John Grey (knight)
Sir John Grey KG, English nobleman and soldier, of Ruthin, Wales, Suffolk, Great Gaddesden, etc. second but eldest surviving son and heir apparent of Sir Reginald Grey, 3rd Baron Grey de Ruthyn by his 1st wife, Margaret Roos. He was Captain of Gournay, he traveled with the king to France in 1415 and 1417. He fought at the Battle of Agincourt and was invested as the 151st Knight of the Garter on 5 May 1436, he married before Trinity term 1410 Constance Holland, the daughter of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter, by his wife, Elizabeth of Lancaster. By her mother, Constance was a niece of King Henry IV. Constance married before 1 June 1402 Sir Thomas Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, Earl of Nottingham, Earl Marshal, Lord Mowbray and Gower, they had no issue. Sir Thomas Mowbray was executed 8 June 1405 due to his revolt against her uncle, King Henry IV. Sir John Grey and Constance Holland had three children: Sir Edmund Grey, 1st Earl of Kent Sir Thomas Grey, Lord Richemount Grey, of Simpson, Richemount, Merton, Langton, etc.
Justice of the Peace for Buckinghamshire, 1453–8, Justice of the Peace for Bedfordshire, 1455. He was created Baron of Richemount Grey by charter dated 25 June 1450, with remainder to his heirs male, he fought on the Lancastrian side at the Battle of Towton 29 March 1461. He was subsequently attainted Nov. 1461 by the first Parliament of King Edward IV, whereby his honours and lands were forfeited, he was executed soon afterwards. Constance Grey, who married Sir Richard Herbert. Constance, Countess Marshal, died 12 Nov. 1437, was buried in a chapel at St. Katherine by the Tower, London by her brother, John Holland, Duke of Exeter. Following her death, Sir John Grey married before 1 July 1438 Margaret Mowbray, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk and widow of Sir Robert Howard, they had no issue. Sir John Grey died 27 August 1439, his widow, received a papal indult for a portable altar 3 August 1446. She died shortly before 18 October 1459. Jack, R. Ian. "Grey family". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/54523. "Grey, Reginald de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster was an English prince, military leader, statesman. He was the third of the five sons of King Edward III of England. Due to his royal origin, advantageous marriages, some generous land grants, Gaunt was one of the richest men of his era, an influential figure during the reigns of both his father and his nephew, Richard II; as Duke of Lancaster, he is the founder of the royal House of Lancaster, whose members would ascend to the throne after his death. His birthplace, corrupted into English as Gaunt, was the origin for his name; when he became unpopular in life, scurrilous rumours and lampoons circulated that he was the son of a Ghent butcher because Edward III was not present at the birth. This story always drove him to fury. John's early career was spent in Spain fighting at the Hundred Years' War, he made an abortive attempt to enforce a claim to the Crown of Castile that came through his second wife, for a time styled himself as King of Castile. As Edward the Black Prince, Gaunt's elder brother and heir to the ageing Edward III, became incapacitated due to poor health, Gaunt assumed control of many government functions, rose to become one of the most powerful political figures in England.
He was faced with military difficulties abroad and political divisions at home, disagreements as to how to deal with these crises led to tensions between Gaunt, the English Parliament, the ruling class, making him an unpopular figure for a time. John exercised great influence over the English throne during the minority of King Richard II, the ensuing periods of political strife, he mediated between the king and a group of rebellious nobles, which included Gaunt's own son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke. Following Gaunt's death in 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the Crown, his son, now disinherited, was branded a traitor and exiled. Henry Bolingbroke returned from exile shortly after to reclaim his inheritance, deposed Richard, he reigned as King Henry IV of England, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the English throne. The House of Lancaster would rule England from 1399 until the time of the Wars of the Roses, when the English crown was disputed with the House of York.
Gaunt fathered five children outside marriage. They were legitimised by royal and papal decrees, but which did not affect Henry IV's bar to their having a place in the line of succession. Despite that restriction, through these offspring, surnamed "Beaufort", Gaunt is ancestor to all Scottish monarchs beginning in 1437, of all English monarchs of the houses of Lancaster and Tudor as well as, York. John was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England, his first wife, Blanche of Lancaster, was his third cousin. They married in 1359 at Reading Abbey as a part of the efforts of Edward III to arrange matches for his sons with wealthy heiresses. Upon the death of his father-in-law, the 1st Duke of Lancaster, in 1361, John received half his lands, the title "Earl of Lancaster", distinction as the greatest landowner in the north of England as heir of the Palatinate of Lancaster, he became the 14th Baron of Halton and 11th Lord of Bowland. John inherited the rest of the Lancaster property when Blanche's sister Maud, Countess of Leicester, died without issue on 10 April 1362.
