Marin County, California
Marin County is a county located in the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 252,409, its county seat is San Rafael. Marin County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco; as of 2010, Marin County had the fifth highest income per capita in the United States at $91,483. The county is governed by the Marin County Board of Supervisors; the county is well known for its natural environment and liberal politics. San Quentin State Prison is located in the county. Autodesk, the publisher of AutoCAD, is located there, as well as numerous other high-tech companies; the Marin County Civic Center was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and draws thousands of visitors a year to guided tours of its arch and atrium design. In 1994, a new county jail facility was embedded into the hillside nearby. Marin County's natural sites include the Muir Woods redwood forest, the Marin Headlands, Stinson Beach, the Point Reyes National Seashore, Mount Tamalpais.
The United States' oldest cross country running event, the Dipsea Race, takes place annually in Marin County, attracting thousands of athletes. Mountain biking was invented on the slopes of Mount Tamalpais in Marin. Marin County is one of the original 27 counties of California, created February 18, 1850, following adoption of the California Constitution of 1849 and just months before the state was admitted to the Union. According to General Mariano Vallejo, who headed an 1850 committee to name California's counties, the county was named for "Marin", great chief of the tribe Licatiut". Marin had been named Huicmuse until he was baptized as "Marino" at about age 20. Marin / Marino was born into the Huimen people, a Coast Miwok tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the San Rafael area. Vallejo believed. Marino did reside at Mission Dolores much of the time from his 1801 baptism and marriage until 1817 serving as a baptism witness and godfather. Starting in 1817, he served as an alcalde at the San Rafael Mission, where he lived from 1817 off and on until his death.
In 1821, Marino served as an expedition guide for the Spanish for a couple of years before escaping and hiding out for some months in the tiny Marin Islands. Another version of the origin of the county name is that the bay between San Pedro Point and San Quentin Point was named Bahía de Nuestra Señora del Rosario la Marinera in 1775, that Marin is an abbreviation of this name; the Coast Miwok Indians were hunters and gatherers whose ancestors had occupied the area for thousands of years. About 600 village sites have been identified in the county; the Coast Miwok numbered in the thousands. Today, there are few left and fewer with any knowledge of their Coast Miwok lineage. Efforts are being made. Francis Drake and the crew of the Golden Hind was thought to have landed on the Marin coast in 1579 claiming the land as Nova Albion. A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands, fitting the description in Drake's own account, was discovered in 1933; this so-called Drake's Plate of Brass was revealed as a hoax in 2003.
In 1595, Sebastian Cermeno lost the San Agustin, while exploring the Marin Coast. The Spanish explorer Vizcaíno landed about twenty years after Drake in what is now called Drakes Bay; however the first Spanish settlement in Marin was not established until 1817 when Mission San Rafael Arcángel was founded in response to the Russian-built Fort Ross to the north in what is now Sonoma County. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was founded in what is now downtown San Rafael as the 20th Spanish mission in the colonial Mexican province of Alta California by four priests, Father Narciso Duran from Mission San Jose, Father Abella from Mission San Francisco de Asís, Father Gil y Taboada and Father Mariano Payeras, the President of the Missions, on December 14, 1817, four years before Mexico gained independence from Spain. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 828 square miles, of which 520 square miles is land and 308 square miles is water, it is the fourth-smallest county in California by land area.
According to the records at the County Assessor-Recorder's Office, as of June 2006, Marin had 91,065 acres of taxable land, consisting of 79,086 parcels with a total tax basis of $39.8 billion. These parcels are divided into the following classifications: Geographically, the county forms a large, southward-facing peninsula, with the Pacific Ocean to the west, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay to the east, – across the Golden Gate – the city of San Francisco to the south. Marin County's northern border is with Sonoma County. Most of the county's population resides on the eastern side, with a string of communities running along San Francisco Bay, from Sausalito to Tiburon to Corte Madera to San Rafael; the interior contains large areas of open space. West Marin has beaches which are popular destinations for tourists year-round. Notable features of the shoreline along the San Francisco Bay include the Sausalito shoreline, Richardson Bay, t
A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behavior. A positive or negative prophecy held belief, or delusion—declared as truth when it is false—may sufficiently influence people so that their reactions fulfill the once-false prophecy. Self-fulfilling prophecy are effects in behavioral confirmation effect, in which behavior, influenced by expectations, causes those expectations to come true, it is complementary to the self-defeating prophecy. Examples of such prophecies can be found in literature as far back as ancient Greece and ancient India, it is 20th-century sociologist Robert K. Merton, credited with coining the expression "self-fulfilling prophecy" and formalizing its structure and consequences. In his 1948 article Self-Fulfilling Prophecy, Merton defines it in the following terms:The self-fulfilling prophecy is, in the beginning, a false definition of the situation evoking a new behavior which makes the original false conception come true.
