The Elizabeth River is a 6-mile-long tidal estuary forming an arm of Hampton Roads harbor at the southern end of Chesapeake Bay in southeast Virginia in the United States. It is located along the southern side of the mouth of the James River, between the cities of Portsmouth and Chesapeake. Forming the core of the Hampton Roads harbor, it is supported by its tributaries which depend upon it. Through its Southern Branch and the Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, the Elizabeth River is a gateway to points to the south for the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, an inland path from the ocean providing a more sheltered navigable waterway to Florida for commercial and recreational boating; the Elizabeth River was named by the Jamestown colonists in the early 17th century for Princess Elizabeth Stuart, She was the daughter of King James I of England and a sister of the King Charles I, his older brother, Henry Frederick, the ill-fated heir-apparent to the throne who died of typhoid fever as a teenager. When the settlers aboard the three tiny ships of Captain Christopher Newport's 1607 voyage first discovered the great harbor of Hampton Roads a few days after reaching land at Cape Henry, they were seeking a pathway to the west to reach the "Great Indies" and soon sailed upriver along the largest and most westerly river, which they named the James, passing by the areas closest to the ocean as they sought a protected haven from other European forces such as the Spanish.
Their settlement 35 miles inland at Jamestown was flawed in many other ways, but did meet the requirement of providing protection. Settlement along the Elizabeth River came a few years later. During the U. S. Revolutionary War, Lord Dunmore and the British Royal Army sailed up the Elizabeth River and landed in Norfolk; the British Royal Army and the U. S. Continental Army engaged at the Battle of Great Bridge on December 9, 1775. Upon British defeat, Lord Dunmore and his army withdrew onto four ships of the British Royal Navy, the Dunmore, the Liverpool, the Otter, the Kingfisher. Under the command of Lord Dunmore, these ships patrolled along Norfolk's Elizabeth River waterfront and on New Year's Day 1776, began shelling Norfolk in what would become known as the Burning of Norfolk. During the War of 1812, two harbor fortifications located on opposite banks of the Elizabeth River were occupied to prevent the British from attacking Norfolk or Portsmouth; these defensive positions were Fort Norfolk, located on the eastern bank in Norfolk, Fort Nelson, located on the western bank in Portsmouth.
Neither of these forts saw action during the War of 1812. However, the men stationed at Fort Norfolk reinforced Craney Island, located at the mouth of the Elizabeth River, took part in the Battle of Craney Island; the main branch of the estuary is 6 miles long and is 2 miles wide at its mouth. It is formed by three primary branches, all tidal, known as the Eastern and Western branches of the Elizabeth River, extending 7 to 14 miles into neighboring communities; the Western and Southern branches are fed by tributaries that originate within the Great Dismal Swamp. The Elizabeth River estuary and its tributaries provide significant military and commercial port facilities for Norfolk and Portsmouth, as well as a third major city, formed by the voluntary political consolidation in 1963 of the small independent city of South Norfolk with much larger Norfolk County, which had long surrounded the other two large and expanding cities; the three cities surround the Elizabeth River and most of the area served by its three main branches.
The Elizabeth River is the home of the oldest and largest naval shipyard in the United States, the Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Founded as The Gosport Shipyard in 1767, the shipyard is still in use today having survived both the American Revolutionary and Civil wars and fires set to the shipyard within each conflict; the river and its branches provide for both recreation activities. The Intracoastal Waterway connects to the greater Hampton Roads area through the Elizabeth River, they are of great importance to both commerce and the U. S. military considerations. The Elizabeth River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay and faces significant environmental pollution challenges of its own that hamper recovery in the Bay; the Elizabeth River's history with various industrial sites, such as dry docks, Norfolk Naval Shipyard, processing plants, both sewage and storm water discharge contributed over time to the declining health of the river. In 1983, the EPA mentions the Elizabeth River was singled out as one of the most polluted bodies of water in the entire Bay watershed and as of 2011 remains one of the most polluted rivers on the United States east coast.