John received the title "Duke of Lancaster" from his father on 13 November 1362. By well established, he owned at least thirty castles and estates across England and France and maintained a household comparable in scale and organisation to that of a monarch, he owned land in every county in England, a patrimony that produced a net income of between £8,000 and £10,000 a year. After the death in 1376 of his older brother Edward of Woodstock, John of Gaunt contrived to protect the religious reformer John Wycliffe to counteract the growing secular power of the church. However, John's ascendancy to political power coincided with widespread resentment of his influence. At a time when English forces encountered setbacks in the Hundred Years' War against France, Edward III's rule was becoming unpopular due to high taxation and his affair with Alice Perrers, political opinion associated the Duke of Lancaster with the failing government of the 1370s. Furthermore, while King Edward and the Prince of Wales were popular heroes due to their successes on the battlefield, John of Gaunt had not won equivalent military renown that could have bolstered his reputation.
Although he fought in the Battle of Nájera, for example, his military projects proved unsuccessful. When Edward III died in 1377 and John's ten-year-old nephew succeeded as Richard II of England, John's influence strengthened. However, mistrust remained, some suspected him of wanting to seize the throne himself. John took pains to ensure; as de facto ruler during Richard's minority, he made unwise decisions on taxation that led to the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, when the rebels destroyed his home in London, the Savoy Palace. Unlike some of Richard's unpopular advisors, John was away from London at the time of the uprising and thus avoided the direct wrath of the rebels. In 1386 John left England to seek the throne of Castile, claimed in jure ux
Armorial of the House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet was the first armigerous royal dynasty of England. The arms of this noble royal, Gules, three lions passant guardant or, termed colloquially "the arms of England" signifying the "arms of the royal house of England", were first adopted by King Richard the Lionheart, son of King Henry II of England, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou; the various cadet branches descended from this family bore differenced versions of the arms of England. The heiresses of Norfolk and Kent transmitted the Plantagenet arms to non-Plantagenet families: Henry VI of England granted differenced versions of the Plantagenet arms to his maternal half-brothers; this was an extraordinary grant. Royal arms of England House of Plantagenet Issue of Edward III of England House of Lancaster House of York House of Beaufort War of the Roses Citations Bibliography Ailes, The Origins of The Royal Arms of England, Reading: Graduate Center for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISBN 0704907763 Baynes, T.
S.. R. eds. "Heraldry", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 689 Brooke-Little, J. P. FSA, Boutell's Heraldry, London: Frederick Warne LTD, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4 Burke, Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of peerage and knightage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, p. 207. "Portrait of William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester", Wikimedia Commons, 13 July 2018 Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 1602390010 Gurney, E. Henry, Reference handbook for readers and teachers of English history, Boston: Ginn & Company, p. 55 Louda, Jiří. ISBN 0517545586 Pinches, John Harvey. R. B. "Somerset, third earl of Worcester", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26015
John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel
John FitzAlan, 14th Earl of Arundel, 4th Baron Maltravers KG was an English nobleman and military commander during the phases of the Hundred Years' War. His father, John FitzAlan, 3rd Baron Maltravers, fought a long battle to lay claim to the Arundel earldom, a battle, not resolved until after the father's death, when John FitzAlan the son was confirmed in the title in 1433. Before this, in 1430, FitzAlan had departed for France, where he held a series of important command positions, he served under John, Duke of Bedford, the uncle of the eight-year-old King Henry VI. FitzAlan was involved in recovering fortresses in the Île-de-France region, in suppressing local rebellions, his military career ended, however, at the Battle of Gerbevoy in 1435. Refusing to retreat in the face of superior forces, Arundel was captured, his leg was amputated, he died shortly afterwards from the injury. His final resting place was a matter of dispute until the mid-nineteenth century, when his tomb at Arundel Castle was revealed to contain a skeleton missing one leg.
Arundel was considered a great soldier by his contemporaries. He had been a successful commander in France, in a period of decline for the English, his death was a great loss to his country, he was succeeded by his son Humphrey. The title of Earl of Arundel went to John's younger brother William. John FitzAlan was born at Lytchett Matravers in Dorset on 14 February 1408, he was the son of John FitzAlan, 3rd Baron Maltravers and Eleanor, daughter of Sir John Berkeley of Beverstone, Gloucestershire. John FitzAlan the elder, through his great-great-grandfather Richard FitzAlan, 4th Earl of Arundel, made a claim on the earldom of Arundel after the death of Thomas FitzAlan, 5th Earl of Arundel, in 1415; the claim was disputed, however, by Thomas's three sisters and their families, foremost among these Elizabeth FitzAlan, who had married Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk. It is debatable whether Maltravers held the title of Earl of Arundel; when he died in 1421, the dispute continued under his son, it was not until in 1433 that the younger John FitzAlan had his title confirmed in parliament, despite the Mowbrays disputing his claim.
