Chislehurst is a suburban district in south east London, within the London Borough of Bromley. It borders the London Boroughs of Bexley and Greenwich, lies east of Bromley and south west of Sidcup, it is 10.5 miles south east of Charing Cross. The name "Chislehurst" is derived from the Saxon words cisel, "gravel", hyrst, "wooded hill". Chislehurst is regarded as an affluent area and one of the most expensive places to live in South East London. Chislehurst West may be found by going towards Mottingham and this area includes the biggest of the ponds and the High Street which has many pubs and restaurants. Chislehurst West was known as "Pricking" and "Prickend". A local attraction is Chislehurst Caves; the caves are considered to be of ancient origin. They were used to mine flint and chalk. During World War II, thousands of people used them nightly as an air raid shelter. There is a chapel. One child was born in the caves during World War II, was given a middle name of'Cavena'; the caves have been used as a venue for live music.
Chislehurst is one of the starting points for the Green Chain Walk, linking to places such as Crystal Palace, the Thames Barrier and Thamesmead. Chislehurst is home to the Derwent House, designed by William Willett. Chislehurst Common were saved from development in 1888 following campaigns by local residents, they were a popular destination for bank holiday trips in the early 20th century, now provide a valuable green space. Nearby Petts Wood and Scadbury have been preserved as open spaces following local campaigns. Camden Place takes its name from the antiquary William Camden, who lived in the former house on the site from c.1609 until his death in 1623. The present house was built shortly before 1717, was given a number of additions in the late 18th and early 19th centuries by the architect George Dance the younger. In about 1760, the house and estate were bought by Charles Pratt, the Attorney General, Lord Chancellor. Pratt was ennobled in 1765, taking the title Baron Camden, of Camden Place: in 1786 he was created Earl Camden.
The house is a Grade II* listed building. A occupant of the house, from 1871 until his death there in 1873, was the exiled French Emperor, Napoleon III, his body and that of the Prince Imperial were buried in St Mary's Church, before being removed to St Michael's Abbey, Farnborough. The Emperor's widow, the Empress Eugénie, remained at Camden Place until 1885. There is a memorial to Napoléon Eugène on Chislehurst Common, the area's connections with the imperial family are found in many road names and in the local telephone code, 467, which in its earlier format corresponded to the letters IMP; the Chislehurst civil parish formed an urban district of Kent from 1894 to 1934. In 1934 it became part of the Chislehurst and Sidcup Urban District, split in 1965 between the London boroughs of Bromley and Bexley; the Walsingham family, including Christopher Marlowe's patron, Sir Thomas Walsingham and Queen Elizabeth I's spymaster, Francis Walsingham, had a home in Scadbury Park, now a nature reserve in which the ruins of the house can still be seen.
A water tower used to straddle the road from Chislehurst to Bromley until it was demolished in 1963 as one of the last acts of the Chislehurst and Sidcup UDC. It marked the entrance to the Wythes Estate in Bickley, but its narrow archway meant that double-decker buses were not able to be used on the route. Bullers Wood School Chislehurst School for Girls Coopers School Saint Nicholas Church of England Primary School Babington House School Farringtons School Chislehurst C of E Primary School Edgebury Primary School Red Hill Primary School Mead Road Infant School Marjorie McClure Special School Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, President of France 1848–52, Emperor of the French 1852–70, in exile in England and died in Camden Place. William Camden, antiquary and Clarenceux King of Arms, lived in the house known as Camden Place from c.1609 until his death there in 1623. Malcolm Campbell, former land and water speed record holder, was born in Chislehurst and is buried in St. Nicholas Parish Church next to his parents.
George Somers Leigh Clarke, eminent architect lived at Manor Park. He is buried in the St Nicholas' churchyard. Richmal Crompton, author of the Just William series of books. Tilly Keeper, who plays Louise Mitchell in BBC One soap opera Eastenders. E. J. May, lived locally and designed a number of local buildings. Eugénie de Montijo, Countess of Teba and Empress of France.* Jozef Michal Poniatowski, Polish nobleman, composer. Charles Pratt, Baron Camden from 1765 and 1st Earl Camden from 1786, Attorney General, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Lord Chancellor, lived at Camden Place from c.1760. Siouxsie Sioux, most famous for being in the band Siouxsie and the Banshees Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney is buried in St Nicholas's Church, Chislehurst, he was an owner of Scadbury Park, the city of Sydney, Australia is named after him. Francis Walsingham, spymaster to Elizabeth I. Alan Watts, philosopher and raised in Chislehurst, moved to the United States in 1938. William Willett, a campaigner for daylight saving time, lived most of his adult life in Chislehurst.
