East Liverpool, Ohio
East Liverpool is a city in Columbiana County, United States. The population was 11,195 at the time of the 2010 census, it borders the states of Pennsylvania and West Virginia. East Liverpool is included in the Salem, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area 40 miles from both Youngstown as well as downtown Pittsburgh, it was referred to as the "Pottery Capital of the World" due to the large number of potteries in the city. The city is known as the hometown of former NCAA Division I football coach Lou Holtz, it was the destination for the body of bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd, taken there for embalming. The Beginning Point of the U. S. Public Land Survey is just east of the city center, on the Ohio–Pennsylvania border; because of its role in the ceramics industry, the town is one of the settings in author Holly Black's award-winning middle-grade novel, Doll Bones. East Liverpool traces its European-American settlement to 1798 when Thomas Fawcett purchased 1,100 acres of land along the Ohio River in what was Jefferson County.
In 1802 he platted the town of St. Clair, named for Arthur St. Clair, who at that time was Governor of the Northwest Territory, it was called Fawcettstown for a time by the residents. In 1816, they changed the name to Liverpool, it was incorporated as East Liverpool in 1834 when Liverpool Township in Medina County objected to possible confusion. James Bennett, an English potter, established the pottery industry in East Liverpool about 1840, it became the community's leading employer. East Liverpool became known as "The Crockery City." Potters from Staffordshire, England began pouring into East Liverpool. They were attracted by higher wages, but by the prospect of land ownership. By 1879, there were twenty-four potteries in East Liverpool, nearly all of whom were English immigrants and their families; as late as 1900, East Liverpool remained "essentially a transplanted potting town of Englishmen". Up until the turn of the century 85% percent of the population could trace its heritage to English background.
After the English, the second largest ethnic group in East Liverpool were German settlers. From 1870 through 1890, the US Census showed that the city more than doubled in population each decade, as it attracted new industrial workers with the growth of the pottery industry. By 1910, it had more than 20,000 people. East Liverpool once produced more than half of the United States's annual ceramics output. Throughout East Liverpool's ceramics history, there were more than 300 potteries. Of these potteries, three continue to operate in the area: the American Mug & Stein Company, the Hall China Company, the Homer Laughlin China Company. In the mid-19th century, East Liverpool produced most of the yellowware pottery used in the United States. Among the most famous of East Liverpool's ceramics was the porcelain known as Lotus Ware. Produced by Knowles, Taylor & Knowles in the 1890s, this Moorish- and Persian-influenced artware swept the competition at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, it is considered to be the finest porcelain produced in the US.
The Museum of Ceramics in downtown East Liverpool has the world's largest public display of Lotus Ware. As of 1914, East Liverpool was served by the Pittsburgh Railroad; the city reached its peak population of more than 26,000 in 1970, but East Liverpool's pottery industry had begun its decline by the mid-1960s or so. As with other industries, production moved to developing countries; this cost many jobs and population in the Ohio/West Virginia area, as people moved away in search of work. In the mid-1990s, the city renovated its downtown district. To improve its urban design, it installed Great Depression-era lightposts, developed a new center called Devon's Diamond, reconstructed the old high school's clocktower; this building is now the home of the East Liverpool High School Alumni Association. Downtown – East Liverpool's centralized business district, located on the "flats" in the river valley. Downtown is considered to lie between U. S. Route 30 in the west and Walnut streets in the east, West 2nd Street in the South, Moore and Grant streets in the North.
The heart of the business center during the first half of the nineteenth century was located between the Ohio River and 3rd Street. However, during the second half of the century, as East Liverpool attracted more industry and the population grew, the center of business moved north between 4th and 6th Streets. Business remained near the river until the regional economic depression beginning in the 1960s. A freeway was constructed between the river and downtown, leading to demolition of much of the original business center between 2nd and 3rd Streets. Only a few residents, a few small industries, the Broadway Wharf remain near 2nd Street and the river, both now geographically separated from Downtown by the highway. West End – The western end of the city is located between the Ohio State Routes 7/11/39/U. S. Route 30 freeway in the east, Shadyside Road in the west, Riverside Park in the south and Hazel Street in the north; until the freeway project in the 1960s and'70s, the West End was "connected" to Downtown.