Sediment contamination has made "toxic hot spots" within the Elizabeth River. Notably, the Southern Branch of the river at Money Point had become a 35-acre biological dead-zone with a nearly lifeless river floor. Creosote from dumping and a major fire in 1963 played a major role in contaminating the river sediment there, which in some areas were as much as five feet thick; the Commonwealth of Virginia entered into an agreement in 1995 after the Chesapeake Bay Program identified the Elizabeth River system as a "Region of Concern" in 1993. By 2003 a report entitled "State of the River 2003" by the Elizabeth River Project had been published, highlighting the sediment contamination in the Southern Branch along with other toxins including those causing cancer in some fish after a monitoring the river between 1999 and 2001. Efforts began by 2003 bald eagles were returned to the watershed. 2008 saw the 3rd State Of The Eliz
Cartoon Network: Battle Crashers is a side-scrolling beat'em up video game developed by French studio Magic Pockets and published by GameMill Entertainment. It was released for Nintendo 3DS, PlayStation 4, Xbox One, on 8 November 2016; the game received negative reviews from several video game journalists, who panned it as a repetitive and boring beat'em up with bland representations of otherwise unique characters. A port for the Nintendo Switch was released on 31 October 2017; the game features characters from various Cartoon Network television series such as Adventure Time, The Amazing World of Gumball, Regular Show, Steven Universe, Uncle Grandpa. Cartoon Network: Battle Crashers received negative reviews from several video game critics for being a monotonous and boring beat-'em-up title with a lack of representation of the unique personalities and traits of each playable character; the review aggregator website Metacritic gave the game a simplified rating of 21 out of 100, indicating "generally unfavorable reviews", it is the lowest-rated Nintendo 3DS game on the website.
A reviewer for the Daily Mirror described it as a "glorified browser flash game," and wrote that "Real talent goes into making something this bland out of characters as interesting as these." PlayStation LifeStyle was another publication that wrote it had the feel of a cheaply-made flash game: "Quite frankly, this feels like a Flash or Unity game, that someone decided to greenlight as a full console release."Some reviewers criticized the padding of the game's length due to the fact that the player has to replay certain stages just to get a hidden item. Jed Whitaker of Destructoid was one of these critics, was harsh towards the treatment of Steven Universe material in the game, he disliked one of the game's hidden items being a map to Beach City, where Steven resides. He disliked the boss in the levels based on Steven Universe being Frybo instead of other various recurring antagonists from the series
Rehob redirects here. Rehov, meaning "broad", "wide place", was an important Bronze and Iron Age city located at Tel Rehov or Tell es-Sarem, an archaeological site in the Bet She'an Valley, a segment of the Jordan Valley, Israel 5 kilometres south of Beit She'an and 3 kilometres west of the Jordan River; the oldest apiary discovered anywhere by archaeologists, including man-made beehives and remains of the bees themselves, dating between the mid-10th century BCE and the early 9th century BCE, came to light on the tell. In the nearby ruins of the Byzantine-period successor of Iron Age Rehov, a Jewish town named Rohob or Roōb, archaeologists discovered the longest mosaic inscription found so far in the Land of Israel. Rehov means "street" or "broad place". Tel Rehov does not correspond to any of the Hebrew Bible places named as Rehov, of which two were in the more westerly allotment of the Tribe of Asher, one more northerly. An ostracon with a preserved inscription was decyphered as reading "Elisha", associated by some with the biblical prophet of that name.
Both the reading and the association are contested. Inscriptions mentioning the family of a certain Nimshi were discovered there. Identification of Tell es-Sarem/Tel Rehov with the ancient Canaanite and Israelite city of Rehov was based on the preservation of the name at the nearby Islamic holy tomb of esh-Sheikh er-Rihab, the existence of the ruins of a Byzantine-period Jewish town that preserved the old name in the form of Rohob or Roōb/Roob; the site represents one of the largest ancient tells in Israel, its surface area comprising 120,000 square metres in size, divided into an "Upper City" and a "Lower City". Rehov was one of the largest cities in the region during the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age I-IIA. During the Late Bronze Age, while Egypt ruled over Canaan, Rehov was mentioned in at least thee sources dated between the 15th-13th century BCE, again in the list of conquests of Pharaoh Shoshenq I, whose campaign took place around 925 BCE. Rehov was a joint Israelite-Canaanite city, had an estimated population of 2,000.
