In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses and words in any given natural language. The term refers to the study of such rules, this field includes phonology and syntax complemented by phonetics and pragmatics. Speakers of a language have a set of internalized rules for using that language, these rules constitute that language's grammar; the vast majority of the information in the grammar is – at least in the case of one's native language – acquired not by conscious study or instruction, but by observing other speakers. Much of this work is done during early childhood. Thus, grammar is the cognitive information underlying language use; the term "grammar" can be used to describe the rules that govern the linguistic behavior of a group of speakers. The term "English grammar", may have several meanings, it may refer to the whole of English grammar, that is, to the grammars of all the speakers of the language, in which case, the term encompasses a great deal of variation.
Alternatively, it may refer only to what is common to the grammars of all, or of the vast majority of English speakers. Or it may refer to the rules of a particular well-defined variety of English. A specific description, study or analysis of such rules may be referred to as a grammar. A reference book describing the grammar of a language is called a "reference grammar" or "a grammar". A explicit grammar that exhaustively describes the grammatical constructions of a particular lect is called a descriptive grammar; this kind of linguistic description contrasts with linguistic prescription, an attempt to discourage or suppress some grammatical constructions, while codifying and promoting others, either in an absolute sense, or in reference to a standard variety. For example, preposition stranding occurs in Germanic languages, has a long history in English, is considered standard usage. John Dryden, objected to it, leading other English speakers to avoid the construction and discourage its use. Outside linguistics, the term grammar is used in a rather different sense.
In some respects, it may be used more broadly, including rules of spelling and punctuation, which linguists would not consider to form part of grammar, but rather as a part of orthography, the set of conventions used for writing a language. In other respects, it may be used more narrowly, to refer to a set of prescriptive norms only and excluding those aspects of a language's grammar that are not subject to variation or debate on their normative acceptability. Jeremy Butterfield claimed that, for non-linguists, "Grammar is a generic way of referring to any aspect of English that people object to." The word grammar is derived from Greek γραμματικὴ τέχνη, which means "art of letters", from γράμμα, "letter", itself from γράφειν, "to draw, to write". The same Greek root appears in graphics and photograph. Vedic Sanskrit is the earliest language known to the world; the grammatical rules were formulated by Indra, etc. but the modern systematic grammar, of Sanskrit, originated in Iron Age India, with Yaska, Pāṇini and his commentators Pingala and Patanjali.
Tolkāppiyam, the earliest Tamil grammar, is dated to before the 5th century AD. The Babylonians made some early attempts at language description,In the West, grammar emerged as a discipline in Hellenism from the 3rd century BC forward with authors like Rhyanus and Aristarchus of Samothrace; the oldest known grammar handbook is the Art of Grammar, a succinct guide to speaking and writing and written by the ancient Greek scholar Dionysius Thrax, a student of Aristarchus of Samothrace who established a school on the Greek island of Rhodes. Dionysius Thrax's grammar book remained the primary grammar textbook for Greek schoolboys until as late as the twelfth century AD; the Romans based their grammatical writings on it and its basic format remains the basis for grammar guides in many languages today. Latin grammar developed by following Greek models from the 1st century BC, due to the work of authors such as Orbilius Pupillus, Remmius Palaemon, Marcus Valerius Probus, Verrius Flaccus, Aemilius Asper.
A grammar of Irish originated in the 7th century with the Auraicept na n-Éces. Arabic grammar emerged with Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali in the 7th century; the first treatises on Hebrew grammar appeared in the context of Mishnah. The Karaite tradition originated in Abbasid Baghdad; the Diqduq is one of the earliest grammatical commentaries on the Hebrew Bible. Ibn Barun in the 12th century compares the Hebrew language with Arabic in the Islamic grammatical tradition. Belonging to the trivium of the seven liberal arts, grammar was taught as a core discipline throughout the Middle Ages, following the influence of authors from Late Antiquity, such as Priscian. Treatment of vernaculars began during the High Middle Ages, with isolated works such as the First Grammatical Treatise, but became influential only in the Renaissance and Baroque periods. In 1486, Antonio de Nebrija published Las introduciones Latinas contrapuesto el romance al Latin, the first Spanish grammar, Gramática de la lengua castellana, in 1492.