This specious validity of the self-fulfilling prophecy perpetuates a reign of error. For the prophet will cite the actual course of events as proof that he was right from the beginning. Merton's concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy stems from the Thomas theorem, which states that "If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences". According to Thomas, people react not only to the situations they are in, but and primarily, to the way they perceive the situations and to the meaning they assign to their perceptions. Therefore, their behaviour is determined in part by their perception and the meaning they ascribe to the situations they are in, rather than by the situations themselves. Once people convince themselves that a situation has a certain meaning, regardless of whether it does, they will take real actions in consequence. Merton applied it to recent social phenomena. In his book Social Theory and Social Structure, he conceives of a bank run at the fictional Last National Bank, over which Cartwright Millingville presides.
It is a typical bank, Millingville has run it and quite properly. As a result, like all banks, it has some liquid assets, but most of its assets are invested in various ventures. One day, a large number of customers come to the bank at once—the exact reason is never made clear. Customers, seeing so many others at the bank, begin to worry. False rumours spread that something is wrong with the bank, more customers rush to the bank to try to get some of their money out while they still can; the number of customers at the bank increases, as does their annoyance and excitement, which in turn fuels the false rumours of the bank's insolvency and upcoming bankruptcy, causing more customers to come and try to withdraw their money. At the beginning of the day—the last one for Millingville's bank—the bank was not insolvent, but the rumour of insolvency caused a sudden demand of withdrawal of too many customers, which could not be answered, causing the bank to become insolvent and declare bankruptcy. Merton concludes this example with the following analysis: The parable tells us that public definitions of a situation become an integral part of the situation and thus affect subsequent developments.
This is peculiar to human affairs. It is not found in the world of nature, untouched by human hands. Predictions of the return of Halley's comet do not influence its orbit, but the rumoured insolvency of Millingville's bank did affect the actual outcome. The prophecy of collapse led to its own fulfilment. Merton concluded that the only way to break the cycle of self-fulfilling prophecy is by redefining the propositions on which its false assumptions are based. In economic "expectations models" of inflation, peoples' expectations of future inflation lead them to spend more today and demand higher nominal interest rates for any savings, since they expect that prices will be rising; this demand for higher nominal interest rates and increased spending in the present, in turn, create inflationary pressure and can cause inflation if the expectations of future inflation are unfounded. The expectations theory of inflation played a large role in Paul Volcker's actions during his tenure as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve in combating the "stagflation" of the 1970s.
Philosopher Karl Popper called the self-fulfilling prophecy the Oedipus effect: One of the ideas I had discussed in The Poverty of Historicism was the influence of a prediction upon the event predicted. I had called this the "Oedipus effect", because the oracle played a most important role in the sequence of events which led to the fulfilment of its prophecy. … For a time I thought that the existence of the Oedipus effect distinguished the social from the natural sciences. But in biology, too—even in molecular biology—expectations play a role in bringing about what has been expected. An early precursor of the concept appears in Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire: "During many ages, the prediction, as it is usual, contributed to its own accomplishment". Examples abound in studies of the related self-perception theory. In the United States, the concept was broadly and applied in the field of public education reform, following the "War on Poverty". Theodore Brameld noted: "In simplest terms, education projects and thereby reinforces whatever habits of personal and cultural life are considered to be acceptable and dominant."
The effects of teacher attitudes, beli
Warwick Ashley Davis is an English actor, television presenter, director and producer. He played the title characters in Willow and the Leprechaun film series, the Ewok Wicket in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and Professor Filius Flitwick and Griphook in the Harry Potter films. Davis starred as a fictionalised version of himself in the sitcom Life's Too Short and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, he has presented ITV game shows Celebrity Tenable. Davis was born in Epsom, the son of Susan and Ashley Davis, an insurance worker. Davis has a younger sister, he was educated at Chinthurst School and the City of London Freemen's School. Davis was born with Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, an rare form of dwarfism; when Davis was 11, his grandmother heard a radio advert calling for people who were 4 feet tall or shorter to be in Return of the Jedi. To Davis, a fan of the Star Wars films, it was a dream come true. During the filming of Return of the Jedi, Mark Hamill bought Davis every Star Wars figure he did not have.
Davis was cast as an extra Ewok, but when Kenny Baker, going to be Wicket, fell ill, George Lucas picked Davis to be the new Wicket after seeing how he carried himself as an Ewok. Davis based his Ewok movements on his dog, who would tilt his head from side to side whenever he saw something strange. During production on the film, Davis was the subject of a short mockumentary film about his experience as Wicket, titled Return of the Ewok, made by Return of the Jedi's first assistant director, David Tomblin; the unreleased film was a fictional look at his decision to become an actor and act in the film and his transformation into Wicket the Ewok. Davis reprised his role as Wicket in the ABC made-for-TV films Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. In 1987, Davis was called to Elstree Studios near London to meet with Ron Howard and George Lucas to discuss a new film project called Willow, written with Davis in mind. Willow was his first opportunity to act with his face visible.
