The Rolling Stone Album Guide
The Rolling Stone Album Guide known as The Rolling Stone Record Guide, is a book that contains professional music reviews written and edited by staff members from Rolling Stone magazine. Its first edition was published in 1979 and its last in 2004; the guide can be seen at Rate Your Music, while a list of albums given a five star rating by the guide can be seen at Rocklist.net. The Rolling Stone Record Guide was the first edition of what would become The Rolling Stone Album Guide, it was edited by Dave Marsh and John Swenson, included contributions from 34 other music critics. It is divided into sections by musical genre and lists artists alphabetically within their respective genres. Albums are listed alphabetically by artist although some of the artists have their careers divided into chronological periods. Dave Marsh, in his Introduction, cites as precedents Leonard Maltin's book TV Movies and Robert Christgau's review column in the Village Voice, he gives Tape Guide as raw sources of information.
The first edition included black and white photographs of many of the covers of albums which received five star reviews. These titles are listed together in the Five-Star Records section, coincidentally five pages in length; the edition included reviews for many comedy artists including Lenny Bruce, Lord Buckley, Bill Cosby, The Firesign Theatre, Spike Jones, Richard Pryor. Comedy artists were listed in the catch-all section "Rock, Soul and Pop", which included the genres of folk, bluegrass and reggae, as well as comedy. Traditional pop performers were not included, with the notable exceptions of Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole. Included too were some difficult-to-classify artists. Big band jazz was handled selectively, with certain band leaders omitted, while others were included. Many other styles of jazz did appear in the Jazz section; the book was notable for the time in the provocative, "in your face" style of many of its reviews. For example, writing about Neil Young's song, "Down by the River", John Swenson described it both as an "FM radio classic", as a "wimp anthem".
His colleague, Dave Marsh, in reviewing the three albums of the jazz fusion group Chase, gave a one-word review: "Flee.". Introduction Rock, Soul and Pop Blues Jazz Gospel Anthologies and Original Casts Five-Star Records Glossary Selected Bibliography The guide employs a five star rating scale with the following descriptions of those ratings: Indispensable: a record that must be included in any comprehensive collection Excellent: a record of substantial merit, though flawed in some essential way. Good: a record of average worth, but one that might possess considerable appeal for fans of a particular style. Mediocre: a record, artistically insubstantial, though not wretched. Poor: a record where technical competence is at question or it was remarkably ill-conceived. Worthless: a record that need never have been created. Reserved for the most bathetic bathwater; the New Rolling Stone Record Guide was an update of 1979's The Rolling Stone Record Guide. Like the first edition, it was edited by Swenson.
It included contributions from 52 music critics and featured chronological album listings under the name of each artist. In many cases, updates from the first edition consist of short, one-sentence verdicts upon an artist's work. Instead of having separate sections such as Blues and Gospel, this edition compressed all of the genres it reviewed into one section except for Jazz titles which were removed for this edition and were expanded and published in 1985 Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide. Besides adding reviews for many emerging punk and New Wave bands, this edition added or expanded a significant number of reviews of long-established reggae and ska artists. Since the goal of this guide was to review records that were in print at the time of publication, this edition featured a list of artists who were included in the first edition but were not included in the second edition because all of their material was out of print; this edition dispensed with the album cover photos found in the first edition.
Introduction to the Second Edition Introduction to the First Edition Ratings Reviewers Record Label Abbreviations Rock, Blues, Country and Pop Anthologies and Original Cast Index to Artists in the First Edition The second edition uses the same rating system as the first edition. The only difference is that in addition to a rating, the second edition employs the pilcrow mark to indicate a title, out of print at the time the guide was published; some artists had the ratings for their albums lowered as the book now offered a revisionist slant to rock's history. The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide was published in 1985 and incorporated the jazz listings omitted from The New Rolling S
Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club
Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club is a prominent jazz club which has operated in London since 1959. The club opened on 30 October 1959 in a basement at 39 Gerrard Street in London's Soho district, it was managed by musicians Ronnie Scott and Pete King. In 1965 it moved to a larger venue nearby at 47 Frith Street; the original venue continued in operation as the "Old Place" until the lease ran out in 1967, was used for performances by the up-and-coming generation of musicians. Zoot Sims was the club's first transatlantic visitor in 1962, was succeeded by many others in the years that followed. Many UK jazz musicians were regularly featured, including Tubby Hayes and Dick Morrissey who would both drop in for jam sessions with the visiting stars. In the mid-1960s, Ernest Ranglin was the house guitarist; the club's house pianist until 1967 was Stan Tracey. For nearly 30 years it was home of a Christmas residency to George Melly and John Chilton's Feetwarmers. In 1978, the club established the label Ronnie Scott's Jazz House, which issued both live performances from the club and new recordings.
