Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen. All together, there are sixteen known iron oxyhydroxides. Iron oxides and oxide-hydroxides are widespread in nature, play an important role in many geological and biological processes, are used by humans, e.g. as iron ores, catalysts, in thermite and hemoglobin. Common rust is a form of iron oxide. Iron oxides are used as inexpensive, durable pigments in paints and colored concretes. Colors available are in the "earthy" end of the yellow/orange/red/brown/black range; when used as a food coloring, it has E number E172. Oxide of FeIIFeO: iron oxide, wüstite FeO2: iron dioxide Mixed oxides of FeII and FeIIIFe3O4: Iron oxide, magnetite Fe4O5 Fe5O6 Fe5O7 Fe25O32 Fe13O19 Oxide of FeIIIFe2O3: iron oxide α-Fe2O3: alpha phase, hematite β-Fe2O3: beta phase γ-Fe2O3: gamma phase, maghemite ε-Fe2O3: epsilon phase iron hydroxide iron hydroxide, akaganéite, feroxyhyte, ferrihydrite, or 5 Fe 2 O 3 ⋅ 9 H 2 O, better recast as FeOOH ⋅ 0.4 H 2 O high-pressure FeOOH schwertmannite green rust Several species of bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens, metabolically utilize solid iron oxides as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing Fe oxides to Fe containing oxides.
Under conditions favoring iron reduction, the process of iron oxide reduction can replace at least 80% of methane production occurring by methanogenesis. This phenomenon occurs in a nitrogen-containing environment with low sulfate concentrations. Methanogenesis, an Archaean driven process, is the predominate form of carbon mineralization in sediments at the bottom of the ocean. Methanogenesis completes the decomposition of organic matter to methane; the specific electron donor for iron oxide reduction in this situation is still under debate, but the two potential candidates include either Titanium or compounds present in yeast. The predicted reactions with Titanium serving as the electron donor and phenazine-1-carboxylate serving as an electron shuttle is as follows: Ti-cit + CO2 + 8H+ → CH4 + 2H2O + Ti + cit ΔE = –240 + 300 mV Ti-cit + PCA → PCA + Ti + cit ΔE = –116 + 300 mV PCA + Fe3 → Fe2+ + PCA ΔE = –50 + 116 mV Note: cit = citrate. Titanium is oxidized to Titanium; the reduced form of PCA can reduce the iron hydroxide.
On the other hand when airborne, iron oxides have been shown to harm the lung tissues of living organisms by the formation of hydroxyl radicals, leading to the creation of alkyl radicals. The following reactions occur when Fe2O3 and FeO, hereafter represented as Fe3+ and Fe2+ iron oxide particulates accumulate in the lungs. O2 + e− → O2• –The formation of the superoxide anion is catalyzed by a transmembrane enzyme called NADPH oxidase; the enzyme facilitates the transport of an electron across the plasma membrane from cytosolic NADPH to extracellular oxygen to produce O2• –. NADPH and FAD are bound to cytoplasmic binding sites on the enzyme. Two electrons from NADPH are transported to FAD which reduces it to FADH2. One electron moves to one of two heme groups in the enzyme within the plane of the membrane; the second electron pushes the first electron to the second heme group so that it can associate with the first heme group. For the transfer to occur, the second heme must be bound to extracellular oxygen, the acceptor of the electron.
This enzyme can be located within the membranes of intracellular organelles allowing the formation of O2• – to occur within organelles. 2O2• – + 2 H+ → H2O2 + O2 The formation of hydrogen peroxide can occur spontaneously when the environment has a lower pH at pH 7.4. The enzyme superoxide dismutase can catalyze this reaction. Once H2O2 has been synthesized, it can diffuse thro
Public Land Survey System
The Public Land Survey System is the surveying method developed and used in the United States to plat, or divide, real property for sale and settling. Known as the Rectangular Survey System, it was created by the Land Ordinance of 1785 to survey land ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, following the end of the American Revolution. Beginning with the Seven Ranges, in present-day Ohio, the PLSS has been used as the primary survey method in the United States. Following the passage of the Northwest Ordinance, in 1787, the Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory platted lands in the Northwest Territory; the Surveyor General was merged with the General Land Office, which became a part of the U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Today, the BLM controls the survey and settling of the new lands. Contrary to what some believe, the BLM does not manage the State Plane Coordinate System; the SPCS is managed by the National Geodetic Survey, known as the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Proposed by Thomas Jefferson to create a nation of "yeoman farmers", the PLSS began shortly after the American Revolutionary War, when the federal government became responsible for large areas of land west of the original thirteen states. The government wished both to distribute land to Revolutionary War soldiers in reward for their services, as well as to sell land as a way of raising money for the nation. Before this could happen, the land needed to be surveyed; the Land Ordinance of 1785 marks the beginning of the Public Land Survey System. The Confederation Congress was in debt following the Declaration of Independence. With little power to tax, the federal government decided to use the sale of the Western Territories to pay off American Revolutionary War debt; the Public Land Survey System has been expanded and modified by Letters of Instruction and Manuals of Instruction, issued by the General Land Office and the Bureau of Land Management and continues in use in most of the states west of Pennsylvania, south to Florida and Mississippi, west to the Pacific Ocean, north into the Arctic in Alaska.