During the 16th-century Italian Ren
Thomas Sheridan (actor)
Thomas Sheridan was an Irish stage actor, an educator, a major proponent of the elocution movement. He received his M. A. in 1743 from Trinity College in Dublin, was the godson of Jonathan Swift. He published a "respelled" dictionary of the English language, he was married to Frances Chamberlaine. His son was the better known Richard Brinsley Sheridan, while his daughters were writers - Alicia, a playwright, Betsy Sheridan a diarist, his work is noticeable in the writings of Hugh Blair. Thomas Sheridan was the third son of Dr Thomas Sheridan, an Anglican divine, noted for his close friendship with Jonathan Swift, his wife Elizabeth McFadden He attended Westminster School in 1732–1733 but, because of his father's financial problems, he had to finish his initial education in Dublin. In 1739, he earned his BA from Trinity College, Dublin and he went on to earn his MA from Trinity in the early 1740s, he had his début in acting. Soon after, he was noted as the most popular actor in Ireland, being compared with David Garrick.
Not only an actor, he wrote The Brave Irishman or Captain O'Blunder which premièred in 1738. He became the manager of the Dublin theatre sometime in the 1740s. Sheridan left his acting career, although he continued to manage theatre companies and play bit parts, moved permanently to England with his family in 1758. There, his time was spent as a teacher and an educator offering a successful lecture course. In 1762 Sheridan published Lectures on Elocution. Following that work, he published A Plan of Education, Lectures on the Art of Reading, A General Dictionary of the English Language; each of these works was based on some form of an argument taken in an earlier work British Education: Or, The source of the Disorders of Great Britain. Being an Essay towards proving, that the Immorality and false Taste, which so prevail, are the natural and necessary Consequences of the present to defective System of Education. With an attempt to shew, that a revival of the Art of Speaking, the Study of Our Own Language, might contribute, in a great measure, to the Cure of those Evils.
He lived in London for a number of years before moving to Bath where he founded an academy for the regular instruction of Young Gentlemen in the art of reading and reciting and grammatical knowledge of the English tongue. This venture proving to be unsuccessful, he returned to Dublin and the theatre in 1771. Thomas's son Richard became a partial owner of the Theatre Royal in London in 1776. Two years Thomas was appointed manager of the theatre, a position he held until 1781. Sheridan attempted to supply the willing student with a guide to public speaking, correct and successful. What he wanted was a total reform of the British education system, as he saw it disregarding elocution and/or rhetorical delivery. In his work British Education, Sheridan revealed that poor preaching was negatively affecting religion itself. Sheridan's belief in the valuable effects of strong and correct public speaking was so strong that he was sure studying elocution would help ensure perfection in all of the arts. In British Education, Sheridan writes that preaching from the pulpit "must either effectually support religion against all opposition, or be the principal means of its destruction."
Convinced that English preaching was not done as well as it should be, Sheridan focused on delivery as the principal avenue toward delivering effective messages to an audience: "Before you can persuade a man into any opinion, he must first be convinced that you believe it yourself. This he can never be, unless the tones of voice in which you speak come from the heart, accompanied by corresponding looks, gestures, which result from a man who speaks in earnest." Sheridan believed that elocution was not restricted to the voice, but embodied the entire person with facial expressions, gestures and movement. Published in 1762, this work is considered by many to be Sheridan's most well-known, he established a niche for his insights through decrying the current state of public speaking, as he did: "so low is the state of elocution amongst us, that a man, master of these rudiments of rhetoric, is comparatively considered, as one of excellent delivery." Besides establishing the points mentioned, the quote offers a more narrow definition of rhetoric that seems to be influenced by Peter Ramus.
Central to Sheridan's work was his emphasis on the importance of tones to eloquence. These tones, which correlated with the expressive effects one can give to their speaking, were something Sheridan considered an important part of persuasion, he stated, "The tones expressive of sorrow, mirth, hatred, love, &c. are the same in all nations, can excite emotions in us analogous to those passions, when accompanying words which we do not understand: nay the tones themselves, independent of words, will produce the same effects." For Sheridan, how a message was communicated was as important as the message itself. He uses the example of someone saying in a calm demeanor, "My rage is rouzed to a pitch of frenzy, I can not command it: Avoid me, be gone this moment, or I shall tear you to pieces" to show the importance of tones to a message; because of this, Sheridan set out to address what he thought John Locke had left out in his treatment of language: "he nobler branch of language, which consists of the signs of internal emotions, was untouched by him as foreign to his purpose."