Archaeological excavations have been conducted at Rehov since 1997 under the directorship of Amihai Mazar, Professor at the Institute of Archaeology of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, with the primary sponsorship of John Camp. Iron Age II levels of the site have emerged as a vitally important component in the current debate regarding the chronology of the United Monarchy of Israel. Important data has been forthcoming regarding the Early Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age and medieval occupation of the site. In 2013, a potsherd was found holding a preserved inscription, reconstructed as to be the rare name of Elisha, best known as the name of biblical Prophet Elisha; the association with the prophet is strenuous, based on the date of the ostracon, the rarity of the name, the geographic vicinity of Elisha's biblical hometown, Abel-meholah. In and near Tel Rehov, inscriptions containing references to the family of Nimshi have been found. King Jehu of the northern kingdom of Israel, anointed by a disciple of Elisha, is the son, grandson, or otherwise descendant of a certain Nimshi.
The oldest known archaeological finds relating to beekeeping were discovered at Rehov. In September 2007 it was reported that 30 intact beehives and the remains of 100-200 more dated to the mid-10th century BCE to the early 9th century BCE were found by archaeologists in the ruins of Rehov; the beehives were evidence of an advanced honey-producing beekeeping industry 3000 years ago in the city thought to have a population of about 2000 residents at that time, both Israelite and Canaanite. The beehives, made of straw and unbaked clay, were found in orderly rows of 100 hives. References to honey in ancient texts of the region were thought to refer only to honey derived from dates and figs. In addition to beehives, the remains of bees and bee larvae and pupae were found. In 2010, using DNA from the remains of bees found at the site, researchers identified the bees as a subspecies, similar to the Anatolian bee, found now only in Turkey, it is possible that the bees' range has changed, but more that the inhabitants of Tel Rehov imported bees because they were less aggressive than the local bees and provided a better honey yield.
Supporting archaeological knowledge include evidence of other imports in Rehov from eastern Mediterranean lands. The beehives were dated by carbon-14 radiocarbon dating at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands, using organic material. Ezra Marcus of the University of Haifa, said the finding was a glimpse of ancient bee
Laulara is a village in the Puncha CD block in the Manbazar subdivision of the Purulia district in the state of West Bengal, India. Laulara is located at 23.1735°N 86.6628°E / 23.1735. Purulia district forms the lowest step of the Chota Nagpur Plateau; the general scenario is undulating land with scattered hills. Manbazar subdivision, shown in the map alongside, is located in the eastern part of the district, it is an overwhelmingly rural subdivision with 96.32% of the population living in the rural areas and 3.68% living in the urban areas. There are 3 census towns in the subdivision; the map shows the Kangsabati Project Reservoir. The Mukutmanipur Dam is in Bankura district but the upper portion of the reservoir is in Manbazar subdivision; the remnants of old temples and deities are found in the subdivision as in other parts of the district. The subdivision has a high proportion of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Bandwan CD block has 51.86% ST population, Manbazar II CD block has 48.97% ST population.
Manbazar I CD block has 22.03% ST and 22.44% SC. Puncha CD block has 24.74% ST and 14.54 SC. Writing in 1911, H. Coupland, ICS, speaks of the aboriginal races predominating in the old Manbhum district, he mentions the Kurmis, Santhals and Bauri. Note: The map alongside presents some of the notable locations in the subdivision. All places marked in the map are linked in the larger full screen map. According to the 2011 Census of India, Laulara had a total population of 2,743, of which 1,378 were males and 1,365 were females. There were 342 persons in the age range of 0-6 years; the total number of literate persons in Laulara was 1,542. Laulara is on the Hura-Puncha Road. Ramananda Centenary College, established in 1971, is affiliated with the Sidho Kanho Birsha University, it offers honours courses in Bengali, economics, history, philosophy, political science, physics and general courses in arts and science. The college is named after a renowned journalist. Laulara R. C. Academy is a Bengali-medium, coeducational institution established in 1940.
