Moss Landing, California
Moss Landing is a census-designated place in Monterey County, United States. Moss Landing is located 15 miles north-northeast of Monterey, at an elevation of 10 feet, it is located on the shore of Monterey Bay, at the mouth of Elkhorn Slough, at the head of the submarine Monterey Canyon. The earliest culture that left evidence of the Moss Landing Elkhorn Slough area was that of the Ohlone Indians. Evidence from archaeological digs show; the Spanish took the landscape from the Ohlone Indians when they began settling missions in the 1700s and ran cattle over the hills of the surrounding area. The Americans arrived in the mid-1800s and farmers turned the area into cropland. Moss Landing was called Moss; the Moss post office opened in 1895, changed its name to Moss Landing in 1917. It is named for a Texas ship captain who with a partner built a wharf there, it canneries. The Moss Landing Harbor District, established in the 1940s, built piers. Moss Landing Power Plant opened in 1950; the California State University system founded Moss Landing Marine Laboratories in 1966, in the mid-1990s the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute was moved to Moss Landing from Pacific Grove.
In the 1980s sanitary sewers were installed. Moss Landing is located where Elkhorn Slough makes an estuary as it flows into Monterey Bay at the head of the submarine Monterey Canyon. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.6 square miles, of which, 0.4 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. This region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Moss Landing has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Moss Landing had a population of 204. The population density was 338.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Moss Landing was 149 White, 7 African American, 1 Native American, 2 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 30 from other races, 14 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 46 persons; the Census reported that 204 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 100 households, out of which 21 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 36 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 11 had a female householder with no husband present, 4 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 8 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 41 households were made up of individuals and 11 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04. There were 51 families; the population was spread out with 32 people under the age of 18, 8 people aged 18 to 24, 54 people aged 25 to 44, 84 people aged 45 to 64, 26 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.0 males. There were 108 housing units at an average density of 179.1 per square mile, of which 55 were owner-occupied, 45 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0%. 118 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 86 people lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 300 people, 125 households, 68 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 734.9 people per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 330.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 59.33% White, 3.00% African American, 0.67% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 21.67% from other races, 13.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.3% of the population. There were 125 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.6% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.09. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 34.3% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 117.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 118.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $66,442, the median income for a family was $66,731. Males had a median income of $41,154 versus $36,691 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $28,005. About 13.0% of families and 18.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.7% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 or over. Located in Moss Landing is the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, a multi-campus research facility of the California State University. Located here is the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, a sister organization to the Monterey Bay Aq
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of 40 species of aquatic birds known as cormorants and shags. Several different classifications of the family have been proposed and the number of genera is disputed; the great cormorant and the common shag are the only two species of the family encountered on the British Isles, "cormorant" and "shag" appellations have been assigned to different species in the family somewhat haphazardly. Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large birds, with body weight in the range of 0.35–5 kilograms and wing span of 45–100 centimetres. The majority of species have dark feathers; the bill is long and hooked. Their feet have webbing between all four toes. All species are fish-eaters, they are excellent divers, under water they propel themselves with their feet with help from their wings. They have short wings due to their need for economical movement underwater, have the highest flight costs of any flying bird. Cormorants nest in colonies on trees, islets or cliffs, they are coastal rather than oceanic birds, some have colonised inland waters – indeed, the original ancestor of cormorants seems to have been a fresh-water bird.
They range around the world, except for the central Pacific islands. No consistent distinction shags; the names'cormorant' and'shag' were the common names of the two species of the family found in Great Britain, Phalacrocorax carbo and P. aristotelis. "Shag" refers to the bird's crest. As other species were discovered by English-speaking sailors and explorers elsewhere in the world, some were called cormorants and some shags, depending on whether they had crests or not. Sometimes the same species is called a cormorant in one part of the world and a shag in another, e.g. the great cormorant is called the black shag in New Zealand. Van Tets proposed to divide the family into two genera and attach the name "cormorant" to one and "shag" to the other, but this flies in the face of common usage and has not been adopted; the scientific genus name is Latinised Ancient Greek, from φαλακρός and κόραξ. This is thought to refer to the creamy white patch on the cheeks of adult great cormorants, or the ornamental white head plumes prominent in Mediterranean birds of this species, but is not a unifying characteristic of cormorants.