Captain O'Blunder Encyclopædia Britannica Thomas Sheridan at James Boswel
Richard Whately was an English rhetorician, economist and theologian who served as a reforming Church of Ireland Archbishop of Dublin. He was a leading Broad Churchman, a prolific and combative author over a wide range of topics, a flamboyant character, one of the first reviewers to recognise the talents of Jane Austen, he was born in the son of the Rev. Dr. Joseph Whately, he was educated at a private school near Bristol, at Oriel College, Oxford from 1805. He obtained a B. A. in 1808, with double second-class honours, the prize for the English essay in 1810. After graduation he acted as a private tutor, in particular to Nassau William Senior who became a close friend, to Samuel Hinds. After his marriage in 1821, Whately lived in Oxford, he had had to give up his college fellowship, which could not be held by married men, at this period lived by tutoring and his pen. An uncle, William Plumer, presented him with Halesworth in Suffolk. In 1825, he was appointed principal of St. Alban Hall, a position obtained for him by his mentor Edward Copleston, who wanted to raise the notoriously low academic standards at the Hall, a target for expansion by Oriel.
Whately returned to Oxford, though giving up only in 1831 the Suffolk living, where he had seen the social effects of unemployment. A reformer, Whately was on friendly terms with John Henry Newman, they fell out over Robert Peel's candidacy for the Oxford University seat in Parliament. Newman spoke of his Catholic University as continuing in Dublin the struggle against Whately which he had begun at Oxford. In 1829 Whately was elected as Drummond Professor of Political Economy at Oxford in succession to Nassau William Senior, his tenure of office was cut short by his appointment to the archbishopric of Dublin in 1831. He published only one course of Introductory Lectures in two editions. Whately's appointment by Lord Grey to the see of Dublin came as a political surprise; the aged Henry Bathurst had turned the post down. The new Whig administration found Whately, well known at Holland House and effective in a parliamentary committee appearance speaking on tithes, an acceptable option. Behind the scenes Thomas Hyde Villiers had lobbied Denis Le Marchant on his behalf, with the Brougham Whigs.
The appointment was without success. In Ireland, Whately's bluntness and his lack of a conciliatory manner caused opposition from his own clergy, from the beginning he gave offence by supporting state endowment of the Catholic clergy, he enforced strict discipline in his diocese. He lived in Redesdale House in Kilmacud, just outside Dublin, he was concerned to reform the Church of the Irish Poor Laws. He considered tithe commutation essential for the Church. In 1831 Whately attempted to establish a national and non-sectarian system of education in Ireland, on the basis of common instruction for Protestants and Catholics alike in literary and moral subjects, religious instruction being taken apart. In 1841 Catholic archbishops William Crolly and John MacHale debated whether to continue the system, with Crolly who supported Whately gaining papal permission to go on, given some safeguards. In 1852 the scheme broke down, on the opposition of the new Catholic archbishop of Dublin, Paul Cullen. Whately felt.
During the famine years of 1846 and 1847 the archbishop and his family tried to alleviate the miseries of the people. On 27 March 1848, Whately became a member of the Canterbury Association, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1855. From 1856 onwards symptoms of decline began to manifest themselves in a paralytic affection of Whately's left side. Still he continued his public duties. In the summer of 1863 Whately was prostrated by an ulcer in the leg, after several months of acute suffering he died on 8 October 1863. Whately was a prolific writer, a successful expositor and Protestant apologist in works that ran to many editions and translations, his Elements of Logic was drawn from an article "Logic" in the Encyclopædia Metropolitana. The companion article on "Rhetoric" provided Elements of Rhetoric. In 1825 Whately published a series of Essays on Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion, followed in 1828 by a second series On some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St Paul, in 1830 by a third On the Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature.