Ted Willis, creator of Dixon of Dock Green. William Hyde Wollaston and physicist who discovered rhodium and palladium. Chislehurst Baptist Church St Patrick's Catholic Church Christ Church Chislehurst Elmstead Baptist Church Chislehurst Methodist Church The Annuncat
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene Epoch; the start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure or the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay; as with other geologic periods, the strata that define the start and end of the epoch are well identified, though their exact dates are uncertain. The name Eocene comes from the Ancient Greek ἠώς and καινός and refers to the "dawn" of modern fauna that appeared during the epoch; the Eocene epoch is conventionally divided into early and late subdivisions.
The corresponding rocks are referred to as lower and upper Eocene. The Ypresian stage constitutes the lower, the Priabonian stage the upper; the Eocene Epoch contained a wide variety of different climate conditions that includes the warmest climate in the Cenozoic Era and ends in an icehouse climate. The evolution of the Eocene climate began with warming after the end of the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum at 56 million years ago to a maximum during the Eocene Optimum at around 49 million years ago. During this period of time, little to no ice was present on Earth with a smaller difference in temperature from the equator to the poles. Following the maximum was a descent into an icehouse climate from the Eocene Optimum to the Eocene-Oligocene transition at 34 million years ago. During this decrease ice began to reappear at the poles, the Eocene-Oligocene transition is the period of time where the Antarctic ice sheet began to expand. Greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide and methane, played a significant role during the Eocene in controlling the surface temperature.
The end of the PETM was met with a large sequestration of carbon dioxide in the form of methane clathrate and crude oil at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean, that reduced the atmospheric carbon dioxide. This event was similar in magnitude to the massive release of greenhouse gasses at the beginning of the PETM, it is hypothesized that the sequestration was due to organic carbon burial and weathering of silicates. For the early Eocene there is much discussion; this is due to numerous proxies representing different atmospheric carbon dioxide content. For example, diverse geochemical and paleontological proxies indicate that at the maximum of global warmth the atmospheric carbon dioxide values were at 700–900 ppm while other proxies such as pedogenic carbonate and marine boron isotopes indicate large changes of carbon dioxide of over 2,000 ppm over periods of time of less than 1 million years. Sources for this large influx of carbon dioxide could be attributed to volcanic out-gassing due to North Atlantic rifting or oxidation of methane stored in large reservoirs deposited from the PETM event in the sea floor or wetland environments.
For contrast, today the carbon dioxide levels are at 400 ppm or 0.04%. At about the beginning of the Eocene Epoch the amount of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere more or less doubled. During the early Eocene, methane was another greenhouse gas that had a drastic effect on the climate. In comparison to carbon dioxide, methane has much greater effect on temperature as methane is around 34 times more effective per molecule than carbon dioxide on a 100-year scale. Most of the methane released to the atmosphere during this period of time would have been from wetlands and forests; the atmospheric methane concentration today is 0.000179% or 1.79 ppmv. Due to the warmer climate and sea level rise associated with the early Eocene, more wetlands, more forests, more coal deposits would be available for methane release. Comparing the early Eocene production of methane to current levels of atmospheric methane, the early Eocene would be able to produce triple the amount of current methane production; the warm temperatures during the early Eocene could have increased methane production rates, methane, released into the atmosphere would in turn warm the troposphere, cool the stratosphere, produce water vapor and carbon dioxide through oxidation.
Biogenic production of methane produces carbon dioxide and water vapor along with the methane, as well as yielding infrared radiation. The breakdown of methane in an oxygen atmosphere produces carbon monoxide, water vapor and infrared radiation; the carbon monoxide is not stable so it becomes carbon dioxide and in doing so releases yet more infrared radiation. Water vapor traps more infrared than does carbon dioxide; the middle to late Eocene marks not only the switch from warming to cooling, but the change in carbon dioxide from increasing to decreasing. At the end of the Eocene Optimum, carbon dioxide began decreasing due to increased siliceous plankton productivity and marine carbon burial. At the beginning of the middle Eocene an event that may have triggered or helped with the draw down of carbon dioxide was the Azolla event at around 49 million years ago. With the equable climate during the early Eocene, warm temperatures in the arctic allowed for the growth of azolla, a floating aquatic fern, on the Arctic Ocean.
