The elk or wapiti is one of the largest species within the deer family and one of the largest terrestrial mammals in North America and Northeast Asia. This animal should not be confused with the still larger moose to which the name "elk" applies in British English and in reference to populations in Eurasia. Elk range in forest and forest-edge habitat, feeding on grasses, plants and bark. Male elk have large antlers. Males engage in ritualized mating behaviors during the rut, including posturing, antler wrestling, bugling, a loud series of vocalizations that establishes dominance over other males and attracts females. Although they are native to North America and eastern Asia, they have adapted well to countries in which they have been introduced, including Argentina and New Zealand, their great adaptability may threaten endemic species and ecosystems into which they have been introduced. Elk are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases, some of which can be transmitted to livestock. Efforts to eliminate infectious diseases from elk populations by vaccination, have had mixed success.
Some cultures revere the elk as a spiritual force. In parts of Asia and their velvet are used in traditional medicines. Elk are hunted as a game species; the meat is higher in protein than beef or chicken. Elk were long believed to belong to a subspecies of the European red deer, but evidence from many mitochondrial DNA genetic studies beginning in 1998 shows that the two are distinct species. Key morphological differences that distinguish C. canadensis from C. elaphus are the former's wider rump patch and paler-hued antlers. Early European explorers in North America, who were familiar with the smaller red deer of Europe, thought that the larger North American animal resembled a moose, gave it the name elk, the common European name for moose; the word elk is related to the Latin alces, Old Norse elgr, Scandinavian elg/älg and German Elch, all of which refer to the animal known in North America as the moose. The name wapiti is from the Shawnee and Cree word waapiti, meaning "white rump"; this name is used in particular for the Asian subspecies, because in Eurasia the name elk continues to be used for the moose.
Wapiti is the preferred name for the species in New Zealand. Asian subspecies are sometimes referred to as the maral, but this name applies to the Caspian red deer, a subspecies of red deer. There is a subspecies of elk in Mongolia called the Altai wapiti known as the Altai maral. Members of the genus Cervus first appear in the fossil record 25 million years ago, during the Oligocene in Eurasia, but do not appear in the North American fossil record until the early Miocene; the extinct Irish elk was not a member of the genus Cervus, but rather the largest member of the wider deer family known from the fossil record. Until red deer and elk were considered to be one species, Cervus elaphus. However, mitochondrial DNA studies, conducted on hundreds of samples in 2004 from red deer and elk subspecies as well as other species of the Cervus deer family indicate that elk, or wapiti, should be a distinct species, namely Cervus canadensis; the previous classification had over a dozen subspecies under the C. elaphus species designation.
Elk and red deer produce fertile offspring in captivity, the two species have inter-bred in New Zealand's Fiordland National Park, where the cross-bred animals have all but removed the pure elk blood from the area. There are numerous subspecies of elk described, with six from North America and four from Asia, although some taxonomists consider them different ecotypes or races of the same species. Populations vary as to antler shape and size, body size and mating behavior. DNA investigations of the Eurasian subspecies revealed that phenotypic variation in antlers and rump patch development are based on "climatic-related lifestyle factors". Of the six subspecies of elk known to have inhabited North America in historical times, four remain, including the Roosevelt, Tule and Rocky Mountain; the Eastern elk and Merriam's elk subspecies have been extinct for at least a century. Four subspecies described in Asia include the Tianshan wapiti. Two distinct subspecies found in China and Korea are the Alashan wapitis.
The Manchurian wapiti is more reddish in coloration than the other populations. The Alashan wapiti of north central China is the smallest of all subspecies, has the lightest coloration and is the least studied. Biologist Valerius Geist, who has written on the world's various deer species, holds that there are only three subspecies of elk. Geist recognizes the Manchurian and Alashan wapiti but places all other elk into C. canadensis canadensis, claiming that classification of the four surviving North American groups as subspecies is driven, at least for political purposes to secure individualized conservation and protective measures for each of the surviving populations. Recent DNA studies suggest
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks
The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is an American fraternal order founded in 1868 as a social club in New York City. Membership was restricted to white men, but the organization now has a more inclusive membership policy; the Elks had modest beginnings in 1868 as a social club for minstrel show performers, called the "Jolly Corks". It was established as a private club to elude New York City laws governing the opening hours of public taverns; the Elks borrowed rituals and practices from Freemasonry, including racial restrictions on membership. The BPOE was an all-white organization. In the early 1970s this policy led the Order into conflict with the courts over its refusal to allow African Americans the use of its club and leisure activities. In nearly all instances, the all-whites clause was made public after someone was denied the use of the Elks' dining or leisure facilities; the clause was revoked at the Grand Lodge of 1976, with the proviso that it could be reinstated if the law allowed.
