Federico García Lorca
Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca, was a Spanish poet and theatre director. García Lorca achieved international recognition as an emblematic member of the Generation of'27, a group consisting of poets who introduced the tenets of European movements into Spanish literature, he was executed by Nationalist forces at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. His body has never been found. García Lorca was born on 5 June 1898, in Fuente Vaqueros, a small town a few miles west of Granada, southern Spain, his father, Federico García Rodríguez, was a prosperous landowner with a farm in the fertile vega surrounding Granada and a comfortable villa in the heart of the city. García Rodríguez saw his fortunes rise with a boom in the sugar industry. García Lorca's mother, Vicenta Lorca Romero, was a teacher. After Fuente Vaqueros, the family moved in 1905 to the nearby town of Valderrubio. In 1909, when the boy was 11, his family moved to the regional capital of Granada, where there was the equivalent of a high school.
For the rest of his life, he maintained the importance of living close to the natural world, praising his upbringing in the country. All three of these homes—Fuente Vaqueros and Huerta de San Vicente—are today museums. In 1915, after graduating from secondary school, García Lorca attended the University of Granada. During this time his studies included law and composition. Throughout his adolescence he felt a deeper affinity for music than for literature; when he was 11 years old, he began six years of piano lessons with Antonio Segura Mesa, a harmony teacher in the local conservatory and a composer. It was Segura, his first artistic inspirations arose from the scores of Claude Debussy, Frédéric Chopin and Ludwig van Beethoven. With his friendship with composer Manuel de Falla, Spanish folklore became his muse. García Lorca did not begin a career in writing until Segura died in 1916, his first prose works such as "Nocturne", "Ballade" and "Sonata" drew on musical forms, his milieu of young artists gathered in El Rinconcillo at the cafe Alameda in Granada.
During 1916 and 1917, García Lorca traveled throughout Castile, León, Galicia, in northern Spain, with a professor of his university, who encouraged him to write his first book, Impresiones y paisajes. Fernando de los Rios persuaded García Lorca's parents to let him move to the progressive, Oxbridge-inspired Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid in 1919, while nominally attending classes at the University of Madrid. At the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid, García Lorca befriended Luis Buñuel and Salvador Dalí and many other creative artists who were, or would become, influential across Spain, he was taken under the wing of the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, becoming close to playwright Eduardo Marquina and Gregorio Martínez Sierra, the Director of Madrid's Teatro Eslava. In 1919 -- 20, at Sierra's invitation, he staged his first play, The Butterfly's Evil Spell, it was a verse play dramatising the impossible love between a cockroach and a butterfly, with a supporting cast of other insects. He would claim that Mariana Pineda, written in 1927, was, in fact, his first play.
During the time at the Residencia de Estudiantes, he pursued degrees in law and philosophy, though he had more interest in writing than study. García Lorca's first book of poems was published in 1921, collecting work written from 1918 and selected with the help of his brother Francisco, they concern the themes of religious faith and nature that had filled his prose reflections. Early in 1922 at Granada García Lorca joined the composer Manuel de Falla in order to promote the Concurso de Cante Jondo, a festival dedicated to enhance flamenco performance; the year before Lorca had begun to write his Poema del cante jondo, so he composed an essay on the art of flamenco, began to speak publicly in support of the Concurso. At the music festival in June he met the celebrated a flamenco cantaor; the next year in Granada he collaborated with Falla and others on the musical production of a play for children, adapted by Lorca from an Andalucian story. Inspired by the same structural form of sequence as "Deep song", his collection Suites was never finished and not published until 1983.