Four years earlier, in July 1429, he had received his late father's title. As a child, John FitzAlan was contracted to marry Constance, the daughter of John Cornwall, Baron Fanhope, through her mother Elizabeth granddaughter of John of Gaunt; the two may or may not have married, but Constance was dead by 1429, when John married Maud, daughter of Robert Lovell. FitzAlan was knighted in 1426 along with the four-year-old King Henry VI, where he was referred to as "Dominus de Maultravers". In the summer of 1429 he was summoned to parliament, this time styled "Johanni Arundell' Chivaler", meaning he was now Lord Arundel. In 1430, however, in an indenture for service with the king in France, he was styled Earl of Arundel, a title he used himself; when he was officially recognised in his title of Earl of Arundel in 1433, this was based on the recognition that the title went with the possession of Arundel Castle. In reality though, the grant was just as much a reward for the military services he had by that point rendered in France.
John FitzAlan the father had been a prominent soldier in the Hundred Years' War under King Henry V, the son followed in his father's footsteps. On 23 April 1430, the younger FitzAlan departed for France in the company of the Earl of Huntingdon. There he soon made a name for himself as a soldier, under the command of the king's uncle, Duke of Bedford. In June he took part in the Siege of Compiègne, where Joan of Arc had been captured, he raised the siege of Anglure with the help of the Burgundians. On 17 December 1431, he was present when Henry VI was crowned King of France in Paris, where he distinguished himself at the accompanying tournament. FitzAlan's military success led to several important appointments of command. In January 1432 he was appointed captain of Verneuil. On the night of 3 February he was taken by surprise while in bed at the Great Tower of Rouen Castle, when a band of French soldiers from nearby Ricarville managed to take the castle. Arundel was hoisted down the walls in a basket.
The assailants could not hold the castle. In April 1432, FitzAlan was rewarded for his actions so far by initiation into the Order of the Garter. In a separate action from Rouen Arundel was sent to rescue Saint Lo. from an attack by the duke of Alençon's army, after the town's captain Raoul Tesson had been appointed to replace Suffolk, captured at the Battle of Jargeau. The French retreated to the fastness of Mont St Michel, from where they continued to raid Anglo-Norman towns, like Granville in 1433. From early 1432 onwards, FitzAlan held several regional commands in northern France. One of his tasks was recovering fortresses in the Île-de-France region, at which he was successful. At Lagny-sur-Marne he blew up the bridge to prevent the citizens from reaching the castle, but still failed to take the fortification. In December he was appointed to a regional command in Upper Normandy, but had to defend the town of Sées from a siege. On 10 March 1433, he issued a pardon to the inhabitants when the town was retaken from the Armangnacs.
In July Arundel was instead made lieutenant-general of Lower N
Henry IV of England
Henry IV known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England from 1399 to 1413, asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France. Henry was born at Bolingbroke Castle in Lincolnshire, his father, John of Gaunt, was the fourth son of King Edward III and enjoyed a position of considerable influence during much of the reign of his nephew King Richard II whom Henry deposed. Henry's mother was Blanche of Lancaster, heiress to the great Lancashire estates of her father Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster. Henry, having succeeded his father as 2nd Duke of Lancaster, when he became king thus founded the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenet English monarchy, he was the first King of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English rather than French. One of Henry's elder sisters, Philippa of Lancaster, married King John I of Portugal, the other, Elizabeth of Lancaster, was the mother of John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter, his younger half-sister Katherine of Lancaster, the daughter of his father's second wife, Constance of Castile, was queen consort of the King of Castile.
He had four natural half-siblings born of Katherine Swynford his sisters' governess his father's longstanding mistress and third wife. These four illegitimate children were given the surname Beaufort from their birthplace at the Château de Beaufort in Champagne, France. Henry's relationship with his stepmother, Katherine Swynford, was a positive one, but his relationship with the Beauforts varied. In youth he seems to have been close to all of them, but rivalries with Henry and Thomas Beaufort proved problematic after 1406. Ralph Neville, who had married Henry's half-sister Joan Beaufort, remained one of his strongest supporters, so did his eldest half-brother John Beaufort though Henry revoked Richard II's grant to John of a marquessate. Thomas Swynford, a son from Katherine's first marriage to Sir Hugh Swynford, was another loyal companion. Thomas was Constable of Pontefract Castle. Henry's half-sister Joan Beaufort was the grandmother of Edward IV and Richard III. Joan's daughter Cecily married Richard, Duke of York and had several offspring, including Edward IV and Richard III, making Joan the grandmother of two Yorkist kings of England.