In 1837 he wrote his handbook of Christian Evidences, translated during his lifetime into more than a dozen languages. In the Irish context, the Christian Evidences was adapted to a form acceptable to Catholic beliefs, with the help of James Carlile. Whately's works included: 1819 Historic Doubts relative to Napoleon Buonaparte, a jeu d'ésprit directed against excessive scepticism as applied to the Gospel history 1822 On the Use and Abuse of Party Spirit in Matters of Religion 1825 Essays on Some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion 1826 Elements of Logic 1828 Elements of Rhetoric 1828 On some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St Paul 1830 On the Errors of Romanism traced to their Origin in Human Nature 1831 Introductory Lectures on Political Economy, 1st ed.. Eight lectures. 1832 Introductory Lectures on Political Economy, 2nd ed.. Nine appendix. 1832 A view of the Scripture revelations concerning a future state: lectures advanci
McGuffey Readers were a series of graded primers for grade levels 1-6. They were used as textbooks in American schools from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century, are still used today in some private schools and in homeschooling, it is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, placing its sales in a category with the Bible and Webster's Dictionary. Since 1961, they have continued to sell at a rate of some 30,000 copies a year. Only the Ray's Arithmetic series matched it in popularity, written by a colleague of McGuffey's and begun in 1834; the editor of the Readers was William Holmes McGuffey. He was born September 23, 1800, near Claysville and moved to Youngstown, with his parents in 1802. McGuffey's family had emigrated to America from Scotland in 1774, they had strong opinions on religion and a belief in education. Education and preaching the Gospel were McGuffey's passions, he could commit to memory entire books of the Bible. McGuffey became a "roving" teacher at the age of 14, beginning with 48 students in a one-room school in Calcutta, at a seminary in the town of Poland, Ohio.
The size of the class was just one of several challenges. In many one-teacher schools, students' ages varied from six to 21. McGuffey worked 11 hours a day, six days a week, in a succession of frontier schools in the state of Kentucky. Students brought their own books, most the Bible, since few textbooks existed. Between teaching jobs, McGuffey received a classical education at the Greersburg Academy in Darlington, Pennsylvania, he went on to study at Washington College where he graduated in 1826. That same year, he was appointed to a position as Professor of Languages at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. McGuffey became famous as the author of the Readers, he left Miami University for positions of successively greater responsibility at Cincinnati College, Ohio University in Athens and Woodward College in Cincinnati, where he served as president. He ended his career as a Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Virginia. In 1827, McGuffey married Harriet Spinning, the couple had five children.
He was known for his philanthropy and generosity among the poor and newly emancipated African Americans through the Civil War and following years. He died in 1873. McGuffey established a reputation as a lecturer on moral and biblical subjects while he was teaching at Miami University. In 1835, the small Cincinnati publishing firm of Truman and Smith asked him to create a series of four graded readers for primary level students, he had been recommended for the job by longtime friend Harriet Beecher Stowe. He completed the first two readers within a year of signing his contract, receiving a fee of $1,000, he compiled the first four readers, while the fifth and sixth were created by his brother Alexander during the 1840s. The series consisted of stories, poems and speeches; the advanced Readers contained excerpts from the works of well-regarded English and American writers and politicians such as Lord Byron, John Milton, Daniel Webster. Most schools of the 19th century used only the first two in the series of McGuffey's four readers.
The first Reader taught reading by using the phonics method, the identification of letters and their arrangement into words, aided with slate work. The second Reader was used, it helped them to understand the meaning of sentences, while providing vivid stories which children could remember. The third Reader taught the definitions of words and was written at a level equivalent to the modern 5th or 6th grade; the fourth Reader was written for the highest levels of ability on the grammar school level. McGuffey's Readers were among the first textbooks in the United States designed to be challenging with each volume, they used word repetition in the text as a learning tool, developing reading skills by challenging students using the books. Sounding-out and accents were emphasized. Colonial-era texts had offered dull lists of 20 to 100 new words per page for memorization. In contrast, McGuffey used new vocabulary words in the context of real literature introducing new words and repeating the old. McGuffey believed that teachers, as well as their students, should study the lessons and suggested that they read aloud to their classes.
