France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Vinicius de Moraes
Marcus Vinicius da Cruz e Mello Moraes known as Vinícius de Moraes and nicknamed O Poetinha, was a Brazilian poet, lyricist and playwright. He served as a diplomat, composed bossa nova music, recorded several albums. Moraes was born in Gávea, a suburb of Rio de Janeiro, to Clodoaldo da Silva Pereira Moraes, a public servant, Lidia Cruz, a housewife and amateur pianist. In 1916, his family moved to Botafogo. In 1920, he gained entrance to a Masonic lodge through his maternal grandfather. Fleeing the 18 of the Copacabana Fort revolt, his parents moved to Governador Island while Moraes remained at his grandfather's home in Botafogo to finish school. During visits with his parents on weekends and holidays, he became acquainted with the composer Bororo. Beginning in 1924, Moraes attended St. Ignatius, a Jesuit high school, where he sang in the choir and wrote theatrical sketches. Three years he became friends with the brothers Paulo and Haroldo Tapajos, with whom he wrote his first musical compositions, which were performed at friends' parties.
In 1929, he completed his family moved back to Gávea. During the same year, he was admitted to the Faculty of Law at the University of Rio de Janeiro. At the "School of Catete", he became friends with essayist and future novelist Octavio de Faria, an activist integrist Catholic and leader of a group of right-wing Catholics organized around Centro Dom Vital, a think-tank created by Jackson de Figueiredo shortly before his death. Faria encouraged Moraes's literary vocation. Moraes received his college degree in Legal and Social Sciences in 1933. Soon after, he published his first two collections of poetry: Caminho para a distancia and Forma e exegese. Both collections were published under Octavio de Faria's informal editorship; the collections were symbolist poetry concerned with Catholic mysticism and the search for redemption against sexual seduction. In the essay "Two Poets", Faria compared Moraes's poetry to that of Augusto Frederico Schmidt; the tension between Faria and Moraes' mutual Catholic activism and Faria's homosexual attraction toward Moraes limited their friendship.
Faria attempted suicide because of his unrequited love for Moraes. Despite their estrangement, Moraes wrote two sonnets, the first in 1939, the second during the 1960s in ambivalent praise of his friend. In 1936, Moraes became film censor for the Ministry of Health. Two years he won a British Council fellowship to study English language and literature at Oxford University, he abandoned his use of blank verse and free verse in favor of the sonnet, both the Italian form used in Portuguese poetry and the English form. He was considered one of the most prominent of the "generation of'45", a group of Brazilian writers in the 1930s and 1940s who rejected early modernism in favor of traditional forms and vocabulary, he is equated with his friend João Cabral de Melo Neto for the high technical skill of their poetry. However, if in Cabral's works technique served the depiction of objective reality, in Moraes's work technique served the depiction of the subjective mood of sexual love; the basic meter in Moraes's love poetry is the decasyllable, taken from Camoes' lyrical poetry.
During his stay in England, Moraes wrote. He was married to Beatriz Azevedo de Mello, with whom he had two children: filmmaker Suzana de Moraes and Pedro. In 1941, he returned to Brazil and worked as a film critic for the newspaper A Manha, as a contributor to the literary journal Clima, at the Banking Employees' Institute of Social Security, the public pension fund for workers in banking institutions. During the following year, he failed the admission test for a diplomatic career at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shortly after, he was commissioned to accompany American writer Waldo Frank, a literary acquaintance, on a tour across Northern Brazil. In Moraes's words, it was contact with both Frank and "appalling poverty" that turned him into "a man of the Left". In 1943, Moraes passed the MRE admission test on his second attempt, he was assigned as vice-consul at Los Angeles. He published a book of poems, Cinco elegias, followed by Poemas, sonetos e baladas. After his father died in 1950, he went to Brazil returned to Los Angeles and published two more books: Livro de sonetos and Novos poemas II.