However, like the riverfront area of Downtown, it is now geographically isolated on the other side of the freeway. It is home to the city's football stadium; the West End has two distinct small neighborhoods: Sunnyside – Between Lisbon and West 9th streets to the south and Hazel Street in the north. Jethro – South of West 8th Street, between Gaston Avenue in the east and Edwards Street in the west. Before the rapid growth of the city in
ELO 2 is the eponymous second studio album by the Electric Light Orchestra, released in 1973. In the US, the album was released as Electric Light Orchestra II, it was the last album to be released by the band under the Harvest label, the last where the band used the definite article The on its name and introduced their abbreviated name ELO. The album was to be titled The Lost Planet, but that concept was dropped. During the initial recording sessions, Roy Wood left the band and formed Wizzard in June 1972. Although uncredited at the time, Wood performed on two tracks, playing cello and bass on "In Old England Town" and "From the Sun to the World". Classically trained cellists Colin Walker replaced Wilfred Gibson played on violin. Richard Tandy made his ELO studio debut on this album. Bassist and vocalist Mike de Albuquerque made his ELO studio debut on the album. All five pieces are longer than standard rock songs, feature multi-layered orchestral instruments that create a dense, complex sound.
Along with its predecessor, ELO 2 is the least commercial-sounding album the band released, although it reached the British Top 40 album chart, whereas its more concise follow-up, On the Third Day, did not. An edit of "Roll Over Beethoven" was a top 10 hit in Britain and received radio airplay in America also. In 2006 the album was remastered and expanded in the US, with a different running order to the UK 2003 EMI version, with both versions sharing the same Hipgnosis album art for the first time; the British and American sleeves differed. For reasons unknown, "Roll Over Beethoven" was edited in length compared with its US counterpart. Track 2 "Momma" was Americanised to "Mama" for the US release. An instrumental version of "In Old England Town", the opening track, became the B-side to the single "Showdown"; the album contains the band's longest track, the anti-war song "Kuiama". All tracks written by Jeff Lynne. ELO 2 is an expanded 30th Anniversary edition of Electric Light Orchestra's second album.
The second in the EMI First Light Series released in 2003 to mark the album's 30th anniversary. The first five tracks comprise the original ELO 2 album. After ELO had completed and released ELO 2, the band began recording new material for the third album. Tracks 6-8 on disc two were recorded in February 1973, feature original Move lead singer Carl Wayne. Tracks 9-12 on disc one were recorded in April 1973 and feature glam rock superstar Marc Bolan, recording at AIR Studios at that time, on double lead guitar on tracks 10–12; the band re-recorded two of these songs for the third album because of ELO's label change in the UK before it was released. Tracks 6-8 on disc one and track 5 on disc two were recorded in June 1973, with track 6 becoming a hit single in the UK; the second disc utilises the original album's working title The Lost Planet, features various live recordings and rarities, in addition to the songs recorded with Carl Wayne. All songs written by Jeff Lynne except. Jeff Lynne – lead vocals, Moog synthesizer Bev Bevan – drums, percussion Richard Tandy – piano, Moog synthesizer, backing vocals Mike de Albuquerque – bass, backing vocals Mike Edwards – cello Wilf Gibson – violin Colin Walker – cello Hugh McDowell – possible cello Bill Hunt – French horn, possible keyboards Roy Wood – bass, cello Additional personnelMarc Bolan – guitar on ELO 2 tracks 10–12 Carl Wayne – lead vocals on The Lost Planet tracks 6–8 UK: number 35 UK Albums Chart US: number 53 CashBox.
Eleorchis, abbreviated Elo in trade journals, is a genus of terrestrial orchids. As of June 2014, it contains only one recognized species, Eleorchis japonica, native to Japan and to the Kuril Islands. Media related to Eleorchis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Eleorchis at Wikispecies
Arpad Emmerich Elo was the creator of the Elo rating system for two-player games such as chess. Born in Egyházaskesző, Austro-Hungarian Empire, he moved to the United States with his parents in 1913. Elo was a professor of physics at Marquette University in a chess master. By the 1930s he was the strongest chess player in Milwaukee one of the nation's leading chess cities, he won the Wisconsin State Championship eight times. Elo died in Wisconsin. Elo is best known for his system of rating chess players; the original chess rating system was developed in 1950 by Kenneth Harkness, the Business Manager of the United States Chess Federation. By 1960, using the data developed through the Harkness Rating System, Elo developed his own formula which had a sound statistical basis and constituted an improvement on the Harkness System; the new rating system was approved and passed at a meeting of the United States Chess Federation in St. Louis in 1960. In 1970, FIDE, the World Chess Federation, agreed to adopt the Elo Rating System.