Henry experienced a rather more inconsistent relationship with King Richard II. First cousins and childhood playmates, they were admitted together to the Order of the Garter in 1377, but Henry participated in the Lords Appellants' rebellion against the king in 1387. After regaining power, Richard did not punish Henry, although he did execute or exile many of the other rebellious barons. In fact, Richard elevated Henry from Earl of Derby to Duke of Hereford. Henry spent the full year of 1390 supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius by Teutonic Knights with 70 to 80 household knights. During this campaign he bought captured Lithuanian women and children and took them back to Königsberg to be converted. Henry's second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders, his small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Despite the efforts of Henry and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless.
In 1392–93 Henry undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, where he made offerings at the Holy Sepulchre and at the Mount of Olives. He vowed to lead a crusade to'free Jerusalem from the infidel,' but he died before this could be accomplished; the relationship between Henry Bolingbroke and the king met with a second crisis. In 1398, a remark by Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk regarding Richard II's rule was interpreted as treason by Henry and Henry reported it to the king; the two dukes agreed to undergo a duel of honour at Gosford Green near Caludon Castle, Mowbray's home in Coventry. Yet before the duel could take place, Richard II decided to banish Henry from the kingdom to avoid further bloodshed. Mowbray himself was exiled for life. John of Gaunt died in February 1399. Without explanation, Richard cancelled the legal documents that would have allowed Henry to inherit Gaunt's land automatically. Instead, Henry would be required to ask for the lands from Richard. After some hesitation, Henry met with the exiled Thomas Arundel, former Archbishop of Canterbury, who had lost his position because of his involvement with the Lords Appellant.
Henry and Arundel returned to England. With Arundel as his advisor, Henry began a military campaign, confiscating land from those who opposed him and ordering his soldiers to destroy much of Cheshire. Henry announced that his intention was to reclaim his rights as Duke of Lancaster, though he gained enough power and support to have himself declared King Henry IV, imprison King Richard and bypass Richard's 7-year-old heir-presumptive, Edmund de Mortimer. Henry's coronation, on 13 October 1399 at Westminster Abbey, may have marked the first time since the Norman Conquest when the monarch made an address in English. Henry consulted with Parliament but was sometimes at odds with the members over ecclesiastical matters. On Arundel's advice, Henry obtained from Parliament the enactment of De heretico comburendo in 1401, w
Catherine of Lancaster
Catherine of Lancaster was Queen of Castile by marriage to King Henry III of Castile. She governed Castile as regent from 1406 until 1418 during the minority of her son. Queen Catherine was the daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, his second wife, Constance of Castile, she was born in Hertford Castle, her father's chief country home, on 31 March 1373. Catherine became Queen of Castile through her marriage to Henry III. After King John I of Portugal defeated King John I of Castile at the Battle of Aljubarrota, South Leiria, in 1385 establishing Portuguese independence, Catherine's parents, the Duke and Duchess of Lancaster, were encouraged to press their claim for the Castilian throne. In 1386, Catherine joined her parents in an expedition to Castile to claim the throne. England and Portugal entered into an alliance against Castile in 1386 and solidified their ties through the marriage of King John I and Catherine's half-sister, Philippa. John of Gaunt had ruled Santiago de Compostela and Pontevedra with ease, but had to withdraw to Portugal in 1387 because of an unsuccessful invasion of León.
It was that he accepted the proposal of King John I of Castile, to marry Catherine to his son, the future Henry III, that Constance, Duchess of Lancaster, should renounce all claims to the Castilian throne. A final treaty in regards to this proposal was ratified at Bayonne in Gascony on 8 July 1388; the marriage helped to restore a semblance of legitimacy to the Trastámara line. Furthermore, together with the Truce of Leulingham and the one made at Monção Municipality, the betrothal helped to end the Spanish period of the Hundred Years War. On 5 August 1388, Catherine announced that she entered into the marriage and accepted the treaty; the treaty had included a dower of the towns of Soria, Almazán, Atienza and Molina. By 17 September 1388, Catherine was married to the nine-year-old Henry in Palencia Cathedral, her husband took over the throne after the death of his father in 1390, but only in 1393 was he declared of age and began to rule. Catherine's only contribution to Henry's rule was the bearing of his three children and her devotion to the religious patronage of the Dominican Order.