During the 1950s, he worked for the Brazilian consular service in Rome. He visited historian Sergio Buarque de Holanda, teaching in Italy as a visiting scholar. In 1951, Moraes married Lila Maria Esquerdo e Boscoli, he wrote film reviews for Samuel Wainer's Vargoist paper Ultima Hora. He was named a delegate to the Punta del Este film festival and was given a commission to study the management of film festivals at Cannes, Berlin and Venice, in view of the forthcoming São Paulo Cinema Festival, to be a part of the commemoration of the city's 400th anniversary. In 1953, his third child, was born. A fourth child by his second wife was born in 1956, he went to Paris as second secretary at the Brazilian embassy in France. He released his first samba, "Quando tu passas por mim", composed with Antonio Maria. During the next year, he wrote lyrics to chamber music pieces by Claudio Santoro, he b
Saint Louis Blues (song)
"Saint Louis Blues" is a popular American song composed by W. C. Handy in the blues style and published in September 1914, it was one of the first blues songs to succeed as a pop song and remains a fundamental part of jazz musicians' repertoire. Louis Armstrong, Bing Crosby, Bessie Smith, Count Basie, Glenn Miller, Guy Lombardo, the Boston Pops Orchestra are among the artists who have recorded it; the song has been called "the jazzman's Hamlet."The 1925 version sung by Bessie Smith, with Louis Armstrong on cornet, was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1993. The 1929 version by Louis Armstrong & His Orchestra was inducted in 2008. Handy said he had been inspired by a chance meeting with a woman on the streets of St. Louis distraught over her husband's absence, who lamented, "Ma man's got a heart like a rock cast in de sea", a key line of the song. Handy's autobiography recounts his hearing the tune in St. Louis in 1892: "It had numerous one-line verses and they would sing it all night."The song was a massive and enduring success.
At the time of his death in 1958, Handy was earning royalties of upwards of US$25,000 annually for the song. The original published sheet music is available online from the United States Library of Congress in a searchable database of African-American music from Brown University; the form is unusual in that the verses are the now-familiar standard twelve-bar blues in common time with three lines of lyrics, the first two lines repeated, but it has a 16-bar bridge written in the habanera rhythm, popularly called the "Spanish tinge" and characterized by Handy as tango. The tango-like rhythm is notated as a dotted quarter note followed by an eighth note and two quarter notes, with no slurs or ties, it is played in the sixteen-measure bridge. While blues became simple and repetitive in form, "Saint Louis Blues" has multiple complementary and contrasting strains, similar to classic ragtime compositions. Handy said his objective in writing the song was "to combine ragtime syncopation with a real melody in the spiritual tradition."With traditional New Orleans and New Orleans–style bands, the tune is one of a handful that includes a set traditional solo.
The clarinet solo, with a distinctive series of rising partials, was first recorded by Larry Shields with the Original Dixieland Jass Band in 1921. It is not found on published orchestrations of the tune. Shields is credited with creating this solo, but claims have been made for other early New Orleans clarinetists, including Emile Barnes. Writing about the first time "Saint Louis Blues" was played, Handy noted that The one-step and other dances had been done to the tempo of Memphis Blues... When St Louis Blues was written the tango was in vogue. I tricked the dancers by breaking abruptly into a low-down blues. My eyes swept the floor anxiously suddenly I saw lightning strike; the dancers seemed electrified. Something within them came to life. An instinct that wanted so much to live, to fling its arms to spread joy, took them by the heels. Singer and actress Ethel Waters was the first woman to sing "Saint Louis Blues" in public. Historians Lynn Abbott and Doug Seroff state that the first male singer to perform "St. Louis Blues" was Charles Anderson, a popular female impersonator of the day who included the song in his act as early as October 1914, the year Handy issued the song.
This backs the claim by Waters, who said she learned it from Anderson and featured it herself during a 1917 engagement in Baltimore. Researcher Guy Marco, in his Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound in the United States, stated that the first audio recording of "Saint Louis Blues" was by Al Bernard in July 1918 for Vocalion Records. However, the house band at Columbia Records, directed by Charles A. Prince, released an instrumental version in December 1915. Bernard's version may have been the first U. S. issue to include the lyrics, but Ciro's Club Coon Orchestra, a group of black American artists appearing in Britain, had recorded a version including the lyrics in September 1917. The film St. Louis Blues, from 1929, featured Bessie Smith singing the song. W. C. Handy Bessie Smith with Louis Armstrong Al Bernard as "John Bennett" Katherine Henderson with Clarence Williams and His Orchestra Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong – Louis Armstrong Plays W. C. Handy Cab Calloway Bing Crosby with Duke Ellington and His Orchestra Paul Robeson, recorded in London on February 20, 1934 and released by the His Master's Voice The Boswell Sisters – The Boswell Sisters Collection 1925–36 Django Reinhardt Die Goldene Sieben Earl Hines Billie Holiday with Benny Carter – The Great American Songbook Billy Eckstine – Everything I Have Is Yours Art Tatum, Piano Starts Here Fats Waller Dizzy Gillespie Dizzy Gillespie – Have Trumpet, Will Excite!
