The Jewish Exponent
The Jewish Exponent brand consists of a weekly community newspaper, a website, a quarterly magazine. The Jewish Exponent newspaper is the flagship publication of the Jewish Publishing Group, which produces The Guide to Jewish Philadelphia and special interest supplements; the newspaper serves the Jewish community of Greater Philadelphia and has been published continuously since April 15, 1887. A predecessor newspaper, The Jewish Record, had been published since 1875; the current circulation is made up of direct subscribers and those who donate to the Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia. The paper is delivered to 24,000 households; the paper had 40,000 subscribers in 2009. However, when the paper celebrated its 75th anniversary in 1962, it had the largest circulation of any Jewish newspaper in the United States. At the hundredth anniversary in 1987, the circulation was 65,000; the second-oldest continuously published Jewish newspaper in the United States, it has evolved from its roots as a voice for prominent businessmen to a multimedia platform for delivering Jewish news and information and stimulating community dialogue.
The paper was founded by 43 prominent Philadelphians—among them Henry Samuel Morais—who pledged that it would be "devoted to the interests of the Jewish people." It was an early supporter of Zionism. In the 1940s the paper experienced financial difficulties, on May 5, 1944, it was purchased by the Allied Jewish Appeal, a precursor of the Jewish Federation of Greater Philadelphia, which still publishes it today via the Jewish Publishing Group. In 1999, the Jewish Exponent launched its website. A re-designed website was launched in November 2012; the site contains timely news of a local, national and Israel nature, as well as blogs, special interest columns, death notices and Mazel-Tov announcements. It is the home of the Jewish community events calendar with hundreds of events added monthly in a fashion, searchable by event type and location; the online guide to Jewish Philly provides a searchable method for the community to find out about every Jewish organization in the Delaware Valley, as well as businesses that wish to promote their products and services to the Jewish community of Greater Philadelphia.
The site allows users to register for weekly email newsletters as well as engage with the Jewish Exponent via social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Pinterest. On June 3, 2015, the Exponent laid off its entire editorial staff. Reports said; the owners contracted with Mid-Atlantic Media to operate the editorial department of the paper. Mid-Atlantic is based in Baltimore and produces several other Jewish papers, including the Baltimore Jewish Times, Washington Jewish Week, The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh. Joshua Runyan, Mid-Atlantic's editorial director, was named the paper's new editor, replacing Lisa Hostein. Official website
Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatrics, or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a means of entertainment, cultural preservation or instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot and narrative point of view; the term "storytelling" can refer in a narrow sense to oral storytelling and in a looser sense to techniques used in other media to unfold or disclose the narrative of a story. Storytelling predates writing; the earliest forms of storytelling were oral combined with gestures and expressions. In addition to being part of religious rituals, some archaeologists believe rock art may have served as a form of storytelling for many ancient cultures; the Australian aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was told using a combination of oral narrative, rock art and dance, which bring understanding and meaning of human existence through remembrance and enactment of stories.
People have used the carved trunks of living trees and ephemeral media to record stories in pictures or with writing. Complex forms of tattooing may represent stories, with information about genealogy and social status. With the advent of writing and the use of stable, portable media, stories were recorded and shared over wide regions of the world. Stories have been carved, painted, printed or inked onto wood or bamboo and other bones, clay tablets, palm-leaf books, bark cloth, silk and other textiles, recorded on film and stored electronically in digital form. Oral stories continue to be created, improvisationally by impromptu storytellers, as well as committed to memory and passed from generation to generation, despite the increasing popularity of written and televised media in much of the world. Modern storytelling has a broad purview. In addition to its traditional forms, it has extended itself to representing history, personal narrative, political commentary and evolving cultural norms.
Contemporary storytelling is widely used to address educational objectives. New forms of media are creating new ways for people to record and consume stories. Tools for asynchronous group communication can provide an environment for individuals to reframe or recast individual stories into group stories. Games and other digital platforms, such as those used in interactive fiction or interactive storytelling, may be used to position the user as a character within a bigger world. Documentaries, including interactive web documentaries, employ storytelling narrative techniques to communicate information about their topic. Self-revelatory stories, created for their cathartic and therapeutic effect, are growing in their use and application, as in Psychodrama, Drama Therapy and Playback Theatre. Storytelling is used as a means by which to precipitate psychological and social change in the practice of transformative arts. Oral traditions of storytelling are found in several civilisations. Storytelling was used to explain natural phenomena, bards told stories of creation and developed a pantheon of gods and myths.
Oral stories passed from one generation to the next and storytellers were regarded as healers, spiritual guides, cultural secrets keepers and entertainers. Oral storytelling came in various forms including songs, poetry and dance. Albert Bates Lord examined oral narratives from field transcripts of Yugoslav oral bards collected by Milman Parry in the 1930s, the texts of epics such as the Odyssey and Beowulf. Lord found that a large part of the stories consisted of text, improvised during the telling process. Lord identified two types of story vocabulary; the first he called "formulas": "rosy-fingered dawn", "the wine-dark sea" and other specific set phrases had long been known of in Homer and other oral epics. Lord, discovered that across many story traditions 90% of an oral epic is assembled from lines which are repeated verbatim or which use one-for-one word substitutions. In other words, oral stories are built out of set phrases which have been stockpiled from a lifetime of hearing and telling stories.