"Cormorant" is a contraction derived either directly from Latin corvus marinus, "sea raven" or through Brythonic Celtic. Cormoran is the Cornish name of the sea giant in the tale of Jack the Giant Killer. Indeed, "sea raven" or analogous terms were the usual terms for cormorants in Germanic languages until after the Middle Ages; the French explorer André Thévet commented in 1558, "... the beak similar to that of a cormorant or other corvid," which demonstrates that the erroneous belief that the birds were related to ravens lasted at least to the 16th century. Cormorants and shags are medium-to-large seabirds, they range in size from the pygmy cormorant, at as little as 45 cm and 340 g, to the flightless cormorant, at a maximum size 100 cm and 5 kg. The extinct spectacled cormorant was rather larger, at an average size of 6.3 kg. The majority, including nearly all Northern Hemisphere species, have dark plumage, but some Southern Hemisphere species are black and white, a few are quite colourful.
Many species have areas of coloured skin on the face which can be bright blue, red or yellow becoming more brightly coloured in the breeding season. The bill is long and hooked, their feet have webbing between all four toes, as in their relatives. They are coastal rather than oceanic birds, some have colonised inland waters – indeed, the original ancestor of cormorants seems to have been a fresh-water bird, judging from the habitat of the most ancient lineage, they range around the world, except for the central Pacific islands. All are fish-eaters, dining on small eels and water snakes, they dive from the surface, though many species make a characteristic half-jump as they dive to give themselves a more streamlined entry into the water. Under water they propel themselves with their feet, though some propel themselves with their wings; some cormorant species have been found, using depth gauges, to dive to depths of as much as 45 metres. After fishing, cormorants go ashore, are seen holding their wings out in the sun.
All cormorants have preen gland secretions. Some sources state that cormorants have waterproof feathers while others say that they have water permeable feathers. Still others suggest that the outer plumage absorbs water but does not permit it to penetrate the layer of air next to the skin; the wing drying action is seen in the flightless cormorant but in the Antarctic shags and red-legged cormorants. Alternate functions suggested for the spread-wing posture include that it aids thermoregulation or digestion, balances the bird, or indicates presence of fish. A detailed study of the great cormora
Egrets are herons which have white or buff plumage, develop fine plumes during the breeding season. Egrets have the same build. Many egrets are members of the genera Egretta or Ardea which contain other species named as herons rather than egrets; the distinction between a heron and an egret is rather vague, depends more on appearance than biology. The word "egret" comes from the French word "aigrette" that means both "silver heron" and "brush", referring to the long filamentous feathers that seem to cascade down an egret's back during the breeding season. Several of the egrets have been reclassified from one genus to another in recent years: the great egret, for example, has been classified as a member of either Casmerodius, Egretta or Ardea. In the 19th and early part of the 20th century, some of the world's egret species were endangered by relentless plume hunting, since hat makers in Europe and the United States demanded large numbers of egret plumes, leading to breeding birds being killed in many places around the world.
Several Egretta species, including the eastern reef egret, the reddish egret, the western reef egret have two distinct colours, one of, white. The little blue heron has all-white juvenile plumage. Great egret or great white egret, Ardea alba Intermediate egret, Mesophoyx intermedia Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis Little egret Egretta garzetta Eastern reef egret or Pacific reef heron, Egretta sacra Western reef egret or western reef heron, Egretta gularis Snowy egret, Egretta thula Reddish egret, Egretta rufescens Slaty egret, Egretta vinaceigula Black egret, Egretta ardesiaca Chinese egret, Egretta eulophotes Egrets hunt and live in both saltwater and freshwater marshes. Media related to Ardeidae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Ardeidae at Wikispecies Well written and illustrated Egret article Encyclopaedia Britannica Great egret Ardea alba—USGS
Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge is a United States National Wildlife Refuge located in two separate sections in central Chaves County, New Mexico, United States, a few miles northeast of the city of Roswell. Both sections lie on the banks of the Pecos River; the refuge was established in 1937 to provide habitat for migratory birds such as the sandhill crane and the snow goose, but it is notable for rare native fish and the over 90 species of dragonflies and damselflies that inhabit the refuge. Where the Chihuahuan Desert meets the Southern Plains, Bitter Lake is one of the most biologically significant wetland areas of the Pecos River basin. Bitter Lake includes various unique aquatic habitats; the Pecos River flows across the refuge and forms oxbow lakes. Additionally, the Roswell aquifer underlies the area. Erosion of gypsum by this underground water has caused many sinkholes, some of which have become deep lakes that are home to unique species. Underground water feeds springs that are the source of water for the lakes on the refuge.