He co-starred with Val Kilmer in the film, which received a Royal Premiere before the Prince and Princess of Wales. He moved to television to be in the BBC Television adaptation of the classic The Chronicles of Narnia in Prince Caspian, The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, The Silver Chair and an episode of Zorro filmed in Madrid. In 1993, he played the villainous Irish lead character in Leprechaun, alongside Jennifer Aniston, a role he reprised in five sequels, he returned to the Star Wars universe, playing three roles in Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace: Weazel, a gambler sitting next to Watto at the Podrace. Davis played the role of Professor Filius Flitwick in the Harry Potter films. Davis played a white-moustached Flitwick in the first two films, a black-haired unnamed chorus conductor for the third instalment of the series. In the fourth film, Flitwick is younger looking, with a trimmed moustache. In addition to playing Flitwick, Davis played the role of the goblin Griphook in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1, despite the role being played by fellow dwarf actor Verne Troyer.
In 2004, Davis played the character "Plates" in the indie film Skinned Deep, directed by special effects artist Gabriel Bartalos. In 2006, Davis appeared, alongside fellow Harry Potter star Daniel Radcliffe, in an episode of BBC's comedy series Extras as a satirical version of himself. Davis starred in the film version of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, as the "body" of Marvin the Paranoid Android. In December 2006, Davis starred in the pantomime Snow White and the Seven Dwarves at the Opera House and again in 2007–08 at the New Wimbledon Theatre. Davis appeared in The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian, in which he played Nikabrik the Dwarf, adding to his previous involvement in TV adaptations of the Chronicles of Narnia series, he appeared as a contestant on the 2007 series of Children in Need reality show Celebrity Scissorhands. Davis starred as a fictional version of himself in Life's Too Short, written by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, who starred. In December 2012, Davis returned to New Wimbledon Theatre to reprise his role in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.
In March 2013, Davis presented an episode of the ITV series Perspectives: Warwick Davis – The Seven Dwarfs of Auschwitz, in which he explored the story of the Ovitz family, a touring musical troupe which included seven dwarfs who survived the Nazi Auschwitz concentration camp and the experiments of Josef Mengele. In late 2013, Davis appeared for one month as Patsy in the musical comedy Spamalot, based on the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail in London, At the same time, Davis hosted a press conference to announce the Monty Python reunion. In 2014, Davis hosted; the show saw Davis and his family enjoying short weekend holiday breaks. The show returned for a second series in spring 2015. From 2014 to 2015, he hosted the revived version of game show Celebrity Squares on ITV; the first series was shown in 2014 and a second aired in 2015. Davis appeared in the 2015 sequel Star Wars: The Force Awakens. In July 2015, he became the voice of Gordon the Gopher in a pilot developed for BBC Taster, the pilot progressed well, becoming one of the highest rated on the BBC's Taster section.
In November 2016, Davis began presenting the daytime ITV game show Tenable. The show
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Willow is a 1989 arcade game by Capcom. Capcom published two different games in 1989 based on the 1988 film of the same name; the arcade version is a platform game while the Nintendo Entertainment System version is an action-RPG. The evil witch queen Bavmorda is after the holy baby of the lands, Elora Danan, intent on destroying her. A young peaceful wizard called. On, a brave warrior named Madmartigan joins Willow to fight the enemy rival General Kael. Capcom director Yoshiki Okamoto commented that the game was part of a broader strategy of Capcom at the time to appeal to a wider audience by using established characters from other media, as their original characters could be too niche. In addition to Willow, he cited games based on Area 88 and Destiny of an Emperor as part of this strategy. Capcom developed two games based on Willow in 1989; the arcade game plays similar to Capcom's previous fantasy action platformer Ghouls n' Ghosts. The Willow game developed for the for the NES is a role playing game.