From on until the mid-1980s, Elo himself made the rating calculations. At the time, the computational task was easy because fewer than 2000 players were rated by FIDE. FIDE reassigned the task of managing and computing the ratings to others, excluding Elo. FIDE added new "Qualification for Rating" rules to its handbook awarding arbitrary ratings for players who scored at least 50 percent in the games played at selected events, such as named Chess Olympiads. Elo and others objected to these new rules politically driven; the Rating of Chess Players and Present, Arco. ISBN 0-668-04721-6 Arpad Elo player profile and games at Chessgames.com
Eurolot S. A. was a Polish regional airline based in Warsaw. Apart from its own flights under the eurolot.com brand, it operated short-haul flights for LOT Polish Airlines, as well as ad-hoc charter flights. Its main base was Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport, whilst its own flights centre on its hubs at John Paul II Kraków Airport and Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport; the airline had its head office in the LOT Polish Airlines headquarters in Warsaw. Eurolot ended operations on 31 March 2015. EuroLOT was established on 19 December 1996 and commenced regular air operations on 1 July 1997. EuroLOT operated as an air carrier with its own network of connections. At that time EuroLOT’s fleet was made up of turboprop aircraft: 5 owned ATR 42-300 and 8 ATR 72-202 leased from LOT together with aircrew. Between 1998 and 2000 EuroLOT operated two 18-seat BAe Jetstream 31 aircraft; the primary task of EuroLOT was to reconstruct the network of domestic and regional flights while reducing operational costs and to create new value in the field of domestic air transport.
In 2000 the company became an operator. In the same year EuroLOT took over all ATR aircraft from LOT. In 2002 EuroLOT began to modernise its fleet by replacing ATR 42-300 with newer ATR 42-500; as of March 2007, it had 278 employees. Established as a wholly owned subsidiary of LOT Polish Airlines, its current main shareholder is the State Treasury with 62.1% of shares, while Towarzystwo Finansowe Silesia is the minority shareholder with 37.9% shares. During the 2011 summer season, after the State Treasury acquired the majority of its shares, the airline started flying Polish regional routes under the eurolot.com brand, in addition to operating flights for LOT. Starting in December 2011, Eurolot introduced flights from Gdańsk and Warsaw to Poprad, Slovakia in addition to expanding in domestic market. In 2012, Eurolot placed an order for 8 Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 NextGen turboprop aircraft to replace the old ATR fleet. In 2014 Eurolot considered the wet lease of a LOT Boeing 787 Dreamliner for services to South East Asia as part of a larger LOT restructuring.
However, this plan did not materialise. On 6 February 2015, it was announced that the company would be liquidated due to financial problems and end operations on 31 March 2015. LOT Polish Airlines assumed some of Eurolot's routes. Eurolot had codeshare agreements with the following airlines as of July 2014: LOT Polish Airlines Eurolot served the following destinations as of September 2014: As of November 2014, the Eurolot fleet consisted of the following aircraft with an average age of 2.3 years for the Q400's: Media related to Eurolot at Wikimedia Commons Official website at the Library of Congress Web Archives
The Elo is an emerging breed of dog, with development beginning in 1987 in Germany. The breed name is trademarked and development has been supervised by the Elo Breeding and Research Association; the Elo is notable in that it is selected and bred according to behavioral characteristics and social behavior, with the goal of creating the best family pet. Bred to a behavioral rather than an appearance standard, the appearance of the Elo can vary from dog to dog, although the breed standard describes the size as 46–60 cm and 35–45 cm at the withers, weighing 22–35 kg and 10–15 kg, with a body, longer than tall, a well plumed tail carried in a curve over the back; the prick ears are furry, wide set, rounded at the ends. The coat comes in a long and medium length, both with a dense undercoat, with all colours allowed, with a white with brown, black, or gray spots desired. Marita and Heinz Szobries began crossing their Eurasiers and Bobtails in 1987, believing that, although different in detail, the breeds were of similar type and had arisen as breeds under similar conditions.
Dogs from the cross that showed unique characteristics and good health were bred further. Due to the lack of sufficient Eurasiers, a similar breed, the Chow Chow, was added, Samoyeds and Dalmatians were added to expand the genetic base. Breeding has continued with long term focus on the inheritance of character; the name "Elo" is from letters of the 3 breeds – Eurasier and Chow-Chow – and is protected by trademark in Germany. Breeding dogs with the name Elo is allowed only with the consent of the founders of the Elo breed; as with all created breeds, the Elo's small population size results in the risk of inbreeding and its after-effects of inbreeding depression, frequent occurrence of hereditary diseases. There is a susceptibility to distichia. Part of the process of accepting a dog for breeding is an eye examination and X-rays to avoid breeding dogs with hip dysplasia. A genetic study has been done in Germany using the Elo, calculating the proportion of genes of the different founder breeds, of the inbreeding coefficient and relationship coefficients, the percentage of stillborn puppies in litters.