The water level in these lakes is managed by park personnel and is adjusted throughout the year to accommodate the different species of birds that migrate to the refuge. Bitter Lake hosts a diverse population of over 90 species of damselfiles. There is a special viewing area along the auto tour route, dragonflies can be seen throughout the refuge; the peak dragonfly population occurs in August. The park hosts an annual dragonfly festival in September. Bitter Lake is known as a refuge for birds. There are at least 350 species of birds. Bird activity varies year-round with Bitter Lake serving as a refuge for migrating species. Songbirds can be seen in the spring May. In the summer months the refuge is home to many marsh and shorebirds. In the fall there are raptor migrations. Waterfowl concentrations rise in the winter. While some species such as the sandhill crane can number in the thousands, others have been spotted only on rare occasions. Bitter Lake NWR Official Site
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment, carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water. This occurs where a river enters an ocean, estuary, reservoir, or another river that cannot carry away the supplied sediment; the size and shape of a delta is controlled by the balance between watershed processes that supply sediment, receiving basin processes that redistribute and export that sediment. The size and location of the receiving basin plays an important role in delta evolution. River deltas are important in human civilization, as they are major agricultural production centers and population centers, they can impact drinking water supply. They are ecologically important, with different species' assemblages depending on their landscape position. River deltas form when a river carrying sediment reaches either a body of water, such as a lake, ocean, or reservoir, another river that cannot remove the sediment enough to stop delta formation, or an inland region where the water spreads out and deposits sediments.
The tidal currents cannot be too strong, as sediment would wash out into the water body faster than the river deposits it. The river must carry enough sediment to layer into deltas over time; the river's velocity decreases causing it to deposit the majority, if not all, of its load. This alluvium builds up to form the river delta; when the flow enters the standing water, it is no longer confined to its channel and expands in width. This flow expansion results in a decrease in the flow velocity, which diminishes the ability of the flow to transport sediment; as a result, sediment drops out of deposits. Over time, this single channel builds a deltaic lobe; as the deltaic lobe advances, the gradient of the river channel becomes lower because the river channel is longer but has the same change in elevation. As the slope of the river channel decreases, it becomes unstable for two reasons. First, gravity makes the water flow in the most direct course down slope. If the river breaches its natural levees, it spills out into a new course with a shorter route to the ocean, thereby obtaining a more stable steeper slope.
Second, as its slope gets lower, the amount of shear stress on the bed decreases, which results in deposition of sediment within the channel and a rise in the channel bed relative to the floodplain. This makes it easier for the river to breach its levees and cut a new channel that enters the body of standing water at a steeper slope; when the channel does this, some of its flow remains in the abandoned channel. When these channel-switching events occur, a mature delta develops a distributary network. Another way these distributary networks form is from deposition of mouth bars; when this mid-channel bar is deposited at the mouth of a river, the flow is routed around it. This results in additional deposition on the upstream end of the mouth-bar, which splits the river into two distributary channels. A good example of the result of this process is the Wax Lake Delta. In both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low deposition.
This results in the smoothing of the planform shape of the delta as the channels move across its surface and deposit sediment. Because the sediment is laid down in this fashion, the shape of these deltas approximates a fan; the more the flow changes course, the shape develops as closer to an ideal fan, because more rapid changes in channel position results in more uniform deposition of sediment on the delta front. The Mississippi and Ural River deltas, with their bird's-feet, are examples of rivers that do not avulse enough to form a symmetrical fan shape. Alluvial fan deltas, as seen by their name and more approximate an ideal fan shape. Most large river deltas discharge to intra-cratonic basins on the trailing edges of passive margins due to the majority of large rivers such as the Mississippi, Amazon, Ganges and Yangtze discharging along passive continental margins; this phenomenon is due to three big factors: topography, basin area, basin elevation. Topography along passive margins tend to be more gradual and widespread over a greater area enabling sediment to pile up and accumulate overtime to form large river deltas.
Topography along active margins tend to be steeper and less widespread, which results in sediments not having the ability to pile up and accumulate due to the sediment traveling into a steep subduction trench rather than a shallow continental shelf. There are many other smaller factors that could explain why the majority of river deltas form along passive margins rather than active margins. Along active margins, orogenic sequences cause tectonic activity to form over-steepened slopes, brecciated rocks, volcanic activity resulting in delta formation to exist closer to the sediment source; when sediment does not travel far from the source, sediments that build up are coarser grained and more loosely consolidated, therefore making delta formation more difficult. Tectonic activity on active margins causes the formation of river deltas to form closer to the sediment source which may affect channel avulsion, delta lobe switching, auto cyclicity. Active margin river deltas tend to be much smaller and less abundant but may transport similar amounts of sediment.
However, the sediment is never piled up in thick sequences due to the sediment traveling and depositing in de
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m