The original colonies continued the British system of bounds. This system describes property lines based on local markers and bounds drawn by humans based on topography. A typical, yet simple, description under this system might read "From the point on the north bank of Muddy Creek one mile above the junction of Muddy and Indian Creeks, north for 400 yards northwest to the large standing rock, west to the large oak tree, south to Muddy Creek down the center of the creek to the starting point." In New England, this system was supplemented by drawing town plats. The metes-and-bounds system was used to describe a town of a rectangular shape, 4 to 6 miles on a side. Within this boundary, a map or plat was maintained that showed all the individual lots or properties. There are some difficulties with this system: Irregular shapes for properties make for much more complex descriptions. Over time, these descriptions become problematic as trees streams move by erosion, it wasn't useful for the large, newly surveyed tracts of land being opened in the west, which were being sold sight unseen to investors.
In addition this system didn't work until there were people on the ground to maintain records. In the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognizing the United States, Britain recognized American rights to the land south of the Great Lakes and west to the Mississippi River; the Continental Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to control the survey and settling of the new lands. The original 13 colonies donated their western lands to the new Union, for the purpose of giving land for new states; these include the lands that formed the Northwest Territory, Tennessee and Mississippi. The state that gave up the most was Virginia, whose original claim included most of the Northwest Territory and Kentucky, too; some of the western land was claimed by more than one state in the Northwest, where parts were claimed by Virginia and Connecticut, all three of which had claimed lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean. The first surveys under the new rectangular system were in eastern Ohio in an area called the Seven Ranges.
The Beginning Point of the U. S. Public Land Survey is located at a point on the Ohio-Pennsylvania border between East Liverpool and Ohioville, Pennsylvania, on private property. A National Historic Landmark marker commemorating the site lies on the side of a state highway 1,112 feet to the north of the point. Ohio was surveyed in several major subdivisions, collectively described as the Ohio Lands, each with its own meridian and baseline; the early surveying in Ohio, was performed with more speed than care, with the result that many of the oldest townships and sections vary from their prescribed shape and area. Proceeding westward, accuracy became more of a consideration than rapid sale, the system was simplified by establishing one major north-south line and one east-west line that control descriptions for an entire state or more. For example, a single Willamette Meridian serves both Washington. County lines follow the survey, so there are many rectangular counties in the Midwest and the West.
The system is in use in some capacity in most of the country. The territory under the jurisdiction of the Thirteen Colonies at the time of independence did not adopt the PLSS, with the exception of th
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
National Register of Historic Places listings in Indiana
This is a list of properties and districts in Indiana that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are over 1,900 in total. Of these, 39 are National Historic Landmarks; each of Indiana's 92 counties has at least two listings. The locations of National Register properties and districts, may be seen in an online map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates"; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings by county; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of March 13, 2009 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are approximate and not official. New entries are added to the official Register on a weekly basis; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number.
Indiana Register of Historic Sites and Structures List of archaeological sites on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana List of Indiana covered bridges List of Indiana state historical markers List of National Historic Landmarks in Indiana List of railroad property on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana Indiana Historic Sites and Structures Inventory Indiana State Historic Architectural and Archaeological Research Database
National Register of Historic Places listings in California
Buildings, sites and objects in California listed on the National Register of Historic Places: There are more than 2,800 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the 58 counties of California, including 145 designated as National Historic Landmarks. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in California on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008, new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in California List of National Historic Landmarks in California List of California Historical Landmarks State of California Office of Historic PreservationNational Register of Historic Places travel itineraries: World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area Early History of the California Coast Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon Valley Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms
A boundary marker, border marker, boundary stone, or border stone is a robust physical marker that identifies the start of a land boundary or the change in a boundary a change in direction of a boundary. There are several other types of named border markers, known as pillars and corners. Border markers can be markers through which a border line runs in a straight line to determine that border, they can be the markers from which a border marker has been fixed. According to Josiah Ober, boundary markers are "a way of imposing human, social meanings upon a once-undifferentiated natural environment." Boundary markers are linked to social hierarchies, since they derive their meaning from the authority of a person or group to declare the limits of a given space of land for political, social or religious reasons. Ober notes that "determining who can use parcels of arable land and for what purpose, has immediate and obvious economic implications."Many borders were drawn along invisible lines of latitude or longitude, which created a need to mark these borders on the ground, as as possible, using the technology of the day.