Over the next few years, García Lorca became involved in Spain's avant-garde. He published a poetry collection called Canciones, although it did not contain songs in the usual sense. Shortly after, Lorca was invited to exhibit a series of drawings at the Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 25 June – 2 July 1927. Lorca's sketches were a blend of avant-garde styles, complementing Canción. Both his poetry and drawings reflected the influence of traditional Andalusian motifs, Cubist syntax, a preoccupation with sexual identity. Several drawings consisted of superimposed dreamlike faces, he described the double faces as self-portraits, showing "man's capacity for crying as well as winning", inline with his conviction that sorrow and joy were inseparable, just as life a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Hello, Dolly! (musical)
Hello, Dolly! is a 1964 musical with lyrics and music by Jerry Herman and a book by Michael Stewart, based on Thornton Wilder's 1938 farce The Merchant of Yonkers, which Wilder revised and retitled The Matchmaker in 1955. The musical follows the story of Dolly Gallagher Levi, a strong-willed matchmaker, as she travels to Yonkers, New York to find a match for the miserly "well-known unmarried half-a-millionaire" Horace Vandergelder. Hello, Dolly! was first produced on Broadway by David Merrick in 1964, winning 10 Tony Awards, including Best Musical. This set a record; the show album Hello, Dolly! An Original Cast Recording was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002; the album reached number one on the Billboard album chart on June 6, 1964, was replaced the next week by Louis Armstrong's album Hello, Dolly! The show has become one of the most enduring musical theater hits, with four Broadway revivals and international success, it was made into the 1969 film Hello Dolly! which won three Academy Awards.
The plot of Hello, Dolly! Originated in the 1835 English play A Day Well Spent by John Oxenford, which Johann Nestroy adapted into the farce Einen Jux will er sich machen. Thornton Wilder adapted; that play was a flop, so he revised it and retitled it as The Matchmaker in 1955, expanding the role of Dolly. The Matchmaker was much revived and made into a 1958 film starring Shirley Booth. However, the 1891 musical A Trip to Chinatown features a meddlesome widow who strives to bring romance to several couples and to herself in a big city restaurant; the role of Dolly Gallagher Levi was written for Ethel Merman but she turned it down, as did Mary Martin—although both played it. Merrick auditioned Nancy Walker, but he hired Carol Channing who created her signature role in Dolly. Director Gower Champion was not the producer's first choice, but Hal Prince and others turned it down, among them Jerome Robbins and Joe Layton. Hello, Dolly! had rocky tryouts in Detroit and Washington, D. C. After receiving the reviews, the creators made major changes to the script and score, including the addition of the song "Before the Parade Passes By".
The show was entitled Dolly, A Damned Exasperating Woman Call on Dolly, but Merrick changed it upon hearing Louis Armstrong's version of "Hello, Dolly". The show became one of the most iconic Broadway shows of the latter half of the 1960s, running for 2,844 performances, was the longest-running musical in Broadway history for a time. Sources: Tams-Witmark Guide to Musical Theatre Masterworks Broadway As the 19th becomes the 20th century, all of New York City is excited because widowed but brassy Dolly Gallagher Levi is in town. Dolly makes a living through what she calls "meddling" – matchmaking and numerous sidelines, including dance instruction and mandolin lessons, she is seeking a wife for grumpy Horace Vandergelder, the well-known half-a-millionaire, but it becomes clear that Dolly intends to marry Horace herself. Ambrose Kemper, a young artist, wants to marry Horace's weepy niece Ermengarde, but Horace opposes this because Ambrose's vocation does not guarantee a steady living. Ambrose enlists Dolly's help, they travel to Yonkers, New York to visit Horace, a prominent citizen there and owns Vandergelder's Hay and Feed.
Horace explains to his two clerks, Cornelius Hackl and Barnaby Tucker, that he is going to get married because "It Takes a Woman" to cheerfully do all the household chores. He plans to travel with Dolly to New York City to march in the Fourteenth Street Association Parade and propose to the widow Irene Molloy, who owns a hat shop there. Dolly arrives in Yonkers and "accidentally" mentions that Irene's first husband might not have died of natural causes, mentions that she knows an heiress, Ernestina Money, who may be interested in Horace. Horace leaves Cornelius and Barnaby to run the store. Cornelius decides. They'll go to New York, have a good meal, spend all their money, see the stuffed whale in Barnum's museum get arrested, each kiss a girl! They blow up some tomato cans to create a good alibi to close the store. Dolly mentions that she knows two ladies in New York they should call on: Irene Molloy and her shop assistant, Minnie Fay, she tells Ermengarde and Ambrose that she'll enter them in the polka competition at the upscale Harmonia Gardens Restaurant in New York City so Ambrose can demonstrate his ability to be a breadwinner to Horace.