In 1919 a "Flag Day resolution" was passed, barring membership to passive sympathizers "of the Bolsheviki, the I. W. W. or kindred organizations, or who does not give undivided allegiance to" the flag and constitution of the United States. In 1979 the qualifications for membership included being male, at least 21 years old, of sound mind and body, a citizen of the United States and not a member of the Communist Party. Belief in a Supreme Being has been a prerequisite for membership since 1892; the word "God" was substituted for Supreme Being in 1946. The current requirements include a belief in God, American citizenship, good moral character and being over 21. There is a background interview conducted by the Membership Committee, who make the final recommendation to the Lodge members; the members use a ballot box, with the back drawer first being displayed to the members to be empty the members dropping one at a time into the hole in the back their vote a white glass marble to accept or a black lead cube to reject, with a 2/3 majority of members present necessary to be accepted.
All members present are required to cast a ballot, the loud knocking sound of each ballot being dropped through the back hole into the voting drawer both indicates to the other members that the current member is not abstaining from voting but has cast their ballot, while making sure no member votes more than once while it is their turn at the box. In 1976 the BPOE had 1,611,139 members, it has 850,000 members. The Elks have traditionally been an all-male fraternal order. Unlike many other male orders, it has never had an official female auxiliary, after passing a resolution in 1907 that ruled "There shall be no branches or degrees of membership in the Order, nor any insurance or mutual features, nor shall there be other adjuncts of auxiliaries"; the Elks enforced this resolution through at least the 1970s. Several unofficial female auxiliaries were created: the Emblem Club, the Lady Elks and the Benevolent, Patriotic Order of Does; the Lady Elks appear only to exist on the local level and vary from place to place with regard to its activities.
There does not appear to be any published or printed ritual. More organized are the Benevolent, Patriotic Order of Does who were chartered on February 12, 1921; this organization does have an organization above the local level, complete with districts, state organizations and a national "Grand Lodge". The Does have a written secret ritual based on the Magnificat of Mary and which makes reference to St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians Chapter 13, emphasizing love and charity; the Emblem Club was founded with a ritual written by a male Elk. It has a national organization with local Clubs, State Association and a national Supreme Club of the United States. In Beynon v. St. George-Dixie Lodge 1743 the Utah Supreme Court ruled that while Freedom of Association allowed the Elks to remain a men only organization, "the Elks may not avail itself of the benefits of a liquor license and the license's concomitant state regulation" as long as it violated the Utah State Civil Rights Act. Faced with losing their liquor licenses if they did not admit women, the Elks Lodges of Utah voted to become unisex in June 1993, followed by a vote at the Elks National Convention in July 1995 to remove the word "male" from the national membership requirements.
No person shall be accepted as a member of this Order unless he be a white male citizen of the United States of America, of sound mind and body, of good character, not under the age of Twenty-one years, a believer in God. Until 1973, the national constitution of the Elk lodge restricted membership to white men. In 1972, the Elks expelled the head of the Ridgewood lodge because of his advocacy against the Elk's racially discriminatory policies. A resolution to repeal the discriminatory clause passed in 1973 after failing at 3 previous national conventions; as of 1989, the organization was still entirely white. The Elks' national headquarters are located in Chicago at the Elks National Veterans Memorial and Headquarters, overlooking Lincoln Park, near Lake Michigan; this building was conceived as a memorial to the nearly 1,000 Elk brothers who were lost in World War I. The cornerstone was laid July 7, 1924, the building was dedicated on July 14, 1926; the rotunda displays mural and statues illustrating the Elks four cardinal virtues of charity, brotherly love and fidelity.
The friezes depict the "Triumphs of War" on one side and "Triumphs of Peace" on the other. The entrance is flanked by large bronze Elks; the BPOE is organized on five levels: the national or "grand" level, t
The whooper swan, pronounced hooper swan, is a large Northern Hemisphere swan. It is the Eurasian counterpart of the North American trumpeter swan, the type species for the genus Cygnus. Francis Willughby and John Ray's Ornithology of 1676 referred to this swan as "the Elk, Hooper, or wild Swan"; the scientific name is from cygnus, the Latin for "swan". The whooper swan is similar in appearance to the Bewick's swan, it is larger, however, at a length of 140 -- a wingspan of 205 -- 275 cm. Weight is in the range of 7.4–14 kg, with an average of 9.8–11.4 kg for males and 8.2–9.2 kg for females. The verified record mass was 15.5 kg for a wintering male from Denmark. It is considered to be amongst the heaviest flying birds. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 56.2–63.5 cm, the tarsus is 10.4–13 cm and the bill is 9.2–11.6 cm. It has a more angular head shape and a more variable bill pattern that always shows more yellow than black. Like their close relatives, whooper swans are vocal birds with a call similar to the trumpeter swan.