Compared to current carb
New Addington is an area of South London within the London Borough of Croydon. It is located south east of Croydon and south of west of Bromley, close to the border with both the London Borough of Bromley and the county of Surrey; the area's isolation from the rest of the Croydon borough has given it a strong sense of community and independence. The Croydon Advertiser publishes a separate New Addington edition; the presence of the library, youth clubs, leisure centre, shops and street market enables locals to lead full lives in many ways. The Addington Community Association has provided an important hub for the community, it has been notable for its local gangs. Until the 1930s, the area now known as New Addington was farmland and woodland in the southeast of the ancient parish of Addington; the farms were called Addington Lodge and Fisher's Farms. At the time, central Croydon and London more had overcrowded slums causing concern to the authorities. In 1935, the First National Housing Trust purchased 569 acres of Fisher's Farm with the intention of erecting a'Garden Village', with 4,400 houses, two churches and village green.
The Chairman of the Trust was Charles Boot, hence the earliest part of New Addington is sometimes called The Boot's Estate. By 1939, when the outbreak of World War II suspended construction, 1,023 houses and 23 shops had been built; the new estate was popular, but the provision of amenities had not kept pace with the house building. Only one of the proposed schools and few of the shops were in operation. For employment, decent shopping and entertainment, the residents had to travel off the estate; this heralded a long history of isolation for the estate nicknamed Little Siberia, because it is much colder than the rest of Croydon. The isolation was remedied 60 years with the arrival of Tramlink route 3, mentioned below. Tramlink runs alongside the main road access. There is only one other point of access by road, where King Henry's Drive connects with minor roads to the south. After the war, there were concerns about the amount of green space being used for building around London. Much of the countryside around the developing estate was declared Green Belt.
The County Borough of Croydon bought the unused First National Housing Trust land and a further 400 acres to add to it, for extensive further development. Many dozens of single-storey, prefabricated houses were built in the Castle Hill area of the estate and these were inhabited until the 1960s when they were demolished and replaced with brick-built two-storey homes. At the same time as the smaller prefabs were built, larger two-storey semi-detached houses were built; these houses, which had metal upper skins, still survive around the King Henry's Drive area near Wolsey School. This was more development than had been envisaged but it brought about the structure of the estate as seen today. Many more houses, blocks of flats, churches and Central Parade with its shops, were built; the London Borough of Croydon obtained permission for a further 1,412 houses, which were completed in 1968. This area, at the Croydon end, is known as the Fieldway Estate and has developed its own identity to an extent.
The total population counted by the 2011 Census was 22,280, of which 10,801 were in New Addington ward, with 11,479 in Fieldway ward. The distance from Croydon and other centres, with for many years patchy bus services the only main transport links prevented New Addington residents from being able to access a full range of employment and educational facilities or indeed shops. A significant improvement was the arrival of Tramlink in 2000, providing a connection with Croydon and Wimbledon in a little over 30 minutes, from there connections to Central London; this provided the opportunity of a greater choice of jobs. Several'feeder"bus routes were introduced to connect with Tramlink, along with general enhancement to'bus services in the area; the area was declared one of the first Education Action Zones by the Labour government, with extra investment and opportunities for partnership for schools. The London Borough of Croydon increased its investment in the remaining housing stock and in the leisure and youth facilities.
It organised a neighbourhood partnership for the estate which local people lead to hold public institutions to account. New Addington has however continued to suffer from various reports of violence and public upset for several years, reflecting upon anti-social behaviour and gang violence involving youths on the estate from the 1970s to the present, as well as the perceived poor standard of schools, low educational and health standards, a reported high number of teenage mothers in Fieldway. In a Croydon Advertiser survey in 2013, New Addington, in comparison with other areas, was said to be the worst in Croydon to live, based on life expectancy, incapacity benefit claimants rates and income support, crime, school exam passes, public transport accessibility and access to open space and nature; the area was affected during the 2011 England Riots. A supermarket was destroyed by firebombs and stolen property was found in the area. An inquiry supported the provision of a local police station. A councillor praised local recovery from the riots, claiming the area was now a stronger community than before and rates of anti-social behaviour were beginning to decline.