He listed questions after each story, for he believed that asking questions was critical for a teacher to give instruction. The Readers emphasized spelling and formal public speaking, a more common requirement in 19th-century America than today. McGuffey is remembered as a conservative theological teacher, he interpreted the goals of public schooling in terms of moral and spiritual education, attempted to give schools a curriculum that would instill Presbyterian Calvinist beliefs and manners in their students. These goals were considered suitable for the homogeneous America of the early- to mid-19th century, though they were less so for the pluralistic society that developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century; the content of the readers changed drastically between McGuffey's 1836-1837 edition and the 1879 edition. The revised Readers were compiled to meet the needs of national unity and the dream of an American melting pot for the world's oppressed masses; the Calvinist values of salvation and piety were excluded from the versions, though they had been
In the context of the recitation of the Quran, Tajweed is a set of rules for the correct pronunciation of the letters with all its qualities and applying the various of recitation. In Arabic, the term tajwīd is derived from the triliteral root j-w-d. Tajweed is a fard; the Arabic alphabet has hamzah. ا ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن و ہ ي The Arabic word for "the" is ال al-. The lām in al- is pronounced if the letter after it is "qamarīyah", but if the letter after it is "shamsīyah", the lām after it becomes part of the following letter. "Solar" and "lunar" became descriptions for these instances as the words for "the moon" and "the sun" are examples of this rule. Lunar letters: ا ب ج ح خ ع غ ف ق ك م هـ و ي Solar letters: ت ث د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن There are 17 emission points of the letters, located in various regions of the throat, lips and the mouth as a whole for the prolonged letters; the manner of articulation refers to the different attributes of the letters. Some of the characteristics have opposites.
An example of a characteristic would be the fricative consonant sound called ṣafīr, an attribute of air escaping from a tube. The emphatic consonants خ ص ض ط ظ غ ق, known as mufakhkham letters, are pronounced with a “heavy accent”; this is done by either pharyngealization /ˤ/, i.e. pronounced while squeezing one's voicebox, or by velarization /ˠ/. The remaining letters – the muraqqaq – have a “light accent” as they are pronounced without pharyngealization. ر is heavy when accompanied by a fatḥah or ḍammah and light when accompanied by a kasrah. If its vowel sound is cancelled, such as by a sukūn or the end of a sentence it is light when the first preceding voweled letter has a kasrah, it is heavy if the first preceding voweled letter is accompanied by a ḍammah. For example, the ر at the end of the first word of the Sūrat "al-ʻAṣr" is heavy because the ع has a fatḥah: وَالْعَصْرٍ بِسْمِ الله Prolongation refers to the number of morae that are pronounced when a voweled letter is followed by a mudd letter.
The number of morae becomes two. If these are at the end of the sentence, such as in all the verses in "al-Fatiha" the number of morae can be more than two, but must be consistent from verse to verse. Additionally, if there is a maddah sign over the mudd letter, it is held for four or five morae when followed by a hamzah and six morae when followed by a shaddah. For example, the end of the last verse in "al-Fatiha" has a six-mora maddah due to the shaddah on the ل. صِرَٰطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ ٱلمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ ٱلضَّآلِّين Nūn sākinah refers to instances where the letter nūn is accompanied by a tanwīn or sukun sign. There are four ways it should be pronounced, depending on which letter follows: iẓhār : the nūn sound is pronounced without additional modifications when followed by "letters of the throat". Consider the nūn with a sukun pronounced in the beginning of the last verse in "al-Fatiha": صِرَٰطَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ iqlāb : the nūn sound is converted to a /m/ sound if it is followed by a ب.
Additionally, it is pronounced in a ghunnah. Consider the nūn sound on the tanwīn on the letter jīm, pronounced as a mīm instead in the chapter Al-Hajj:وَأَنْبَتَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ بَهِيجٍ idghām : the nūn sound is not pronounced when followed by a ل or ر. There is a ghunnah if it is followed by و م ي or another ن. Idghām only applies between two words and not in the middle of a word. Consider for example the nūn, not pronounced in the fifth line in the Call to Prayer: أَشْهَدُ أَن لَّا إِلٰهَ إِلَا ٱللهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَّسُولُ ٱللهِ ikhfāʼ: the nūn sound is not pronounced if it is followed by any letters other than those listed, includes a ghunnah. Consider the nūn, suppressed in the second verse of the chapter Al-Falaq: مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ The term mīm sākinah refers to instances where the letter mīm is accompanied by a sukun. There are three ways it should be pronounced, depending on which letter follows: idgham mutamathilayn when followed by another mīm: the mīm is merged with the following mīm and includes a ghunnah.