Cornelius, Ambrose and Dolly take the train to New York. Irene and Minnie open their hat shop for the afternoon. Irene does not love Horace Vandergelder, she declares. Cornelius and Barnaby pretend to be rich. Horace and Dolly arrive at the shop, Cornelius and Barnaby hide from him. Irene inadvertently mentions that she knows Cornelius Hackl, Dolly tells her and Horace that though Cornelius is Horace's clerk by day, he's a New York playboy by night. Minnie screams. Horace is about to open the armoire himself, but Dolly and Minnie distract him with patriotic sentiments related to subjects like Betsy Ross and The Battle of the Alamo shown in the famous lyrics "Alamo, remember the Alamo!". Cornelius sneezes, Horace storms out, realizing there are men hiding in t
The Heiress is a 1949 American drama film directed by William Wyler and starring Olivia de Havilland as Catherine Sloper, Montgomery Clift as Morris Townsend, Ralph Richardson as Dr. Sloper. Written by Ruth and Augustus Goetz, adapted from their 1947 play The Heiress; the play was suggested by the 1880 novel Washington Square by Henry James. The film is about a young naive woman who falls in love with a handsome young man, despite the objections of her abusive father who suspects the man of being a fortune hunter. In 1996, The Heiress was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". Catherine Sloper is a plain, painfully shy woman whose exacting, detached father, New York physician Austin Sloper, makes no secret of his disappointment in her, he is bitter about the loss of his charming and beautiful wife, whom he feels fate replaced with a simple and unalluring daughter. Catherine is devoted to her father and too innocent to comprehend his mistreatment or the reasons for it.
Catherine enjoys quiet pursuits, such as caring for her father and embroidery, ventures out socially. Catherine's gregarious Aunt Lavinia Penniman moves into the household after becoming widowed, attempts to prod Catherine into being more social and find a husband; when she meets the handsome Morris Townsend at a ball, Catherine is taken by the attention he lavishes upon her, attention she's never received before and wanted, flourishes under his affections. Catherine falls madly in love with Morris and they plan to marry. Catherine is of age, receiving $10,000 a year from her mother's estate, is expected to receive an additional $20,000 per year on top of this after the passing of her father. Dr. Sloper believes Morris, being far more attractive and charming than Catherine, but poor and with few prospects after he wasted his own inheritance, is an idler courting Catherine only to get her sizable income. Aunt Lavinia is in favor of the match regardless, being both romantic and pragmatic enough to view this as Catherine's chance at a happy married life, since Morris seems somewhat genuinely fond of Catherine's honesty and kindness, despite his monetary motivations.
A frank discussion with Morris' sister confirms Dr. Sloper's opinion of Morris as a gold digger; the doctor tells the young couple he believes Morris is attempting to dupe plain and gullible Catherine and takes his daughter to Europe for an extended time to separate them, but she cannot forget her betrothed since he frequents the house to visit Aunt Lavinia in their absence, who enables the two to keep in contact. When they return to New York, Dr. Sloper threatens to disinherit his daughter if she marries Morris, they have a bitter argument in which he makes his disdain and distaste for her abundantly clear, she realizes how poorly he views her. Catherine and Morris make plans to elope with the help of Aunt Lavinia, but Catherine tells Morris about her desire to disinherit herself from her father and never see him again. Catherine is impatient to cut off all contact with her father and desperate to prove him and Aunt Lavinia incorrect: someone does love her, not her money, she has not been stupid to think so.
Catherine eagerly packs her bags and waits for Morris to come and take her away to happiness according to their plan. She waits all night, he never comes. She puts her belongings away. Catherine is heartbroken and grows colder, now painfully aware of her father's opinions of her, but trapped caring for him nonetheless. Soon afterwards, Dr. Sloper reveals. To cause him distress, she vengefully tells her father she still loves Morris and dares him to change his will if he is afraid they will waste his money after he dies, he does not alter the will and dies, leaving her his entire estate as Catherine refuses to see him on his death bed. Years Morris returns from California, having made nothing of himself, poorer and with fewer prospects for his efforts. Aunt Lavinia arranges for Morris to visit Catherine, he finds Catherine wealthy and unmarried, is more attracted to her than before. He claims that he left her behind because he could not bear to see her destitute, is quick to reproclaim his love for her and his desire for her affections.