Advances in GPS technology have shown. Boundary markers have been used to mark critical points on political boundaries, i.e. those between countries, states or local administrations, but have been used to mark out the limits of private landholdings in areas where fences or walls are impractical or unnecessary. In developed countries the use of markers for land ownership has in many places been replaced by maps and land ownership registration. Boundary markers may have troublesome legal effects. However, boundary markers have legal meaning in Japan, are installed across the country. Markers are still used extensively for marking international borders, which are traditionally classified into two categories: natural boundaries, correlating to topographical features such as rivers or mountain ranges, artificial boundaries, which have no obvious relation to topography; the latter category includes borders defined by boundary markers such as walls. International boundary markers are placed and can be maintained by mutual agreement of the bordering countries.
Boundary markers, were made of stone, but many have been made with concrete or a mixture of materials. They are placed at a notable or visible point. Many are inscribed with relevant information such as the abbreviation of the boundary holder and a date; the oldest known boundary stone in China is from Jiangsu Province. Dating from 12 A. D. it bears the inscription "the sea area from Jiaozhou Bay to the east of Guixan county belongs to Langya Shire and the waters from the south of Guixan county to the east of the estuary of Guanhe River belongs to Donghai Shire." More the border between Russia and China was formally demarcated with boundary stones as the result of the Treaty of Kiakhta in 1727. In the nineteenth century, stones were used to outline the limits of the International Settlement in Shanghai. In ancient Thailand, sacred boundary stones called. In some cases they feature inscriptions recounting the history of the temple. In addition to temples, sema could enclose statues of sacred mounds.
According to B. S. Jackson, stones were put in place in ancient Israel to "mark the boundary of a territory, to seek to deter potential violators of that boundary through the use of threats." The Hebrew Bible contains a strict prohibition against the unauthorized displacement or removal of boundary markers. An example of boundary markers in ancient Egypt were the boundary stelae of Akhenaten, they defined the limits of the sacred city of Akhet-Aten, built by Akhenaten as the center of the Aten religious cult which he founded. Egyptologists categorize the stelae based on whether they are inscribed with the "Earlier Proclamation," a general explanation of why the location was selected and how the city would be designed, or the "Later Proclamation," which provides additional details about the perimeters of the city. Glacial erratics and similar natural stones were used as boundary markers between properties. Knowledge of their locations was maintained by oral tradition, wherein men of each house would walk the length of the border.
These stones became boundary markers for municipalities, provinces and countries. For example, Kuhankuono is a stone that marks the multipoint border between seven municipalities in Kurjenrahka National Park near Turku. Today, steel rods topped with a cube painted orange are used. Municipalities post a traffic sign featuring their coat of arms on the border on major roads. On the Finnish-Russian border, many historical border stones, marked with Swedish and Imperial Russian symbols, are still in use; the actual Finnish-Russian border is marked by small white bollard, but on both sides of the border there are large striped bollards decorated with a coat of arms: a blue/white bollard on the Finnish side, a red/green bollard on the Russian side. Artificial cairns are found on the Norway-Russia-Finland tripoint and Norway-Sweden-Finland tripoint; the Sweden-Finland border on Märket is marked with holes drilled to the rock, because seasonal pack ice can shear off any protruding markers. In folklore, a type of haltija, rajahaltija, a kind of a local spirit, was believed to haunt borders, unjustly moved.
The earliest reference to a boundary stone in Greek literatu
National Register of Historic Places listings in Florida
There are more than 1,700 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida. They are distributed through 66 of the state's 67 counties. Of these, 42 are National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in Florida on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 20, 2018 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places website. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. Florida Underwater Archaeological Preserve List of botanical gardens in Florida List of Florida state parks List of National Historic Landmarks in Florida List of operating lighthouses in Florida List of Woman's Clubhouses in Florida on the National Register of Historic Places National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Submissions in Florida List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida National Historic Landmarks Program Florida's Shipwrecks - 300 Years of Maritime History National Register: Aboard the Underground Railroad NRHP profiles by county