Weather Information Topographic Maps of Mason, University of New Hampshire Library
The Horn Book Magazine
The Horn Book Magazine, founded in Boston in 1924, is the oldest bimonthly magazine dedicated to reviewing children's literature. It began as a "suggestive purchase list" prepared by Bertha Mahony Miller and Elinor Whitney Field, proprietresses of the country's first bookstore for children, The Bookshop for Boys and Girls. Opened in 1916 in Boston as a project of the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, the Bookshop closed in 1936, but Horn Book continues in its mission to "blow the horn for fine books for boys and girls" as Mahony wrote in her first editorial. In each bimonthly issue, The Horn Book Magazine includes articles about issues and trends in children's literature, essays by artists and authors, reviews of new books and paperback reprints for children. Articles are written by the staff and guest reviewers, including librarians, teachers and booksellers; the January/February issue includes the speeches of the winners of the Boston Globe–Horn Book Award, each July/August issue includes the same from the winners of the year's Newbery Medal and Caldecott Medal.
The Fanfare list, published in December, is the editors' selection of the best children’s and young adult books of the year. No lists were published from 1941 to 1945, or 1955 to 1958; the Horn Book Magazine publishes The Horn Book Guide twice a year. Books are given a rating from one to six; the Horn Book Guide reviews every children's book published in the U. S; the Horn Book was purchased in 2009 by Media Source Inc. owner of the Junior Library Guild, Library Journal and School Library Journal in 2010. Hornbook List of Horn Book Magazine editors The Horn Book Magazine, official website Fanfare, annual selection of best books
Andy's Summer Playhouse
Andy's Summer Playhouse is a youth theater located in Wilton, New Hampshire. Andy's Summer Playhouse programs foster creative collaborations between children and professional artists who work in a variety of media: performance art, dance, puppetry, video and lighting design and playwriting. In addition to its unique mission to produce original and adapted plays for children, the theater boasts a number of well-known alumni and teaching artists, including Tony Award winning artists Stephen Karam and Lisa Kron, Emmy Award winning artists Paul Jacobs and Sarah Durkee, Pulitzer Prize winning playwright David Lindsay-Abaire, Caldecott Medal winning authors Brian Selznick and Elizabeth Orton Jones, as well as several Alpert, Bessie and Drama Desk Award winning artists. Named after children's book illustrator C. W. Anderson, Andy's was founded in 1971 by two teachers at the Mascenic Regional School, Margaret Sawyer and William Williams; the Playhouse found its first home in Mason, New Hampshire, was relocated to a historic meeting house in Wilton.
From 1980 to 1993, the playhouse grew under the artistic direction of Dan Hurlin, who attracted a number of internationally recognized artists from PS 122, The Kitchen, 8BC, WOW Cafe and other avant-garde theatre venues in New York City. From 1994 to 2007, the theater was led by Robert Lawson, DJ Potter served as Artistic Director from 2008 to 2014. Both artists further solidified the organization's professional reputation, involved alumni in the artistic and executive operations of the theatre; the theatre is led by Jared Mezzocchi. Andy's sits on the site of the original meeting house of Wilton, a log structure built in 1752 but torn down and replaced with a larger meeting house in 1779; the second meeting house served the town for 80 years until it burned down in 1859. The town voted to build a third meeting house on the same spot, at a cost "not to exceed $2,500" and the building was completed in 1860; the original Paul Revere and Sons bell damaged in the fire was recast by Henry Northey Hooper & Sons of Boston and placed in the new building, where it remains today in the bell tower.
In 1883, the town moved its business to a new Town Hall located several miles to the east in what is now downtown Wilton, so the current building was sold in 1884 to a group of interested citizens and renamed Citizens Hall. It served for many years as a public meeting hall, was taken over by the National Grange organization in 1925, by Wilton Lions Club in 1968; the Pine Hill Waldorf School bought the building in 1978 and for several years ran a school on the site. It was sold to Andy's Summer Playhouse on August 11, 1985
Little Red Riding Hood
"Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf. Its origins can be traced back to the 10th century by several European folk tales, including one from Italy called The False Grandmother written among others by Italo Calvino in the Italian Folktales collection; the story has been changed in various retellings and subjected to numerous modern adaptations and readings. Other names for the story are: "Little Red Ridinghood", "Little Red Cap" or "Red Riding Hood", it is number 333 in the Aarne–Thompson classification system for folktales. The story revolves around a girl called Little Red Riding Hood. In Grimms' and Perrault's versions of the tale, she is named after her red hooded cape/cloak that she wears; the girl walks through the woods to deliver food to her sickly grandmother. In the Grimms' version, her mother had ordered her to stay on the path. A Big Bad Wolf wants to eat the food in the basket, he secretly stalks her behind trees, bushes and patches of little and tall grass.