Chet Atkins – Chet Atkins' Gallopin' Guitar Gil Evans with Cannonball Adderley – New Bottle Old Wine Duke Ellington and Johnny Hodges, Back to Back Red Garland – Red in Bluesville Dave Brubeck – At Carnegie Hall Illinois Jacquet – The Soul Explosion The Thad Jones/Mel Lewis Orchestra – Monday Night Eumir Deodato – Artistry Ray Bryant – Solo Flight George Wright – Red Hot and Blue Emmett Miller – Minstrel Man from Georgia Herbie Hancock with Stevie Wonder – Gershwin's World David Sanborn – Here & Gone Hugh Laurie – Didn't It Rain List of pre-1920 jazz standards Handy, W. C.. Bontemps, Arna Wendell, ed. Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. New York City: Macmillan. Sheet Music at Duke Un
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
John Waldo Green was an American songwriter, musical arranger and pianist. He was given the nickname "Beulah" by colleague Conrad Salinger, his most famous song was one of his earliest, "Body and Soul". Green won four Academy Awards for his film scores and a fifth for producing a short musical film, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1972, he was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. John Waldo Green was born in New York City, the son of musical parents Vivian Isidor Green and Irina Etelka Jellenik, a.k.a. Irma Etelka Jellenik. Vivian and Irina wed on December 1907 in Manhattan. John attended Horace Mann School and the New York Military Academy, was accepted by Harvard at the age of 15, entering the University in 1924, his musical tutors were Ignace Hilsberg and Walter Spalding. Between semesters, bandleader Guy Lombardo heard Green's Gold Coast Orchestra and hired him to create dance arrangements for his nationally famous orchestra, his first song hit, was written for Lombardo.
John's father, compelled him to take a job as a stockbroker. Disliking the job, encouraged by his wife, the former Carol Faulk, John left Wall Street to pursue a musical career. Green wrote a number of songs which have become jazz standards, including "Out of Nowhere" and "Body and Soul", he wrote the scores for various films and TV programs. His earliest songs appeared with the billing "John W. Green," a styling. After that anyone addressing "Johnny" was put right with the statement, "You can call me John – or you can call me Maestro!" At the beginning of his musical career, he arranged for dance orchestras, most notably Jean Goldkette on NBC. He was accompanist/arranger to musicians such as Libby Holman and Ethel Merman, it was while writing material for Gertrude Lawrence in 1930 that he composed "Body and Soul", the first recording of, made by Jack Hylton & His Orchestra eleven days before the song was copyrighted. Between 1930-33, Green was the arranger and conductor for Paramount Pictures and worked with such singers as Ethel Merman, Gertrude Lawrence and James Melton.
He composed many of his hit standards during the 1930s, including Bing Crosby's first number one hit recording, "Out of Nowhere", "Rain Rain Go Away", "I Cover the Waterfront", "You're Mine You", "I Wanna Be Loved", "Easy Come Easy Go" and "Repeal The Blues". He composed the theme for Max Fleischer's Betty Boop cartoons in 1932, with Edward Heyman as lyricist. After 1933, Green had his own orchestra, he until 1940, conducted orchestras for the Jack Benny and Philip Morris records and radio shows. Nathaniel Shilkret and Paul Whiteman commissioned Green to write larger works for orchestra, such as "Night Club", introduced by Whiteman on January 25, 1933 at Carnegie Hall. Green was at piano "one," and Roy Bargy and Ramona played the other two pianos. During the early 1930s, Green wrote music for numerous films at Paramount's Astoria Studios, conducted in East Coast theatres, toured vaudeville as musical director for Buddy Rogers. During his two and a half years at Paramount Astoria, he was able to learn more about film scoring from veterans Adolph Deutsch and Frank Tours.