Whooper swans require large areas of water to live in when they are still growing, because their body weight cannot be supported by their legs for extended periods of time. The whooper swan spends much of its time swimming, straining the water for food, or eating plants that grow on the bottom. Whooper swans have a deep honking call and, despite their size, are powerful fliers. Whooper swans can migrate hundreds or thousands of miles to their wintering sites in southern Europe and eastern Asia, they breed in subarctic Eurasia, further south than Bewicks in the taiga zone. They are rare breeders in northern Scotland in Orkney, no more than five pairs have bred there in recent years; this bird is an occasional vagrant to western North America. Icelandic breeders overwinter in the United Kingdom and Ireland in the wildfowl nature reserves of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and of the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust. Whooper swans pair for life, their cygnets stay with them all winter, their preferred breeding habitat is wetland, but semi-domesticated birds will build a nest anywhere close to water.
Both the male and female help build the nest, the male will stand guard over the nest while the female incubates. The female will lay 4–7 eggs; the cygnets have a grey or brown plumage. The cygnets can fly at an age of 120 to 150 days; when whooper swans prepare to go on a flight as a flock, they use a variety of signaling movements to communicate with each other. These movements include head bobs, head shakes, wing flaps and influence whether the flock will take flight and if so, which individual will take the lead. Whooper swans that signaled with these movements in large groups were found to be able to convince their flock to follow them 61% of the time. In comparison, swans that did not signal were only able to create a following 35% of the time. In most cases, the whooper swan in the flock that makes the most movements is the swan that initiates the flight of the flock – this initiator swan can be either male or female, but is more to be a parent than a cygnet. Additionally, this signaling method may be a way for paired mates to stay together in flight.
Observational evidence indicates that a swan whose mate is paying attention to and participates in its partner's signals will be more to follow through with the flight. Thus, if a whooper swan begins initiating flight signals, it will be less to carry through with the flight if its mate is not paying attention and is therefore less to join it, they are noisy. Whooper swans are much admired in Europe; the whooper swan is featured on the Finnish 1 euro coin. The whooper swan is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Musical utterances by whooper swans at the moment of death have been suggested as the origin of the swan song legend; the global spread of H5N1 reached the UK in April 2006 in the form of a dead whooper swan found in Scotland. Whooper Swan Page RSPB Cygnus cygnus in the Flickr: Field Guide Birds of the World "Cygnus cygnus". Avibase. BirdLife species factsheet for Cygnus cygnus "Whooper swan media". Internet Bird Collection.
Whooper swan photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Cygnus cygnus at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Whooper swan on Xeno-canto
The moose or elk, Alces alces is a member of the New World deer subfamily and is the largest and heaviest extant species in the Deer family. Moose are distinguished by the palmate antlers of the males. Moose inhabit boreal forests and temperate broadleaf and mixed forests of the Northern Hemisphere in temperate to subarctic climates. Hunting and other human activities have caused a reduction in the size of the moose's range over time. Moose have been reintroduced to some of their former habitats. Most moose are found in Canada, New England, Baltic states, Russia, their diet consists of both aquatic vegetation. The most common moose predators are the gray wolf along with humans. Unlike most other deer species, moose do not form herds and are solitary animals, aside from calves who remain with their mother until the cow begins estrus, at which point the cow chases away young bulls. Although slow-moving and sedentary, moose can become aggressive and move if angered or startled, their mating season in the autumn features energetic fights between males competing for a female.
Alces alces is called an "elk" in British English. The word "elk" in North American English refers to a different species of deer, the Cervus canadensis called the wapiti. A mature male moose is called a bull, a mature female a cow, an immature moose of either sex a calf; the word "elk" originated in Proto-Germanic, from which Old English evolved and has cognates in other Indo-European languages, e.g. elg in Danish/Norwegian. In the continental-European languages, these forms of the word "elk" always refer to the Alces alces; the word "moose" had first entered English by 1606 and is borrowed from the Algonquian languages, involved forms from multiple languages mutually reinforcing one another. The Proto-Algonquian form was *mo·swa; the moose became extinct in Britain during the Bronze Age, long before the European arrival in the Americas. The youngest bones were found in Scotland and are 3,900 years old; the word "elk" remained in usage because of its existence in continental Europe but, without any living animals around to serve as a reference, the meaning became rather vague to most speakers of English, who used "elk" to refer to "large deer" in general.