In September 1390, Catherine accepted the authority of the Avignon Papacy, under Antipope Clement VII and became a staunch supporter. The couple's three children: Maria of Castile, who married Alfonso V "the Magnanimous", King of Aragon and Naples, without issue Catherine of Castile, who wed as his first wife in 1420 Henry of Aragon, 4th Count of Alburquerque, 32nd Count of Ampurias and 35th Master of the Order of Santiago, without issue John II, who succeeded his father as King of Castile. Henry III died in 1406, according to his will, his widow and his brother, Ferdinand I of Aragon were to be joint regents during John II's minority, sharing their power with a royal council. Of those three parties, Ferdinand was to be the one with the greatest share of power. However, the custody of John II was given to two nobles, Diego López de Zúñiga and Juan Fernandez de Velasco. Catherine prepared to defend herself and her household in a famous Spanish castle, the Alcázar of Segovia, because she was not willing to relinquish her year-old son.
Ferdinand was able to make a deal that allowed Catherine to maintain custody of her son. Ferdinand ordered Mudéjars to wear a symbol, they were not allowed to leave their homes, nor were they allowed to work or trade with Christians. The Jews, were not allowed to work or trade with Christians; this was an attempt by Juan II to suppress religious minorities, supported by Catherine and only lasted until her death. Furthermore, tensions between the regents led to a division of rule; the royal council awarded Catherine control over the Northern part of the Kingdoms of Castile, Leon. As Catherine became involved in the wars of Ferdinand against Granada in the south, Castile's alliance with France suffered and she was able to strengthen her relations with Portugal, where her half-sister Philippa was queen, with England, where her half-brother Henry IV ruled since 1399. Catherine and her half-brother fostered the trade between England, her international policies were beneficial to the Castilian communities, but her co-regents did not always act in their best interests.
Because of Catherine's opposition to Ferdinand, she supported the position of Antipope Benedict XIII and spoke up against the Council of Constance. When Ferdinand died in 1416, Catherine's authority was reduced, because his rivals no longer supported her; the government became conciliar. Catherine, sickly due to a stroke, relinquished the custody of her son. There is one vivid account of Catherine towards the end of her life recorded by Fernán Pérez de Guzmán, it alludes to the fact that she inherited physical characteristics from her father, that she was a sickly woman. He describes her as being tall and fat, pink with white in her complexion and fair, he states. He says that she was virtuous and reserved, in both her person and her reputation, she was said to be generous and magnificent in her ways, although she did play "favourites" and was influenced by them. Despite her "favouritism", she was twice as to banish women from her household. Queen Catherine died at Valladolid on 2 June 1418, of a stroke, leaving her thirteen-year-old son at the mercy of self-interested courtiers.
She is buried with her husband in the C
Sir Roger Fiennes was an English Knight of the Shire, High Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex, builder of Herstmonceux Castle. He was Treasurer of King Henry VI’s household. Roger Fiennes was the son of William de Fiennes, Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex in 1396, Elizabeth Battisford, he was baptized at Herstmonceux on 14 September 1384. His younger brother was 1st Baron Saye and Sele. Sir Roger was knighted before 1412, accompanied King Henry V to France and fought at Agincourt in 1415. Sir Roger was prominent in a prominent member of the royal household, he was Knight of the Shire for Sussex in 1416, 1429, 1439, 1442 and 1445. He was Constable of Portchester Castle from 1421 until his death, Sheriff of Surrey and Sussex for 1422 and 1434, Treasurer of the Household for King Henry VI between 1439 and 1446, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe, Chief Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1441 to 1447, he financed the initial construction of Herstmonceux Castle with spoils from the Hundred Years' War. Roger Fiennes was responsible for the construction of Herstmonceux Castle in the County of Sussex.
He needed a house fitting a man of his position, so construction of the castle on the site of the old manor house began in 1441. It was through his position as treasurer that he could afford the £3,800 construction cost of the original castle; the castle is not a palatial residence. Before 1422, Fiennes married Elizabeth Holland, daughter of Sir John Holland and his second wife, Margaret. Roger Fiennes and Elizabeth Holland had two boys and one girl: Richard Fiennes, 7th Baron Dacre Sir Robert Fiennes Margaret Fiennes, who married Sir Nicholas Carew of BeddingtonSir Roger died in 1449, his will was dated at Buxted, Sussex 29 October 1449 and proved on 18 November 1449. He requested to be buried at Herstmonceux, in his will. History of Parliament: FIENNES, Sir Roger, of Herstmonceux, Suss