The five qalqalah letters are the consonants ق ط د ج ب. Qalqalah is the addition of a slight "bounce" or reduced vowel sound /ə/ to the consonant whose vowel sound is otherwise cancelled, such as by a sukūn, shaddah, or the end of sentence; the "lesser bounce" occurs when the letter is in the middle of a word or at the end of the word but the reader joins it to the next word. A "medium bounce" is given when the letter is at the end of the word but is
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
Alexander Melville Bell
Alexander Melville Bell was a teacher and researcher of physiological phonetics and was the author of numerous works on orthoepy and elocution. Additionally he was the creator of Visible Speech, used to help the deaf learn to talk, was the father of Alexander Graham Bell. Alexander Melville Bell was born in Edinburgh and studied under and became the principal assistant of his father, Alexander Bell, an authority on phonetics and speech disorders. From 1843 to 1865 he lectured on speech elocution at the University of Edinburgh, from 1865 to 1870 at the University of London. Melville married Eliza Grace Symonds, the only daughter of a British naval surgeon. In 1868, again in 1870 and 1871, Melville lectured at the Lowell Institute in Boston, Massachusetts after having moved to Canada. In 1870 he became a lecturer on philology at Queen's College, Ontario. C. at the suggestion of his son Graham, where he devoted himself to the education of the deaf by the use of Visible Speech in which the alphabetical characters of his linguistic invention were representative graphic diagrams for the various positions and motions of the lips, mouth, etc. as well as other methods of orthoepy.
Prior to departing Scotland for Canada Melville Bell had published at least 17 works on proper speech, vocal physiology and other works. Besides instructing at Queens College he lectured in Boston, Toronto and other universities including a series of 12 lectures at Boston's Lowell Institute; when the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall called on Brantford for a visit, Melville was asked to greet the dignitaries at the public event. He became a Fellow of the Educational Institute of Scotland, the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as obtaining memberships in other societies. Alexander Melville Bell was married twice, first to Eliza Grace Symonds in 1844 with whom he had three children, to Harriet G. Shibley. In 1864 Melville published his first works on Visible Speech, to help the deaf both learn and improve upon their aural speech. To promote the language, Bell created two written short forms using his system of 29 modifiers and tones, 52 consonants, 36 vowels and a dozen diphthongs: World English, similar to the International Phonetic Alphabet, Line Writing, used as a shorthand form for stenographers.
Melville's works on Visible Speech became notable, were described by Édouard Séguin as being "...a greater invention than the telephone of his son, Alexander Graham Bell". Melville saw numerous applications for his invention, including its worldwide use as a universal language. However, although promoted at the Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf in Milan, Italy in 1880, after a period of a dozen years or so in which it was applied to the education of the deaf, Visible Speech was found to be more cumbersome, thus a hindrance, to the teaching of speech to the deaf compared to other methods, faded from use. In 1887, his son, Alexander Graham Bell, sold off the intellectual assets owned by the Volta Laboratory Association. Graham used the considerable profits from the sale of his shares to found the Volta Bureau as an instrument "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf". Graham's scientific and statistical research work on deafness became so large that within the period of a few years his documentation engulfed an entire room of the Volta Laboratory in Melville's backyard carriage house.
Due to the limited space available at the carriage house, with the assistance of Melville who contributed US$15,000, Graham had his new Volta Bureau building constructed close by in 1893. Melville Bell died at age 86 in 1905 due to pneumonia after an operation for diabetes, was interred in Washington, D. C.'s Rock Creek Cemetery adjacent to the Hubbard • Bell • Grossman • Pillot Memorial, alongside his wife and other members of the Bell and Grosvenor families. The Bell House at Colonial Beach, Virginia was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1987; the voice of Bell, citing a sentence from Hamlet, can be heard at the Smithsonian Institution, as extracted from an 1881 graphophone recording. The following are some of the more prominent of the 93 publications authored or co-authored by Melville Bell: Steno-Phonography Letters and Sounds The Standard Elocutionist, including a viewable 1878 edition published by William Mullan & Son, properly cited as: David Charles Bell, Alexander Melville Bell.
Bell's Standard Elocutionist: Principles And Exercises, W. Mullan, London, 1878. Principles of Speech and Dictionary of Sounds Visible Speech: The Science of Universal Alphabetics Sounds and their Relations Lectures on Phonetics A Popular Manual of Visible Speech and Vocal Physiology World English: the Universal Language The Science of Speech The Fundamentals of Elocution Bruce, Robert V. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8014-9691-8. Alexander Graham Bell, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2010. Winzer, Margret A; the History Of Special Education: From Isolation To Integration, Gallaudet University Press, 1993, ISBN 1-56368-018-1, ISBN 978-1-56368-018-2. Curry, Samuel Silas. Alexander Melville Bell: Some Memories, With Fragments From A Pupil's Note-Book, School of Expression, 1906. Patt