The arcade version of the game belongs to the platform genre. It has six stages, some where Willow plays his part, others where Madmartigan plays his and one of the stages where either character is selectable. Depending on whether the player is playing as Willow or Madmartigan, either the magic weapon or the blade weapon can be purchased. Hardcore Gaming 101 Article on the arcade and NES Willow games RPGClassics Shrine
Queenstown, New Zealand
Queenstown is a resort town in Otago in the south-west of New Zealand's South Island. It has an urban population of 15,850, making it the 27th largest urban area in New Zealand. In 2016, Queenstown overtook Oamaru to become the second largest urban area in Otago, behind Dunedin; the town is built around an inlet called Queenstown Bay on Lake Wakatipu, a long thin Z-shaped lake formed by glacial processes, has views of nearby mountains such as The Remarkables, Cecil Peak, Walter Peak and just above the town, Ben Lomond and Queenstown Hill. The Queenstown-Lakes District has a land area of 8,704.97 square kilometres not counting its inland lakes. The region has an estimated resident population of 39,100. Neighbouring towns include Arrowtown, Kingston, Wanaka and Cromwell; the nearest cities are Invercargill. Queenstown is known for its commerce-oriented tourism adventure and ski tourism; the area was discovered and first settled by Māori. The first non-Māori to see Lake Wakatipu was European Nathanael Chalmers, guided by Reko, the chief of the Tuturau, over the Waimea Plains and up the Mataura River in September 1853.
Evidence of stake nets, baskets for catching eels and ashes indicated the Glenorchy area was visited by Māori. It is Ngāi Tahu Māori visited Queenstown en route to collect Pounamu. A settlement called Te Kirikiri Pa was occupied by the tribe of Kāti Māmoe, situated where the Queenstown Gardens are today, but by the time European migrants arrived in the 1860s this settlement was no longer being used. European explorers William Gilbert Rees and Nicholas von Tunzelmann were the first non-Maoris to settle the area. Rees established a high country farm in the location of Queenstown's current town centre in 1860, but the discovery of gold in the Arrow River in 1862 encouraged Rees to convert his wool shed into a hotel named the Queen's Arms, now known as Eichardt's. Many Queenstown streets bear names from the gold mining era and some historic buildings remain. William's Cottage, the Lake Lodge of Ophir, Queenstown Police Station, St Peter's Anglican Church lie close together in a designated historic precinct.
There are various apocryphal accounts of how Queenstown was named, however the following is the most likely: When William Rees first arrived in the area and built his homestead, the area was known as The Station although miners soon referred to it as The Camp from 1860 to 1862. The miners, the Irish, had taken an interest in the ceremony held for a small town called Cobh in Ireland, renamed Queenstown in honour of Queen Victoria in 1850, they may have had their own ceremony at the intersection of Rees and Beach Streets replicating some of the elements in the renaming of the Irish town. Subsequent to this a public meeting was held for the purpose of naming the township on the lake in January 1863 in which the town was given the name of Queenstown in reference to Ireland's Queenstown. By 9 and 10 January 1863 the town was being reported with the name of Queenstown from several reports written by a correspondent in the Otago Witness on Monday the 5th and Tuesday the 6th, it was during the meeting there may have been a reference by a miner of the town being "fit for a Queen".
Tāhuna, the Māori-language name for Queenstown, means "shallow bay". Queenstown is situated on the shore line of Lake Wakatipu, the third largest lake by surface area in New Zealand, it is at a low altitude for a ski and snowboarding centre at 310 metres above sea level on the shores of the lake, but is nestled among mountains. Nearby are gorges plus plains suitable for agriculture. Central Queenstown contains many businesses and homes but is near many suburbs or large areas of housing: Fernhill, Sunshine Bay, Queenstown Hill, Goldfield Heights, Marina Heights, Kelvin Heights, Arthurs Point and Frankton. Just outside Queenstown are the areas of: Arrowtown, Dalefield, Jack's Point, Hayes Creek, Lake Hayes Estate, Shotover Country and Quail Rise; because of its moderate altitude and high mountain surroundings, Queenstown has an oceanic climate. Summer has long warm days with temperatures that can reach 30 °C while winters are cold with temperatures in single digits with frequent snowfall, although there is no permanent snow cover during the year.
As with the rest of Central Otago, Queenstown lies within the rain shadow of the Southern Alps, but being closer to the west coast the town is more susceptible to rain-bearing fronts compared to nearby Cromwell and Alexandra. The hottest recorded temperature in Queenstown is 34.1 °C, while the coldest is −8.4 °C. Residential housing in the Queenstown area is quite expensive due to factors such as the town being a tourist destination, its lack of land and its desirability to foreigners and investors. Queenstown is rated the least affordable place in New Zealand to buy a property, overtaking Auckland at the start of 2017. In December 2016 the average house price in the Queenstown area rose to $1 million NZD; the area’s growth rate is one of the fastest in the country with the population growing 7.1% from 2015 to 2016 in a 12-month period. Most jobs in Queenstown are tourism- or accommodation-related. Employment growth was the highest of any area in New Zealand at 10.3% in the March 2016 year. A resort town, Queenstown boasted 220 adventure tourism activities in 2012.
Skiing and snowboarding, jet boating, whitewater rafting, bungy jumping, mountain