Green spent much of 1933 in London, where he contributed songs to both Mr. Whittington, a musical comedy for Jack Buchanan at the London Hippodrome, Big Business, the first musical comedy written for BBC Radio. On Green's return to the U. S. A. early in 1934, William S. Paley, president of the Columbia Broadcasting System and an investor in New York's St. Regis Hotel, encouraged him to form what became known as Johnny Green, His Piano and Orchestra; the orchestra, based for a time at the St. Regis, featured Green's piano and arrangements, whose harmony and mood were among the most sophisticated of the day, it made dance records for the Columbia and Brunswick companies, although in the Depression the most popular records sold only in small numbers. In 1935, Green starred on CBS's Socony Sketchbook, sponsored by Socony-Vacuum Oil Co, he lured the young California singer Virginia Verrill to headline with him on the Friday evening broadcasts. His regular cast included his band singers Marjory Logan and Jimmy Farrell, essayist Christopher Morley, stage/screen favorites the Four Eton Boys.
A bigger venture yet in commercial radio was The Fred Astaire Hour, sponsored by Packard Motors over NBC in 1936 and co-featuring tenor Allan Jones and the comedy of Charles Butterworth. Green's band backed Astaire on a series of classic recording dates, in both New York and Hollywood, in 1935–1937, he served as musical director for The Jell-O Program Starring Jack Benny during its 1935–1936 season on NBC. He continued conducting on radio and in theatres into the 1940s leading a dance band for the short-lived Royale Records label in 1939–1940, until he decided to move permanently to Hollywood and work in the film business. Green made an impression at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where in the 1940s, along with orchestrator Conrad Salinger, he was one of the musicians most responsible for changing the overall sound of the MGM Symphony Orchestra through the re-seating of some of the players; this is why the overall orchestral sound of MGM's musicals from the mid-1940s onward is different from the orchestral sound of those made from 1929 until about 1944.
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Albany Leon "Barney" Bigard was an American jazz clarinetist known for his 15-year tenure with Duke Ellington. He played tenor saxophone. Bigard was born in New Orleans to a family of Creoles; the son of Alexander and Emanuella Bigard, he had Alexander Jr. and Sidney. His uncle, Emile Bigard, was a jazz violinist, he studied music and clarinet with Lorenzo Tio. In the early 1920s he moved to Chicago, where he worked with others. During this period, much of his recording, including with clarinetist Johnny Dodds, was on tenor saxophone, which he played with great lyricism, as on Oliver's "Someday Sweetheart". In 1927 Bigard joined Duke Ellington's orchestra in New York, where he was part of the Harlem Renaissance, he played with Ellington until 1942. They played at the Cotton Club until 1931 toured nonstop for over a decade. With Ellington, he was the featured clarinet soloist, while doing section work on tenor saxophone. After leaving Ellington's orchestra, Bigard moved to California, he did soundtrack work for Hollywood film studios and had an onscreen featured role with an all-star band led by Louis Armstrong in the film New Orleans.
He began working with trombonist Kid Ory's group during the late 1940s. He worked with Armstrong's touring band, the All Stars, others. Bigard appeared and played in the movie St. Louis Blues, with Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Pearl Bailey and Eartha Kitt. Bigard wrote an autobiography entitled With The Duke, he is credited as composer or co-composer on several numbers, notably the Ellington standard "Mood Indigo". The first version of the song "Caravan" was recorded in Hollywood, 18 December 1936, performed as an instrumental by Barney Bigard and His Jazzopators. Two takes were recorded and were issued, although L-0373-2 is by far the more found take; the band members were Cootie Williams, Juan Tizol, Barney Bigard, Harry Carney, Duke Ellington, Billy Taylor, Sonny Greer. All of the players were members of the Duke Ellington Orchestra, drawn upon to record small-group sides. Though Ellington was present at the recording date, the session leader was Bigard. In keeping with Ellington's formation of small groups featuring his primary soloists, Bigard continued to be featured under his own name on Variety and subsequently Vocalion Records and OKeh through 1940.
When Ellington signed with Victor in 1940, Bigard recorded for Bluebird under his own name. He sat in with the Glenn Miller Orchestra for some of their biggest hits, such as "Moonlight Serenade", "Little Brown Jug", "Tuxedo Junction". Bigard was a member of Louis Armstrong's All Stars before and after Edmond Hall joined. Bigard can be seen with the All Stars in the movie The Glenn Miller Story. After World War II, Bigard recorded under his own name for Signature Records, Black & White, Selmer Records, Keynote in 1944–45, he recorded an album for Liberty in 1957 and an album for French Vogue Records as "Barney Bigard-Claude Luter Quintet" in 1966. Bigard died on June 1980, in Culver City, California, he was 74. With Louis and The Duke – Barney Bigard's autobiography Barney Bigard on IMDb Barney Bigard at the Internet Broadway Database