He approaches Little Red Riding Hood. He suggests. In the meantime, he goes to the grandmother's house and gains entry by pretending to be the girl, he waits for the girl, disguised as the grandma. When the girl arrives, she notices that her grandmother looks strange. Little Red says, "What a deep voice you have!", "Goodness, what big eyes you have!", "And what big hands you have!", lastly, "What a big mouth you have", at which point the wolf jumps out of bed and eats her up too. He falls asleep. In Charles Perrault's version of the story, the tale ends here. However, in versions, the story continues as follows: A woodcutter in the French version, but a hunter in the Brothers Grimm and traditional German versions, comes to the rescue with an axe, cuts open the sleeping wolf. Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother emerge unharmed, they fill the wolf's body with heavy stones. The wolf awakens and attempts to flee. Sanitized versions of the story have the grandmother locked in the closet instead of being eaten and some have Little Red Riding Hood saved by the lumberjack as the wolf advances on her rather than after she gets eaten, where the woodcutter kills the wolf with his axe.
The tale makes the clearest contrast between the safe world of the village and the dangers of the forest, conventional antitheses that are medieval, though no written versions are as old as that. It warns about the dangers of not obeying one's mother; the most iconic scene from the story is included in the fairytale forest in the Dutch theme park'Efteling'. The big bad wolf, dressed as a grandmother, is lying in bed, he has dressed up so. Red Riding Hood, in Dutch'Roodkapje' is a famous figure in the Dutch/Flemish cartoon'Sprookjesboom'. An old Dutch children's song is dedicated to Little Red Riding Hood, called'Little Red Riding Hood where are you going?' The story displays many similarities to stories from classical Rome. Scholar Graham Anderson has compared the story to a local legend recounted by Pausanias in which, each year, a virgin girl was offered to a malevolent spirit dressed in the skin of a wolf, who raped the girl. One year, the boxer Euthymos came along, slew the spirit, married the girl, offered up as a sacrifice.
There are a number of different stories recounted by Greek authors involving a woman named Pyrrha and a man with some name meaning "wolf". The Roman poet Horace alludes to a tale in which a male child is rescued alive from the belly of Lamia, a female ogress in classical mythology; the dialogue between the Big Bad Wolf and Little Red Riding Hood has its analogies to the Norse Þrymskviða from the Elder Edda. Instead, the gods sent him; when the giants note Thor's unladylike eyes and drinking, Loki explains them as Freyja's not having slept, or eaten, or drunk, out of longing for the wedding. A parallel to another Norse myth, the chase and eventual murder of the sun goddess by the wolf Sköll, has been drawn. A similar story belongs to the North African tradition, namely in Kabylia, where a number of versions are attested; the theme of the little girl who visits her dad in his cabin and is recognized by the sound of her bracelets constitutes the refrain of a well-known song by the modern singer Idir, A Vava Inouva: The theme of the ravening wolf and of the creature released unharmed from its belly is reflected in the Russian tale Peter and the Wolf and another Grimm tale The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids, but its general theme of restoration is at least as old as the biblical story and the Whale.