The Fieldway estate fell under criticism in 2011 following local resident Emma West being arrested and charged with a racially aggravated public order offence weeks after a video was uploaded to YouTube of her racially a
Orpington railway station
Orpington railway station is on the South Eastern Main Line, serving the town of Orpington in the London Borough of Bromley, south-east London. It is 13 miles 65 chains down the line from London Charing Cross and is situated between Petts Wood and Chelsfield stations, it is in Travelcard Zone 6. The station has eight platforms. Platform 1 is a bay platform, only used for Thameslink services. Platform 2 is used for fast services to Cannon Street. Platforms 3 and 4 are an island, 3 used by trains towards Ashford International or Tunbridge Wells and 4 by stopping services from Sevenoaks to Charing Cross or Cannon Street. Platform 5 hosts the Sevenoaks slows with platforms 6-8 being bay platforms used by services starting at Orpington towards Charing Cross, London Victoria, Cannon Street and Luton/Bedford. At the country end, the four tracks become two. At the London end there is a four-road sidings, where trains are cleaned. There are two entrances, both with ticket offices and ticket barriers, the main one on the platform 1/2 side, the other on the platforms 5-8 side.
Access to platforms is via an underground subway or via a new bridge opened in 2008 which incorporates lift access to all platforms. The station was opened on 2 March 1868 by the South Eastern Railway, when the SER opened its cut-off line between Chislehurst and Sevenoaks. Trains between London and Tunbridge Wells had taken a circuitous route via Redhill; the line was widened and the station rebuilt in 1904, expanding to six platforms. Third rail electrification reached Orpington in 1925, extended to Sevenoaks in 1935. About this time the Southern Heights Light Railway was proposed, which would have diverged from the main line south of Orpington and finished at Sanderstead. Crofton Roman Villa was destroyed by a railway cutting in the late 1800s but was discovered in 1926 when work was carried out to the area to the west of the station entrance as an entrance to a new council building. Platforms 7 and 8 were built in the early 1990s on the site of former carriage sidings. In 2008, the station became accessible following the opening of a new footbridge providing lift access to all platforms.
In 2013 the former steam locomotive shed. In 2014 the car park was rebuilt with 2 storeys to increase capacity. Most train services from the station are operated by Southeastern and link to London at Victoria, London Bridge and Charing Cross. Access to international services for Europe is provided by interconnecting service at Ashford International; the domestic services are operated by Class 375 & 376 Electrostar and Class 465 & 466 Networker EMUs. The May 2018 Monday to Saturday off-peak service in trains per hour is: 6tph to London Charing Cross, of which four run fast to London Bridge and two call at all stations to Hither Green 2tph to London Cannon Street, calling at all stations via Lewisham 2tph to London Victoria, calling at all stations via Bromley South and Herne Hill 2tph to Kentish Town via Elephant & Castle. Train times and station information for Orpington railway station from National Rail
South East London Green Chain
The South East London Green Chain known as the Green Chain Walk, is a linked system of open spaces between the River Thames and Crystal Palace Park in London, England. In 1977 four London boroughs and the Greater London Council created this Green Chain of 300 open spaces to protect them from building activity; the four London boroughs are Bexley, Bromley and Greenwich. More it has been extended to include sections in Southwark. Many parts of the system are part of the Capital Ring route; the system begins at three places on the River Thames: Thames Barrier and the riverside at Erith. There are various circular walks along the route, there is an offshoot from the main route to Chislehurst. From there it goes north with branches to Nunhead; the major open spaces in the Chain are: Lesnes Abbey Bostall Heath and Woods Parks in Charlton including Maryon Park, Maryon Wilson Park and Charlton Park Woolwich Common Plumstead Common Shooters Hill area, including Oxleas Wood and several other woods and open spaces Eltham Park and Common Eltham Palace Avery Hill Park Chinbrook Meadows Elmstead Wood Parks around Beckenham, including Beckenham Place Park Parks around Bromley including Sundridge Park and Chislehurst Common Crystal Palace ParkThe complete list and the routes are to be found at greenchain.com.
Greenway Linear Park Trail Walking in London - official TfL site Review of Green Chain Route on OpenStreetMap, select your walk. Sydenham Wells Park is in the Green chain walk, it is one of the most attractive parks in the borough with a fine water feature, water play and fine species of trees and shrubs. It is on route from Crystal Palace to Sydenham Hill Woods with a Noticeboard and well signed markings
Elmstead Woods railway station
Elmstead Woods railway station is on the South Eastern Main Line, serving the district of Elmstead in the London Borough of Bromley. It is 10 miles 21 chains down the line from London Charing Cross and is situated between Grove Park and Chislehurst stations, it is in Travelcard Zone 4, the station and all trains are operated by Southeastern. The station is named after Elmstead Wood; the typical off-peak service is 4tph to Orpington. 2tph to London Charing Cross, running fast from Hither Green to London Bridge. 2tph to London Cannon Street, calling at all stations. London Buses route 314 serve the station. Train times and station information for Elmstead Woods railway station from National Rail