Dictionaries of the 18th century described "elk" as a deer, "as large as a horse". Confusingly, the word "elk" is used in North America to refer to a different animal, Cervus canadensis, called by the Algonquian indigenous name, "wapiti"; the British began colonizing America in the 17th century, found two common species of deer for which they had no names. The wapiti appeared similar to the red deer of Europe although it was much larger and was not red; the moose was a rather strange-looking deer to the colonists, they adopted local names for both. In the early days of American colonization, the wapiti was called a grey moose and the moose was called a black moose, but early accounts of the animals varied wildly, adding to the confusion; the wapiti is superficially similar to the red deer of central and western Europe, although it is distinctly different behaviorally and genetically. Early European explorers in North America in Virginia where there were no moose, called the wapiti "elk" because of its size and resemblance to familiar-looking deer like the red deer.
The moose resembled the "German elk", less familiar to the British colonists. For a long time neither species were called a variety of things. In North America the wapiti became known as an elk while the moose retained its Anglicized Native-American name. In 1736, Samuel Dale wrote to the Royal Society of Great Britain: The common light-grey moose, called by the Indians and the large or black-moose, the beast whose horns I herewith present; as to the grey moose, I take it to be no larger than what Mr. John Clayton, in his account of the Virginia Quadrupeds, calls the Elke... was in all respects like those of our red-deer or stags, only larger... The black moose is accounted a large creature.... The stag, buck, or male of this kind has a palmed horn, not like that of our common or fallow-deer, but the palm is much longer, more like that of the German elke. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants, cover from predators, protection from hot or cold weather. Moose travel among different habitats with the seasons to address these requirements.
Moose are cold-adapted mammals with thickened skin, heat-retaining coat, a low surface:volume ratio, which provides excellent cold tolerance but poor heat tolerance. Moose survive hot weather by immersion in cool water. In hot weather, moose are found wading or swimming in lakes or ponds; when heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. Also
Elko station is a train station in Elko, Nevada. It is served by Amtrak's California Zephyr; the westbound platform is accessed from Water Street via 11th Street and the eastbound platform is accessed from Sharp Access Road via 12th Street. The station is owned by the Union Pacific Railroad and contains two enclosed shelters on two platforms, one on each side of the pair of tracks for each direction of travel. There are no services provided at the station. Elko was served by two train depots along two separate lines that ran through the down town area; as the two lines were operated in a directional running setup, westbound trains used the Southern Pacific Railroad depot at 684 Railroad Street and eastbound trains used the Western Pacific Railroad depot at the corner of 3rd street and Silver street. In the 1980s both railroad tracks were relocated south of the downtown area and the current shelters became the Amtrak depots in 1984. Media related to Elko at Wikimedia Commons Elko, NV – Amtrak Elko Amtrak Station Amtrak Photo Archive: Current Appearance Older Picture Elko, NV
Elk City, Oklahoma
Elk City is a city in Beckham County, United States. The population was 11,693 at the 2010 census, the population was estimated at 12,717 in 2015. Elk City is located on Interstate 40 and Historic U. S. Route 66 in western Oklahoma 110 miles west of Oklahoma City and 150 miles east of Amarillo, Texas. In 1541, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado became the first known European to pass through the area; the Spanish conquistador was traveling northeast across the prairie in search of a place called Quivira, a city said to be fabulously wealthy with gold. Because Coronado's route across the plains is speculative, it is quite possible that the expedition passed through present-day Elk City or the nearby area. Elk City's history dates back to the days following the opening of the Cheyenne-Arapaho reservation in western Oklahoma Territory on April 19, 1892, when the first white settlers made their appearance. Prior to this time, many early ranchers had driven cattle over the Great Western Cattle Trail from Texas to Dodge City, the present townsite of Elk City being in the direct path of that famous trail.
The creation of Elk City was an idea conceived by land promoters from Weatherford, when they learned that the Choctaw and Gulf Railroad was coming to the area. They formed the Choctaw Development Company; these men with great foresight determined that the area at the source of Elk Creek would be an ideal location for a town, so they came to the area to purchase lands from the homesteaders who had claims along the railroad. The most important day in Elk City's history is March 20, 1901, the date the first lots were sold by the Choctaw Townsite and Development Company. By this time, hundreds of prospective purchasers had built a tent city. On that day, the townsite company sold $32,000 worth of property and continued doing a good business for some time thereafter. There is some confusion about. Elk City was so named because it is located at the head of Elk Creek, which in turn was named by U. S. Army Captain Randolph B. Marcy, leading an expedition to explore the Red River in 1852. Marcy and his troops had left the Wichita Mountains and the waterway which he named Otter Creek during his exploration, they were traveling northwest along the North Fork of the Red River.