Scott acted as the club's Master of Ceremonies, was famous for his repertoire of jokes and one-liners. After Scott's death in 1996, King continued to run the club for a further nine years, before selling the club to theatre impresario Sally Greene and philanthropist Michael Watt in June 2005. Managing Director Simon Cooke joined in April 2008. In 2009 Ronnie Scott's was named by the Brecon Jazz Festival as one of 12 venues that had made the most important contributions to jazz music in the United Kingdom, finished third in the voting for the initial award. Many prestigious artists have played there, including Earl "Fatha" Hines, Chet Baker, Ella Fitzgerald, Anita O'Day, Nina Simone, Curtis Mayfield, Blossom Dearie, Dianne Reeves, Stacey Kent, Katie Melua, Jamie Cullum, Bobby Broom, Wynton Marsalis, Madeleine Peyroux, Chick Corea, Pat Metheny, George Benson and Cassandra Wilson. Jimi Hendrix's last public performance was at Ronnie Scott's, in 1970. Many of the visiting musicians appearing at Ronnie Scott's were soloists touring without their own rhythm section, or were touring as members of larger bands and they used the house band to accompany them.
On occasions, the house musicians coincided with the members of the various bands that Ronnie Scott led at one time or another. The dates of a particular house musician sometimes overlap with that of others owing to the nature of a musician's working schedule. Many of them were or would soon become, leading figures on the British jazz scene. Since 2006 the Ronnie Scott's Allstars have been some of the greatest talents on the UK scene, including regular performers James Pearson Sam Burgess and Alex Garnett. Phil Seamen – house drummer from 1964 to 1968 Allan Ganley – house drummer from 1964 to 1967,backing visiting Americans such as Stan Getz, Art Farmer and Roland KirkTony Oxley – house drummer from 1966 until the early 1970s. Accompanied Joe Henderson, Lee Konitz, Charlie Mariano, Stan Getz, Sonny Rollins and Bill Evans. Martin Drew – house drummer from 1975 to 1995 Mark Fletcher - house drummer from 1994 to 2006 Chris Dagley – house drummer from 2006 to 2010 Pedro Segundo – house drummer since 2010 Chris Higginbottom – house drummer since 2012 Eddie Thompson – house pianist 1959–60 Stan Tracey – house pianist from March 1960 to 1967/1968 John Critchinson – house pianist from 1978 to 1995.
Accompanied Chet Baker, George Coleman, James Moody, Joe Henderson and Johnny GriffinJames Pearson – house pianist since 2006 Sam Burgess – house bassist since 2006 Ernest Ranglin – house guitarist 1964–65. Other regular performers since 2006 include: Al Cherry Alan Barnes Alec Dankworth Alex Garnett Alistair White Arnie Somogyi Dave O'Higgins Gary Baldwin Gerard Presencer James Nisbet Mark Smith Matt Home Mornington Lockett Natalie Williams Nina Ferro Pete Long Ralph Salmins Steve Fishwick Steve Rushton In 1978, the club established its own record label, Ronnie Scott's Jazz House; the first release was an album by Scott's quintet. Over the next 20 years, the label gained in prominence, issuing both historic live club performances and new recordings. 1963–65: Live in London vols 1 & 2 – Tubby Hayes 1964: Live at Ronnie Scott's – Ben Webster 1964: The Punch – Ben Webster 1964/65: There and Back – The Dick Morrissey Quartet. Recorded 27 January 1964/20 August 1965 1965: Sonny Stitt / Live at Ronnie Scott's – Sonny Stitt and the Dick Morrissey Quartet.