The theme appears in the story of the life of Saint Margaret, wherein the saint emerges unharmed from the belly of a dragon, in the epic "The Red Path" by Jim C. Hines. A Taiwanese story from the 16th Century, known as Grandaunt Tiger bears several striking similarities; when the girl's mother goes out, t
Eleanor Farjeon was an English author of children's stories and plays, biography and satire. Several of her works had illustrations by Edward Ardizzone; some of her correspondence has been published. She won many literary awards and the Eleanor Farjeon Award for children's literature is presented annually in her memory by the Children's Book Circle, a society of publishers, she was the sister of thriller writer Joseph Jefferson Farjeon. Eleanor Farjeon was born in Strand, London on 13 February 1881; the daughter of novelist Benjamin Farjeon and Maggie Farjeon, Eleanor came from a literary family, her two younger brothers and Herbert Farjeon, were writers, while the oldest, Harry Farjeon, was a composer. Her father was Jewish. Farjeon, known to the family as "Nellie", was a small, timid child, who had poor eyesight and suffered from ill-health throughout her childhood, she was educated at home. Her father encouraged her writing from the age of five, she describes her childhood in the autobiographical, A Nursery in the Nineties.
She and her brother Harry were close. Beginning when Farjeon was five, they began a sustained imaginative game in which they became various characters from theatrical plays and literature; this game, called T. A. R. after the initials of two of the original characters, lasted into their mid-twenties. Farjeon credited this game with giving her "the flow of ease which makes writing a delight". Although she lived much of her life among the literary and theatrical circles of London, much of Farjeon's inspiration came from her childhood and from family holidays. A holiday in France in 1907 was to inspire her to create a story of a troubadour refashioned as the wandering minstrel of her most famous book, Martin Pippin in the Apple Orchard. Among her earliest publications is a volume of poems called Pan Worship, published in 1908, Nursery Rhymes of London Town from 1916. During World War I, the family moved to Sussex where the landscape and local traditions were to have a profound effect upon her writing.
It was in Sussex that the Martin Pippin stories were to be located. At eighteen, Farjeon wrote the libretto for an operetta, Floretta, to music by her older brother Harry, who became a composer and teacher of music, she collaborated with her youngest brother, Shakespearian scholar and dramatic critic. Their productions include Kings and Queens, The Two Bouquets, An Elephant in Arcady, The Glass Slipper. Farjeon had a wide range of friends with great literary talent including D. H. Lawrence, Walter de la Mare and Robert Frost. For several years she had a close friendship with his wife. After Thomas's death in April 1917 during the Battle of Arras, she remained close to his wife, Helen, she published much of their correspondence, gave a definitive account of their relationship in Edward Thomas: The Last Four Years. After World War I Farjeon earned a living as a poet and broadcaster. Published under a pseudonym, Farjeon's poems appeared in The Herald, Punch and Tide, The New Leader, Reynolds News, a number of other periodicals.
Her topical work for The Herald, Reynolds News and New Leader was the most accomplished of any socialist poet of the 1920s and 30s. Farjeon never had a thirty-year friendship with George Earle, an English teacher. After Earle's death in 1949, she had a long friendship with the actor Denys Blakelock, who wrote of it in the book, Portrait of a Farjeon. In 1951, she became a Roman Catholic. During the 1950s, she received three major literary awards. Both the 1955 Carnegie Medal for British children's books and the inaugural Hans Christian Andersen Medal in 1956 cited The Little Bookroom; the inaugural Regina Medal in 1959 from the U. S.-based Catholic Library Association marks her "continued, distinguished contribution to children's literature". Farjeon died in Hampstead, London on 5 June 1965, she is buried in the north churchyard extension of St John-at-Hampstead. The Children's Book Circle, a society of publishers, present the Eleanor Farjeon Award annually to individuals or organisations whose commitment and contribution to children's books is deemed to be outstanding.
Her work is cited as an influence by the Japanese animator Hayao Miyazaki. Farjeon's most published work is the hymn "Morning has Broken", written in 1931 to an old Gaelic tune associated with the Scottish village Bunessan, she wrote the Advent carol "People, Look East!" sung to an old French melody, performed by children's choirs. Farjeon's plays for children, such as those to be found in Granny Gray, were popular for school performances throughout the 1950s and'60s because they were well within the capabilities of young children to perform and of teachers to direct. Several of the plays have a large number of small parts, facilitating performance by a class, while others have only three or four performers. Farjeon's books include Martin Pippin in the Apple Orchard and its sequel, Martin Pippin in the Daisy Field; these books, which had their origins in France when Farjeon was inspired to write about a troubadour, are set in Sussex and include descriptions of real villages and features such as the chalk cliffs and the Long Man of Wilmington.