The other type of story vocabulary is a set sequence of story actions that structure a tale. Just as the teller of tales proceeds line-by-line using formulas, so he proceeds from event-to-event using themes. One near-universal theme is repetition, as evidenced in Western folklore with the "rule of three": Three brothers set out, three attempts are made, three riddles are asked. A theme can be as simple as a specific set sequence describing the arming of a hero, starting with shirt and trousers and ending with headdress and weapons. A theme can be large enough to be a plot component. For example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of little account / who recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero's ally, showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in many different stories. Themes may be no more than handy prefabricated parts for constructing a tale, or they may represent universal truths – ritual-based, religious truths, as James Frazer saw in The Golden Bough, or archetypal, psychological truths, as Joseph Campbell describes in The Hero With a Thousand Faces.
The story was described by Reynolds
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Jewish Publication Society
The Jewish Publication Society known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. Founded in Philadelphia in 1888, by reform Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf among others, JPS is well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh; the JPS Bible translation is used in Jewish and Christian seminaries, on hundreds of college campuses, in informal adult study settings, in synagogues, in Jewish day schools and supplementary programs. It has been licensed in a wide variety of books as well as in electronic media; as a nonprofit publisher, JPS continues to develop projects that for-profit publishers will not invest in, significant projects that may take years to complete. Other core JPS projects include the ongoing JPS Bible commentary series. Since 2012, JPS publications have been distributed by the University of Nebraska Press; the first Jewish Publication Society was founded in 1845 in Philadelphia, but was dissolved six years after a fire destroyed the building and the entire JPS stock.
A second, founded in New York in 1873, ended in 1875. The 1880s saw an "awakening of interest in Judaism and Jewish culture of the part of young Jews... growing sense of American Jewry's destiny on the world Jewish stage." In response to the growing need for English-language Jewish texts and lay leaders of the American Jewish community met on June 3, 1888 at a national convention in Philadelphia to discuss the re-founding of a national Jewish publication society. That day, after many squabbles and political maneuverings, the Jewish Publication Society was "gaveled into being."As JPS moved into the 20th century, membership grew rapidly. After years of meetings and revisions, the entire translation of the Bible was completed in 1917; this crowning achievement was put to use at the start of World War I, when young Jewish men were given prayer books and Bible readings as they marched off to war. As Hitler and the Nazi party rose to power during the 1930s, Jews in America resisted anti-Semitism through the power of words.
Works such as The Decay of Czarism and Legends of the Jews became staples of Jewish literacy and helped to preserve the legacy of European Jewry. JPS assisted the war effort by supporting refugee employment and resettlement, by printing pamphlets that were dropped behind enemy lines, at the request of the American government. During the latter half of the 20th century, JPS published a revised translation of the Bible, books detailing both war atrocities and triumphs, books with a new-found focus on the State of Israel. Works such as The JPS Commentary Series, The Jewish Catalog and The K'Tonton Series were tremendously successful. In 1985, the newly translated three parts of the Bible were compiled into what is now known as the JPS Tanakh. In September 2011, JPS entered into a new collaborative publishing arrangement with the University of Nebraska Press, under which Nebraska purchased all of JPS's outstanding book inventory, is responsible for the production and marketing of all JPS publications, effective January 1, 2012.
JPS continues its operations from its Philadelphia headquarters, acquiring new manuscripts and developing new projects. JPS is governed by a Board of Trustees, headed by Board President Gittel Hilibrand. Past editors-in-chief include Henrietta Szold, Solomon Grayzel, Chaim Potok. Chaim Potok was involved in JPS's publication activities for 35 years, serving as editor for 8 years, secretary of the Bible translation committee for the Writings for 16 years, chair of the JPS Editorial Committee for 18 years and literary editor to its Bible program for 18 years. Dr. Ellen Frankel was editor-in-chief from 1991 until her retirement in October 2009, she is now Editor Emerita of the Society. Rabbi Barry L. Schwartz became the CEO in 2010, when he came to JPS from Congregation M'Kor Shalom in Cherry Hill, New Jersey, where he served as senior rabbi for 11 years. Rabbi Schwartz served on the board of several nonprofit social justice organizations, is active in Jewish environmental work. Carol Hupping was managing editor from 1991 until her retirement in March, 2016.
Joy Weinberg succeeded her as managing editor in April 2016. The JPS Torah Commentaries The JPS Bible Commentaries" Outside the Bible: Ancient Jewish Writings Related to Scripture, Louis H. Feldman, James L. Kugel and Lawrence Schiffman The JPS Commentary on the Haggadah", Joseph Tabory Dictionary of Jewish Words, Joyce Eisenberg and Ellen Scolnic The Jewish Bible, The Jewish Publication Society Celebrating the Jewish Year in 3 volumes, Paul Steinberg, Janet Greenstein Potter The Commentators' Bible, Michael Carasik JPS Illustrated Children's Bible, Ellen Frankel Chanting the Hebrew Bible, Josh Jacobson The JPS TANAKH: The Jewish Bible, audio version is a recorded version of the JPS TANAKH, the most read English translation of the Hebrew Bible. Produced and recorded for The Jewish Publication Society by The Jewish Braille Institute, this complete, unabridged audio version features over 60 hours of readings by 13 narrators, it is available for purchase or by subscr
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were