Aunt Lavinia is thrilled for her niece. Catherine ignites Morris' hopes, she gives Morris a gift of ruby buttons. Morris eagerly promises to come back for her that night, she tells him she will start packing her bags; when Morris arrives that night with the promised carriage and rings the bell, Catherine calmly orders the maid to bolt the door, leaving Morris locked outside, shouting her name and banging on the locked door. Her aunt asks her how she can be so cruel, Catherine coldly responds, "I have been taught by masters." The film fades out with Catherine silently ascending the stairs while Morris' despairing cries echo unanswered in the darkness. Olivia de Havilland as Catherine Sloper Montgomery Clift as Morris Townsend Ralph Richardson as Dr. Austin Sloper Miriam Hopkins as Lavinia Penniman Vanessa Brown as Maria Betty Linley as Mrs. Montgomery Ray Collins as Jefferson Almond Mona Freeman as Marian Almond Selena Royle as Elizabeth Almond Paul Lees as Arthur Townsend Harry Antrim as Mr. Abeel Russ Conway as Quintus David Thursby as Geier After seeing The Heiress on Broadway, Olivia de Havilland approached Will
Jean Marie Lucien Pierre Anouilh was a French dramatist whose career spanned five decades. Though his work ranged from high drama to absurdist farce, Anouilh is best known for his 1944 play Antigone, an adaptation of Sophocles' classical drama, seen as an attack on Marshal Pétain's Vichy government. One of France's most prolific writers after World War II, much of Anouilh's work deals with themes of maintaining integrity in a world of moral compromise. Anouilh was born in Cérisole, a small village on the outskirts of Bordeaux, had Basque ancestry, his father, François Anouilh, was a tailor, Anouilh maintained that he inherited from him a pride in conscientious craftmanship. He may owe his artistic bent to his mother, Marie-Magdeleine, a violinist who supplemented the family's meager income by playing summer seasons in the casino orchestra in the nearby seaside resort of Arcachon. Marie-Magdeleine worked the night shifts in the music-hall orchestras and sometimes accompanied stage presentations, affording Anouilh ample opportunity to absorb the dramatic performances from backstage.
He attended rehearsals and solicited the resident authors to let him read scripts until bedtime. He first tried his hand at playwriting here, at the age of 12, though his earliest works do not survive. In 1918 the family moved to Paris where the young Anouilh received his secondary education at the Lycée Chaptal. Jean-Louis Barrault a major French director, was a pupil there at the same time and recalls Anouilh as an intense, rather dandified figure who hardly noticed a boy some two years younger than himself, he earned acceptance into the law school at the Sorbonne but, unable to support himself financially, he left after just 18 months to seek work as a copywriter at the advertising agency Publicité Damour. He liked the work, spoke more than once with wry approval of the lessons in the classical virtues of brevity and precision of language he learned while drafting advertising copy. Anouilh's financial troubles continued after he was called up to military service in 1929. Supported by only his meager conscription salary, Anouilh married the actress Monelle Valentin in 1931.
Though Valentin starred in many of his plays, Anouilh's daughter Caroline, claims that the marriage was not a happy one. Anouilh's youngest daughter Colombe claims that there was never an official marriage between Anouilh and Valentin, she had multiple extramarital affairs, which caused Anouilh much pain and suffering. The infidelity weighed on the dramatist as a result of the uncertainty about his own parentage. According to Caroline, Anouilh had learned that his mother had had a lover at the theatre in Arcachon, his biological father. In spite of this and Valentin had a daughter, Catherine, in 1934 who followed the pair into theatre work at an early age. Anouilh's growing family placed further strain on his limited finances. Determined to break into writing full-time, he began to write comic scenes for the cinema to supplement their income. At the age of 25, Anouilh found work as a secretary to the French actor and director Louis Jouvet at the Comédie des Champs-Elysées. Though Anouilh's boss had lent him some of the set furniture left over from the production of Jean Giraudoux's play Siegfried to furnish his modest home, the director was not interested in encouraging his assistant's attempts at playwriting.