It has facilities for teaching from class V to class XII
The Honda RC100 was a prototype Formula One car built by engineers from Honda R&D Center, although not as an official project of Honda. The car was completed in 1993 and tested at Honda's Suzuka Circuit before being destroyed in a crash test. Two more cars, known as RC101 and RC101B, were built and tested before the project ended. Honda calls the RC100 as the "RC-F1 1.0X", the RC101 as the "RC-F1 1.5X", the RC101B as the "RC-F1 2.0X". They are called the chassis numbers: RC1-203/1, RC1B-101, RC2-001; this cars should not be confused with the Honda RA099, an official Honda prototype intended for the 1999 season but never ran. During the 1992 season, Honda announced that they would end their engine supply programme that had existed since 1984; this was due to Honda's desire for a new challenge after dominating in Formula One, with Honda deciding to move to the CART championship in North America. However, engineers at Honda decided to launch their own separate project by attempting to build a full Formula One car, something Honda had not done since the 1960s.
Honda at the time encouraged engineers to create their own projects in an attempt to motivate and boost morale. Funds from Honda's motorsports budget were put aside each year for engineers to be able to realistically create these projects; these projects were however not backed by Honda Motor Company, the engineers had to work on their personal projects on their own time. In the early 1990s, to study how a Formula One chassis works, the mass-produced car engineers of the Honda Automobile R&D Center, started to design a Formula One chassis as a volunteer activity outside of working hours. Although they could not obtain the latest Formula One cars in 1991, they made the RC100's monocoque and suspension by calculation and analysis. By late 1991, the engineers was able to obtain and rebuild an used 1991 Honda Formula One engine, the RA121E and mounted it on the RC100/RC-F1 1.0X. When the RC100 was tested, the engineers were satisfied with the performance of the monocoque and suspension at the test, but not with the aerodynamics of the chassis when tested in their wind tunnel, prompting the development of the next car.
The RC100 was painted white, nicknamed "White crow" by the Honda R&D engineers. Members of Honda R&D Center's chassis design team set about planning the RC100 chassis, attempting to comply with the 1993 Formula One regulations; the car used the same Honda RA122E/B V12 engine, being used in Honda's engine supply program in 1992 and a six speed semi-automatic transmission built by Honda, mirroring the McLaren Honda MP4/7A, While the car was still being completed in 1992, Honda Motor Company president Nobuhiko Kawamoto acknowledged that the project existed, although it was confirmed to have had no backing from Honda. The completed RC100 was unveiled to select media in February 1993; that year, Honda engineers had the car crash tested by FISA in order to confirm that it indeed complied with the 1993 regulations. The first public testing came at Suzuka in January 1994, when yet another car had been built and Satoru Nakajima performing the public test. Soon after, testing on the RC101 came to an end.
Following rule changes necessitated by safety concerns following the deaths at 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, a third Honda R&D Formula One car was built, based on 1995 regulations. The RC101B/RC-F1 2.0X featured new developments such as stepped bottom and a raised nose cone, used a 3.0 liter Mugen-Honda engine used in that year's Ligier JS41 as well as grooved Bridgestone tires, in preparation for adoption of such tires by 1997. The RC100, RC101 and RC101B were planned to be destroyed after a demonstration running at the 2001 Honda Festival, annual social gathering of Honda companies, in Honda Automobile R&D Center, Tochigi; the RC100 was presented to Honda Technical College Kansai and all three cars are now shown at the Honda Collection Hall, located at Twin Ring Motegi. Honda Racing F1 Preview. Sony Magazines Inc. 2006. Pp. 108–111. ISBN 4-7897-9752-X. Story of RC100 at Forix General Honda F1 car information, including RC100 Honda Automobile R&D Center, Tochigi - The developer of the RC100 series
The Noman’s Land Range was a former naval bomb range for aviators, located on Nomans Land, in Chilmark, Massachusetts. An airfield was constructed by the U. S. Navy on the southern edge of the island between November 1942 and May 1944, the island was used, beginning in World War II, as Nomans Land Range for 53 years, 1943-1996; the airfield was abandoned by the U. S. Navy sometime between 1945 and 1954. In 1952 the island was sold by the Crane family to the Navy; the eastern third of the island has been managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service since 1975. Following an effort to clear the island of ordnance in 1997 and 1998, the rest of the island was transferred to the FWS for use as a wildlife refuge for migratory birds. Two restricted airspace areas, R-4105A and R-4105B, overlaid the island due to the site's former use as a range; these restricted areas were revoked in October 2014. Nomans Land Island National Wildlife Refuge at the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service site Annals of Chilmark, "Nomans Land".
From The History of Martha's Vineyard, Volume II by Dr. Charles E. Banks. 1911