In Apple Orchard, the wandering minstrel Martin Pippin finds a lovelorn ploughman who begs him to visit the orchard where his beloved has been locked in the mill-house with six sworn virgins to guard her. Martin Pippin goes to the rescue and wins the confidence o
Association for Library Service to Children
The Association for Library Service to Children is a division of the American Library Association, it is the world's largest organization dedicated to library service to children. Its members are concerned with creating a better future for children through libraries. ALSC's membership is composed of more than 4,000 members, including children's and youth librarians, children's literature experts, publishers and library school faculty members, other adults dedicated to library services for youth. ALSC has nearly 60 active committees and task forces carrying out the work of the Association, including developing programs for youth and continuing education. ALSC sets a standard for library service to children through the regular updating of Competencies for Librarians Serving Children in Public Libraries; the most recent competencies, adopted in 2015, emphasize seven core areas of competency that include services, outreach, collection development, administrative practices that contribute to quality library service for youth.
The Association of Library Service to Children supports five major initiatives focused on continuing education for children's librarians. El día de los niños/El día de los libros known as Día or Diversity in Action, is an ongoing celebration of children and reading that culminates yearly on April 30. Día was created by author/illustrator Pat Mora in collaboration with REFORMA; as part of their commitment to bridging the 30 million word gap, ALSC created colorful posters and booklists designed to be hung in accessible public spaces, such as bathroom changing tables and on buses, to inform parents of ways to read, talk and play with their babies. Posters are available to print for free in both Spanish; every Child Ready to Read® @ your library® abbreviated as ECRR, is a parent education program designed by ALSC and the Public Library Association. The initiative focuses on the development of early literacy skills in children ages 0–5. Many storytimes and other early childhood programs in libraries across the world incorporate research and practices from ECRR.
The ECRR toolkit is designed to help librarians teach parents that early literacy begins at home and is taught by parents. The toolkit was revised in 2011. In 2015, the ALSC Board accepted a white paper titled "Media Mentorship in Libraries Serving Youth." This paper outlines the role of librarians and other library staff who serve youth and families with particular regard to materials and practices surrounding digital media. In recognition that libraries must advocate for their patrons and themselves within their communities, Everyday Advocacy provides resources and training materials to empower library workers to take action in a grassroots effort to build awareness of and support for the library. ALSC continually advocates for the support and enhancement of library services to children and those who provide it by encouraging practitioners to speak out within their communities to promote the value of those services; the division partners with other agencies that serve children to spread the word about the power of reading, early literacy, youth services.
ALSC announces the awards listed below every January at a Monday morning press conference that takes place during the American Library Association Midwinter Meeting. The Newbery Medal was named for eighteenth-century British bookseller John Newbery, it is awarded annually to the author of the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children. The Caldecott Medal was named in honor of nineteenth-century English illustrator Randolph Caldecott, it is awarded annually to the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children. The Arbuthnot Award was named in honor of twentieth-century American educator May Hill Arbuthnot, it is awarded annually to honor an author, librarian, historian, or teacher of children's literature, of any country, who presents a lecture at a winning host site. The Batchelder Award was named in honor of twetieth-century American librarian Mildred L. Batchelder; the Batchelder Award is unusual in that it is given to a publisher, yet explicitly references a given work, its translator and author.
It seeks to recognize translations of children's books into the English language, with the intention of encouraging American publishers to translate high quality foreign language children's books and "promote communication between the people of the world". The Belpré Medal was named in honor of twentieth-century Puerto Rican librarian Pura Belpré, it is given in honor to a Latino or Latina writer and illustrator whose works best portray and celebrate the Latino cultural experience in an outstanding work of literature for children and youth. It has been given every other year since 1996. Beginning with the 2009 award, it will be given annually; the Carnegie Medal was named in honor of nineteenth-century American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. It honors the producer of the most outstanding video production for children; the Geisel Award was named in honor of twentieth-century American author Theodor Seuss Geisel. It is given annually to the author and illustrator of the most distinguished American book for beginning readers published in English in the United States during the preceding year.
The May Hill Arbuthnot Honor Lecture is an annual event featuring an author, librarian, historian or teacher of children's literature, of any country, who shall prepare a paper considered to be a significant contribution to the field of children's li