On May 31, in the official journal of the expedition, Marcy wrote about the productive soil, the dense grass, the vertical red clay banks of a "bold running stream of good water." Continuing, he wrote, "From the circumstance of having seen elk tracks upon the stream we passed in our march today, I have called it'Elk Creek'. I am informed by our guide that five years since, elk were seen in the Wichita Mountains. Confusion stems from the early post offices that served the residents of the town. Though the town of Elk City has had only one name, its early settlers were served by a post office named Crowe, one named Busch. On many early maps of Oklahoma Territory the names of "Crowe" or "Busch" are seen instead of "Elk City". On July 20, 1907, shortly before statehood, the Busch Post Office had its name changed to Elk City Post Office. On August 13, 1901, the Choctaw and Gulf Railroad laid its last rail on the so-called "Choctaw Route", bringing rail access to Elk City; the first regular train service commenced seven days on August 20, city folk rejoiced, predicting that the dugouts, claim shacks, prairie stables would soon disappear and be replaced by handsome residences, commodious barns, granaries.
In 1910, the Wichita Falls and Northwestern Railway, one of the Frank Kell and Joseph A. Kemp properties, reached from Wichita Falls, into the wheat-growing area of western Oklahoma. By 1912, the northern terminus was in Forgan in Beaver County in the Oklahoma Panhandle; the route through Elk City was abandoned in 1973, as Altus became the new northern terminus of the railroad, absorbed in 1923 by the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad. The remaining 77-mile link between Wichita Falls and Altus was absorbed in 1991 by the Wichita and Jackson Railway. By January 1902, Elk City had more than sixty businesses and a population exceeding 1,000. Paving the streets with bricks began in 1902. Though not yet a year old, the town had become one of the largest in western Oklahoma. With two devastating fires, Elk City continued to grow into a major transportation and commercial hub, by statehood in 1907, the population had more than tripled to 3,000 people; the prairie community had become a boomtown. Elk City is located in northeastern Beckham County at elevation 1,928 feet.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.4 square miles, of which 16.2 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 1.37%, is water. Elk City experiences a humid subtropical climate with cool, dry winters and hot, much wetter summers; as of the census of 2010, there were 11,693 people residing in the city. The population density was 718.8 people per square mile. There were 4,973 housing units at an average density of 340.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.95% White, 3.06%
Elk, Mendocino County, California
Elk is an unincorporated community in Mendocino County, California. It is located 22 miles south at an elevation of 135 feet. Elk has a population of 208, it is located on the coast at the crossroads of Philo-Greenwood Road. Albion, Little River, Mendocino lie to the north, Manchester and Point Arena to the south. Inland are Navarro and Boonville. Elk was called "Greenwood" after early homesteaders, the Greenwood brothers, sons of mountain man Caleb Greenwood and his half Crow wife, one of the rescuers of the Donner Party; when the post office was opened, in 1887, there was another Greenwood in California so it was called Elk Post Office. The name came to refer to the town, it is an outgrowth of an earlier town called Cuffy's Cove and the cemetery is located at that townsite 1 mile north of Elk. When pioneer lumberman Lorenzo White was unable to reach a satisfactory deal with the owners of the lumber chutes at Cuffy's Cove to ship out his redwood product, he constructed a wharf out along a string of rocks in the center of what is now Elk.
When he built a large steam sawmill and 3-foot gauge railroad, the new employment drained the town of Cuffy's Cove, abandoned. The sawmill was producing 80,000 board feet of lumber per day by 1890; the mill was sold to Goodyear Redwood Company in 1916. Elk River Company took over the sawmill when Goodyear went bankrupt in 1932; the local redwood lumber industry economy collapsed when the uninsured sawmill burned in 1936. Another sawmill was built in about 1953 and one more in 1963; these operated until the late 1960s when the redwood and Douglas fir was logged out. After some quiet times, the town has had a rebirth as a recreation destination. Many of the larger old houses are now Bed & Breakfast inns and the State has acquired the Greenwood Creek beach and the original mill site as a state park; the ZIP Code is 95432. The community is inside area code 707. In the California State Legislature, Elk is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, in the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood.
In the United States House of Representatives, Elk is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. Elk, CA Travel Information