Recorded May 1965 1965: Live at Ronnie Scott's – Wes Montgomery 1966: Blossom Time at Ronnie Scott's – Blossom Dearie 1967: Sweet Blossom Dearie – Blossom Dearie 1969: Volcano... Live at Ronnie's – Kenny Clarke/Francy Boland Big Band 1969: Rue Chaptal... Live at Ronnie's – Kenny Clarke/Francy Boland Big Band 1970: Somewhere in Soho – Soft Machine 1971: Dynasty – Stan Getz 1972: Rich in London aka Very Alive at Ronnie Scott's – Buddy Rich Big Band 1974: Ella in London – Ella Fitzgerald 1975: Lee Konitz Meets Warne Marsh Again - Lee Konitz and Warne Marsh 1976: Livestock - Brand X 1976: Symphony of Scorpions - Graham Collier 1977: Ronnie Scott's Presents Sarah Vaughan Live – Sarah Vaughan 1980: Complete Live at Ronnie Scott's 1980 – Bill Evans 1980: Live at Ronnie Scott's aka The Man from Planet Jazz – Buddy Rich Big Band 1980: Live at Ronnie Scott's – Mike Carr and His Trio Featuring Jim Mullen and Harold Smith – Mike Carr 1980: Blues for the Fisherman – The Milcho Levie
Hello, Dolly! (Ella Fitzgerald album)
Hello, Dolly! is a 1964 studio album by the American jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald. "Hello, Dolly!," "People," "Can't Buy Me Love," and "The Sweetest Sounds" were recorded in London, England, on April 7. The other eight tracks were recorded in New York City on March 3 and March 4. Three songs recorded at the latter sessions remain unreleased: "There! I've Said It Again," "I'll See You in My Dreams," and "There Are Such Things." It is unknown. Her version of the Beatles song "Can't Buy Me Love" was a minor hit single in 1964, peaking at #34 in the UK singles chart. For the 1964 Verve LP release.
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Cole Porter Song Book
Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Cole Porter Song Book is a 1956 studio album by American jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald, accompanied by a studio orchestra conducted and arranged by Buddy Bregman, focusing on the songs of Cole Porter. This was Fitzgerald's first album for the newly created Verve Records Granz decided to have Fitzgerald record well-established popular works becauseI was interested in how I could enhance Ella’s position, to make her a singer with more than just a cult following amongst jazz fans. So I proposed to Ella that the first Verve album would not be a jazz project, but rather a song book of the works of Cole Porter. I envisaged her doing a lot of composers; the trick was to change the backing enough so that and there, there would be signs of jazz. Fitzgerald's time on the Verve label would see her produce her most acclaimed recordings, at the peak of her vocal powers; this album inaugurated Fitzgerald's Song Book series, each of the eight albums in the series focusing on a different composer of the canon known as the Great American Songbook.
The album was recorded February 7 -- 9 & March 27, 1956, in Los Angeles. Fitzgerald's manager, the producer of many of her albums, Norman Granz, visited Cole Porter at the Waldorf-Astoria, played him this entire album. Afterwards, Porter remarked, "My, what marvelous diction that girl has." This album was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2000, a special Grammy award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old, that have "qualitative or historical significance." In 2003, it was one of 50 recordings chosen by the Library of Congress to be added to the National Recording Registry. All tracks written except when noted. Side one "All Through the Night" – 3:15 "Anything Goes" – 3:21 "Miss Otis Regrets" – 3:00 "Too Darn Hot" – 3:47 "In the Still of the Night" – 2:38 "I Get a Kick Out of You" – 4:00 "Do I Love You?" – 3:50 "Always True to You in My Fashion" – 2:48Side two "Let's Do It, Let's Fall in Love" – 3:32 "Just One of Those Things" – 3:30 "Ev'ry Time We Say Goodbye" – 3:32 "All of You" – 1:43 "Begin the Beguine" – 3:37 "Get Out of Town" – 3:22 "I Am in Love" – 4:06 "From This Moment On" – 3:17 Side three "I Love Paris" – 4:57 "You Do Something to Me" – 2:21 "Ridin' High" – 3:20 "You'd Be So Easy to Love" – 3:24 "It's All Right with Me" – 3:07 "Why Can't You Behave?"
– 5:04 "What Is This Thing Called Love?" – 2:02 "You're the Top" – 3:33Side four "Love for Sale" – 5:52 "It's De-Lovely" – 2:42 "Night and Day" – 3:04 "Ace in the Hole" – 1:58 "So in Love" – 3:50 "I've Got You Under My Skin" – 2:42 "I Concentrate on You" – 3:11 "Don't Fence Me In" – 3:19 1997 reissue unreleased bonus tracks "You're the Top" – 2:08 "I Concentrate on You" – 3:00 "Let's Do It, Let's Fall in Love" – 5:25 Personnel adapted from the liner notes of CD reissue. Buddy Bregman's memories of working with Ella on the Cole Porter Song Book
Ronnie Scott OBE was an English jazz tenor saxophonist and jazz club owner. Ronnie Scott was born in East London, into a Jewish family, his father, Joseph Schatt, was of Russian ancestry, his mother Sylvia's family attended the Portuguese synagogue in Alie Street. Scott attended the Central Foundation Boys' School. Scott began playing in small jazz clubs at the age of 16, his claim to fame was that he was taught to play by "Vera Lynn's father-in-law!". He toured with trumpeter Johnny Claes from 1944 to 1945 and with Ted Heath in 1946, he worked with Ambrose, Cab Kaye, Tito Burns. He was involved in the short-lived musicians' co-operative Club Eleven band and club with Johnny Dankworth. Scott became an acquaintance of the arranger/composer Tadd Dameron, when the American was working in the UK for Heath, is reported to have performed with Dameron as the pianist, at one Club Eleven gig. Scott was a member of the generation of British musicians who worked on the Cunard liner Queen Mary intermittently from 1946 to around 1950 in to visit New York City and hear the new form of jazz called bebop in the clubs there.