The study found that all but 3.5% of the Elo were related to each other. The significant gene percentages of the Elo are 48% Eurasier, 23% Old English Sheepdog, 10% Chow Chow; the inbreeding coefficient was found to be 12.04%. A related crossbreed, from the Pekingese and various small spitz-type breeds, called Klein-Elos, is being developed in the same manner by the same people. Although the crossbreed's development is well monitored and puppy buyers in North America and other areas outside of the European Union will have to determine whether dogs being sold as Elo are the bred Elo Breeding and Research Association dogs, or a similar mix bred together to fulfill the demands of the "rare breed" pet market. Elo on the Open Directory Project
ELO Part II
ELO Part II were a band formed by Electric Light Orchestra drummer and co-founder Bev Bevan. The band included former ELO bassist Kelly Groucutt, violinist Mik Kaminski for most of its career, along with conductor Louis Clark who toured as a guest with ELO in its years. After Bevan left the band in late 1999, he sold his half of the rights to the Electric Light Orchestra name back to Jeff Lynne, the band changed its name to The Orchestra. In 1988 drummer Bev Bevan approached Jeff Lynne, wanting to record another ELO album. Lynne declined to participate, so Bevan signalled that he intended to continue the band without him. Lynne, objected over use of the ELO name, the final agreement reached between the two resulted in ELO disbanding and Bevan forming a new band in 1989 called Electric Light Orchestra Part Two. Original ELO co-founder Roy Wood declined. Bevan recruited longtime ELO string conductor and co-arranger Louis Clark into his new band, but not as an official member The first line-up comprised Bevan, plus three musicians unrelated to ELO: Eric Troyer, Peter Haycock and Neil Lockwood.
ELO Part Two released a self-titled album in 1990 which featured former ELO violinist Mik Kaminski on one track. The album was intended to hark back to ELO's classic sound of the mid-to-late 1970s, but compared to the original ELO being under the creative control of both Wood and Lynne and Lynne after Wood's departure, ELO Part II were more democratic in terms of songwriting and lead vocals; the first tour featured the band performing live with The Moscow Symphony Orchestra, was well received in the UK. Two-thirds of the songs performed were ELO hits; the concert in ELO's home town of Birmingham was captured on video and on the live album with the long-winded title Performing ELO's Greatest Hits Live Featuring The Moscow Symphony Orchestra. Kaminski, former ELO cellist Hugh McDowell, former ELO bassist Kelly Groucutt were part of the live band, with Groucutt sharing lead and backing vocals with Troyer and Lockwood. Kaminski, McDowell and Groucutt were appearing as guest artists from a band they had formed called OrKestra, itself a vehicle to exploit their past association with ELO, but dissolved it and joined ELO Part Two full-time by 1993.
McDowell's tenure with the band was short. Plans to tour the USA with the MSO were cancelled; the band continued to tour Germany and the UK in 1992 with Louis Clark playing keyboards to emulate the strings of the absent orchestra. In 1993 Haycock and Lockwood left the band, were replaced by guitarist/vocalist Phil Bates, in the band Trickster, one of the opening acts for ELO's 1978 world tour. A world tour was undertaken by ELO Part Two including dates in the USA and Eastern Europe. Now a six-piece band with a altered name, Electric Light Orchestra Part II recorded a second studio album, Moment of Truth, released in 1994; the album was not a commercial success. The band continued its tour schedule over the following years, sometimes augmenting the core band with a backing orchestra. On these rare occasions they hired local orchestras at each venue to cut down costs. Another live album with orchestral backing was recorded in Sydney, Australia in 1995 and was released the following year in Germany as a double album One Night, the year after that in the USA as a single album One Night - Live in Australia.
The band sold the master tapes of this album and it has since been remixed, re-released several times. Bates was replaced by Parthenon Huxley. In 1999, Bates studied for a History degree with the University of Wales, on graduation taught Welsh history to undergraduates. By 2007 he had returned to the band taking over from Huxley. In November 1999 Bevan played his last show with the band at the Sands Hotel in Atlantic City and issued a press release in early 2000 indicating that ELO Part II had split; the remaining members, recruited drummer Gordon Townsend and decided to continue as The Orchestra who continue to tour up to the present day. With the death of Kelly Groucutt in February 2009, Glen Burtnik, of Styx and Beatlemania, joined the group, they toured the US in 2009 billed as "The Orchestra featuring former members of The Electric Light Orchestra and ELO Part II." Bev Bevan – drums, backing vocals Louis Clark – keyboards, orchestra arranger and conductor Eric Troyer – keyboards, guitar Pete Haycock – guitar, bass guitar, vocals Neil Lockwood – guitar, vocals Mik Kaminski – violin Kelly Groucutt – bass guitar, vocals Hugh McDowell – cello Phil Bates – guitar, vocals Parthenon Huxley – guitar, vocals Electric Light Orchestra Part Two No. 34 UK Albums Chart Moment of Truth Performing ELO's Greatest Hits Live Featuring The Moscow Symphony Orchestra One Night.
Live in Australia. 2 CD, 1 CDOne Night was rereleased in 2001 with the title Mr. Blue Sky. An incomplete version called Livin' Thing, was released in 2005. Performing ELO's Greatest Hits Live Featuring The Moscow Symphony Orchestra, Electric Light Orches