Jouvet had risen to fame in the early 1930s through his collaborations with the playwright Giraudoux, together the two worked to shift focus from the authorial voice of the director back to the playwright and his text. Giraudoux was an inspiration to Anouilh and, with the encouragement of the acclaimed playwright, he began writing again in 1929. Before the end of the year he made his theatrical debut with Humulus le muet, a collaborative project with Jean Aurenche, it was followed by his first solo projects, L'Hermine in 1932 and Mandarine in 1933, both produced by Aurélien Lugné-Poe, an innovative actor and stage manager, head of the Théâtre de l'Œuvre. Ruled by the philosophy, "the word creates the decor," Lugné-Poe let Anouilh's lyrical prose shine in front of a backdrop of simple compositions of line and color that created a unity of style and mood; the plays were not great successes, closing after 37 and 13 performances but Anouilh persevered, following it up with a string of productions, most notably Y'avait un prisonnier.
These works, most in collaboration with the experimental Russian director Georges Pitoëff, were considered promising despite their lack of commercial profits, the duo continued to work together until they had their first major success in 1937 with Le voyageur sans bagage. In subsequent years, there was a season in Paris that did not prominently feature a new Anouilh play and many of these were being exported to England and America. After 1938, much of Anouilh's work was directed by the prominent Paris scenic designer André Barsacq, who had taken over as director of the Théâtre de l'Atelier after Charles Dullin's retirement in 1940. Barsacq was a champion for Anouilh and their affiliation was a major factor in the playwright's continued success after the war. In the 1940s, Anouilh turned from contemporary tales to more mythical and historic subjects. With protagonists who asserted their independence from the fated past, themes during this period are more related to the existential concerns of such writers as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus.
The most famous play of this group is Antigone, which "established Anouilh as a leading dramati
Two for the Seesaw
Two for the Seesaw is a 1962 American romantic-drama film directed by Robert Wise and starring Robert Mitchum and Shirley MacLaine. It was adapted from the Broadway play written by William Gibson. Jerry Ryan is a lawyer from Nebraska who has separated from his wife. To get away from it all, he has moved to a shabby apartment in New York, he is struggling with the divorce, filed but is not final, takes long walks at night. At a party he meets a struggling dancer, they get along, begin to fall in love. But the relationship is hampered by their differences in temperament. Jerry prepares to take the bar examination, he helps Gittel rent a loft for a dance studio. But their relationship is stormy, Jerry has difficulty separating himself from his wife, they prepare to move in together but Gittel is upset when she learns that the divorce came through and Jerry did not tell her about it. Jerry explains that though he is divorced from his former wife on paper, they remain bonded in many ways, he and Gittel decide.
Robert Mitchum as Jerry Ryan Shirley MacLaine as Gittel Mosca Edmon Ryan as Frank Taubman Elisabeth Fraser as Sophie Eddie Firestone as Oscar Billy Gray as Mister Jacoby Paul Newman was slated to star opposite Elizabeth Taylor in the film. When Taylor was forced to drop out because of shooting overruns on Cleopatra, Newman was free to take the role of'Fast Eddie' Felson in The Hustler."Second Chance", the title tune, became a pop music and jazz standard, recorded by Ella Fitzgerald and other artists. At the 35th Academy Awards, the "Song From Two for the Seesaw" from Two for the Seesaw – Music by André Previn; the movie was nominated for Best Cinematography and White. However, The Longest Day triumphed over it. MacLaine revealed on Oprah on April 11, 2011 that she and Mitchum began a relationship during the filming of this film that lasted until his death. List of American films of 1962 Two for the Seesaw on IMDb Two for the Seesaw at Rotten Tomatoes Two for the Seesaw at AllMovie Two for the Seesaw at the TCM Movie Database