Scott was among the earliest British musicians to have been influenced by Charlie Parker and other players of modern jazz. In 1952, Scott joined Jack Parnell's orchestra and from 1953 to 1956 led a nine-piece band and quintet which included Pete King, with whom he opened his jazz club, Victor Feldman, Hank Shaw, Phil Seamen, he co-led The Jazz Couriers with Tubby Hayes from 1957 to 1959 and was leader of a quartet that included Stan Tracey. From 1967–69, Scott was a member of the Kenny Clarke/Francy Boland Big Band, which toured Europe and included Johnny Griffin and Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis, he ran his octet, which included John Surman and Kenny Wheeler, a trio with Mike Carr on keyboards and Bobby Gien on drums. Scott's other bands included John Critchinson on keyboards and Martin Drew on drums, he did occasional session work, which included performing the solo on "Lady Madonna", the 1968 single by the Beatles, playing on Roy Budd's score for the film Fear Is the Key, performing the tenor sax solo on "I Missed Again", the 1981 single by Phil Collins.
Charles Mingus said of him in 1961, "Of the white boys, Ronnie Scott gets closer to the negro blues feeling, the way Zoot Sims does." Scott recorded infrequently during the last few decades of his career. He suffered from depression. While recovering from surgery for tooth implants, he died at the age of 69 from an accidental overdose of barbiturates prescribed by his dentist. Ronnie Scott's widow, Mary Scott, her daughter, Rebecca Scott, wrote the memoir A Fine Kind of Madness: Ronnie Scott Remembered, with a foreword by Spike Milligan; the book was published in 1999 in London by Headline Book Publishing. Scott is best remembered for co-founding, with former tenor sax player Pete King, Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club, which opened on 30 October 1959 in a basement at 39 Gerrard Street in London's Soho district, with the debut of a young alto sax player named Peter King, before moving to a larger venue nearby at 47 Frith Street in 1965; the original venue continued in operation as the "Old Place" until the lease ran out in 1967, was used for performances by the up-and-coming generation of domestic musicians.
Scott acted as the club's genial Master of Ceremonies, was famous for his repertoire of jokes and one-liners. A typical introduction might go: "Our next guest is one of the finest musicians in the country. In the city, he's crap". Another memorable announcement was "Next week we're proud to have a quartet featuring Stan Getz and violinist Stuff Smith. It's called the'Getz-Stuffed quartet'. Ronnie used in days the services of John Schatt to book Rock Bands for Ronnie Scott's upstairs. After Scott's death, King continued to run the club for a further nine years, before selling the club to theatre impresario Sally Greene in June 2005. In September 2013, while the club was being redecorated, a 12-metre-square hoarding was placed on the Frith Street façade as a tribute to its eponymous founder, bearing a giant photograph of Ronnie Scott by Val Wilmer, alongside one of his legendary one-liners: "I love this place, it's just like home and full of strangers." As well as participating in name orchestras, Scott led or co-led numerous bands featuring some of Britain's most prominent jazz musicians of the day.
Alan Dean's Beboppers 1949 Ronnie Scott, Johnny Dankworth, Hank Shaw, Tommy Pollard, Pete Chilver, Joe Muddel, Laurie Morgan, Alan Dean Ronnie Scott Orchestra – 1954, 1955 Ronnie Scott, Derek Humble, Pete King, Hank Shaw, Ken Wray, Benny Green, Victor Feldman, Lennie Bush, Phil Seamen Ronnie Scott Quintet – 1955 Ronnie Scott, Hank Shaw, Victor Feldman, Sammy Stokes, Lennie Bush, Phil Seamen Ronnie Scott Big Band – 1955 Ronnie Scott, Pete King. The group lasted until 30 August 1959. Ronnie Scott, Tubby Hayes, Terry Shannon, Phil Bates, Bill Eyden Ronnie Scott Quartet 1964 Ronnie Scott (tenor
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita