Pravda is a Russian broadsheet newspaper the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million. The newspaper began publication on 5 May 1912 in the Russian Empire, but was extant abroad in January 1911, it emerged as a leading newspaper of the Soviet Union after the October Revolution. The newspaper was an organ of the Central Committee of the CPSU between 1912 and 1991. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Pravda was sold off by Russian President Boris Yeltsin to a Greek business family, the paper came under the control of their private company Pravda International. In 1996, there was an internal dispute between the owners of Pravda International and some of the Pravda journalists which led to Pravda splitting into different entities; the Communist Party of the Russian Federation acquired the Pravda paper, while some of the original Pravda journalists separated to form Russia's first online paper Pravda.ru, not connected to the Communist Party.
After a legal dispute between the rival parties, the Russian court of arbitration stipulated that both entities would be allowed to continue using the Pravda name. The Pravda paper is today run by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, whereas the online Pravda.ru is owned and has international editions published in Russian, English and Portuguese. Though Pravda began publication on 5 May 1912, the anniversary of Karl Marx's birth, its origins trace back to 1903 when it was founded in Moscow by a wealthy railway engineer, V. A. Kozhevnikov. Pravda had started publishing in the light of the Russian Revolution of 1905. During its earliest days, Pravda had no political orientation. Kozhevnikov started it as a journal of arts and social life. Kozhevnikov was soon able to form up a team of young writers including A. A. Bogdanov, N. A Rozhkov, M. N Pokrovsky, I. I Skvortsov-Stepanov, P. P Rumyantsev and M. G. Lunts, who were active contributors on'social life' section of Pravda, they became the editorial board of the journal and in the near future became the active members of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
Because of certain quarrels between Kozhevnikov and the editorial board, he had asked them to leave and the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP took over as Editorial Board. But the relationship between them and Kozhevnikov was a bitter one; the Ukrainian political party Spilka, a splinter group of the RSDLP, took over the journal as its organ. Leon Trotsky was invited to edit the paper in 1908 and the paper was moved to Vienna in 1909. By the editorial board of Pravda consisted of hard-line Bolsheviks who sidelined the Spilka leadership soon after it shifted to Vienna. Trotsky had introduced a tabloid format to the newspaper and distanced itself from the intra-party struggles inside the RSDLP. During those days, Pravda gained a large audience among Russian workers. By 1910 the Central Committee of the RSDLP suggested making Pravda its official organ. At the sixth conference of the RSDLP held in Prague in January 1912, the Menshevik faction was expelled from the party; the party under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin decided to make Pravda its official mouthpiece.
The paper was shifted from Vienna to St. Petersburg and the first issue under Lenin's leadership was published on 5 May 1912, it was the first time. The Central Committee of the RSDLP, workers and individuals such as Maxim Gorky provided financial help to the newspaper; the first issue published on 5 had four pages. It had articles on economic issues, workers movement, strikes, had two proletarian poems. M. E. Egorov was the first editor of St. Petersburg Pravda and Member of Duma N. G. Poletaev served as its publisher. Egorov was not a real editor of Pravda but this position was pseudo in nature; as many as 42 editors had followed Egorov within a span of two years, till 1914. The main task of these editors was to go to jail whenever needed and to save the party from a huge fine. On the publishing side, the party had chosen only those individuals as publishers who were sitting members of Duma because they had parliamentary immunity, it had sold between 40,000 and 60,000 copies. The paper was closed down by tsarist censorship in July 1914.
Over the next two years, it changed its name eight times because of police harassment: Рабочая правда Северная правда За правду Пролетарская правда Путь правды Рабочий Трудовая правда The overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II by the February Revolution of 1917 allowed Pravda to reopen. The original editors of the newly reincarnated Pravda, Vyacheslav Molotov and Alexander Shlyapnikov, were opposed to the liberal Russian Provisional Government. However, when Lev Kamenev, Joseph Stalin and former Duma deputy Matvei Muranov returned from Siberian exile on 12 March, they took over the editorial board – starting with 15 March. Under Kamenev's and Stalin's influence, Pravda took a conciliatory tone towards the Provisional Government—"insofar as it struggles against reaction or counter-revolution"—and called for a unification conference with the internationalist wing of the Mensheviks. On 14 March, Kamenev wrote in his first editorial: What purpose would it serve to speed things up, when things were taking place at such a rapid pace? and
São Tomé and Príncipe
São Tomé and Príncipe the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island country in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, about 140 kilometres apart and about 250 and 225 kilometres off the northwestern coast of Gabon, respectively; the islands were uninhabited until their discovery by Portuguese explorers in the 15th century. Colonised and settled by the Portuguese throughout the 16th century, they collectively served as a vital commercial and trade center for the Atlantic slave trade; the rich volcanic soil and close proximity to the Equator made São Tomé and Príncipe ideal for sugar cultivation, followed by cash crops such as coffee and cocoa. Cycles of social unrest and economic instability throughout the 19th and 20th centuries culminated in peaceful independence in 1975. São Tomé and Príncipe has since remained one of Africa's most democratic countries. With a population of 199,910, São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African sovereign state after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country.
Its people are predominantly with most practising Roman Catholicism. The legacy of Portuguese rule is visible in the country's culture and music, which fuse European and African influences. São Tomé and Príncipe is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe were uninhabited when the Portuguese arrived sometime around 1470. The islands were discovered by João de Pêro Escobar. Portuguese navigators explored the islands and decided that they would be good locations for bases to trade with the mainland; the dates of discovery are sometimes given as 21 December 1471, for São Tomé. Príncipe was named Santo Antão, changing its name in 1502 to Ilha do Príncipe, in reference to the Prince of Portugal to whom duties on the island's sugar crop were paid; the first successful settlement of São Tomé was established in 1493 by Álvaro Caminha, who received the land as a grant from the crown. Príncipe was settled in 1500 under a similar arrangement.
Attracting settlers proved difficult and most of the earliest inhabitants were "undesirables" sent from Portugal Jews. In time these settlers found the volcanic soil of the region suitable for agriculture the growing of sugar. By 1515, São Tomé and Príncipe had become slave depots for the coastal slave trade centered at Elmina; the cultivation of sugar was a labour-intensive process and the Portuguese began to enslave large numbers of Africans from the mainland. By the mid-16th century the Portuguese settlers had turned the islands into Africa's foremost exporter of sugar. São Tomé and Príncipe were taken over and administered by the Portuguese crown in 1522 and 1573, respectively. However, competition from sugar-producing colonies in the Western Hemisphere began to hurt the islands; the large enslaved population proved difficult to control, with Portugal unable to invest many resources in the effort. Sugar cultivation thus declined over the next 100 years, by the mid-17th century, the economy of São Tomé had changed.
It was now a transit point for ships engaged in the slave trade between the West and continental Africa. In the early 19th century, two new cash crops and cocoa, were introduced; the rich volcanic soils proved well suited to the new cash crop industry, soon extensive plantations, owned by Portuguese companies or absentee landlords, occupied all of the good farmland. By 1908, São Tomé had become the world's largest producer of cocoa, which remains the country's most important crop; the roças system, which gave the plantation managers a high degree of authority, led to abuses against the African farm workers. Although Portugal abolished slavery in 1876, the practice of forced paid labour continued. Scientific American magazine documented in words and pictures the continued use of slaves in São Tomé in its 13 March 1897 issue. In the early 20th century, an internationally publicized controversy arose over charges that Angolan contract workers were being subjected to forced labour and unsatisfactory working conditions.
Sporadic labor unrest and dissatisfaction continued well into the 20th century, culminating in an outbreak of riots in 1953 in which several hundred African laborers were killed in a clash with their Portuguese rulers. This "Batepá Massacre" remains a major event in the colonial history of the islands, its anniversary is observed by the government. By the late 1950s, when other emerging nations across the African Continent demanded their independence, a small group of São Toméans had formed the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe, which established its base in nearby Gabon. Picking up momentum in the 1960s, events moved after the overthrow of the Caetano dictatorship in Portugal in April 1974; the new Portuguese regime was committed to the dissolution of its overseas colonies. In November 1974, their representatives met with the MLSTP in Algiers and worked out an agreement for the transfer of sovereignty. After a period of transitional government, São Tomé and Príncipe achieved independence on 12 July 1975, choosing as the first president the MLSTP Secretary General
Whitaker's is a reference book, published annually in the United Kingdom. The book was published by J Whitaker & Sons from 1868 to 1997 by The Stationery Office until 2003, by A & C Black which became a wholly owned subsidiary of Bloomsbury Publishing in 2011; the 150th edition of Whitaker's was published on 16 November 2017. Joseph Whitaker began preparing his Almanack in the autumn of 1868, he postponed publication of the first edition on learning of the resignation of Benjamin Disraeli on 1 December 1868, so that he could include details of the new Gladstone administration. At the same time, Whitaker continued to expand the information so that the planned 329 pages grew to 370; the first edition of the Almanack appeared on 23 December 1868, priced at 1 shilling, introduced by a short editorial piece written by Joseph Whitaker. It began "The Editor does not put forward this Almanack as perfect: yet he ventures to think that he has succeeded in preparing a work which will commend itself to those who desire to see improvement in this direction."
It concluded by inviting critics to suggest ways. The Manchester Guardian, reviewing the first edition, described it as "the largest of the cheap almanacks" to appear, noted it contained a great deal more valuable information than other such works. In 2013, the 2014 edition became the first to be published under the new simpler branding of "Whitaker's". Whitaker's Almanack consists of articles and tables on a wide range of subjects including education, the peerage, government departments and social issues, the environment; the largest section is the countries directory, which includes recent history, economic information and culture overviews. Each edition features a selection of critical essays focusing on events of the previous year. Extensive astronomical data covering the forthcoming year is published at the rear of the book. Whitaker's Almanack is not an encyclopaedia but more of a yearbook of contemporary matters and a directory of various establishments in the UK. Whitaker's was prized enough that Winston Churchill took a personal interest in the continued publication of the book after its headquarters were destroyed in the Blitz.
Each year the Almanack is published in two formats – the Standard Edition and a shortened Concise Edition. In previous years, a larger-format of the Standard Edition, bound in leather, was produced for libraries. Both editions were redesigned in 2004 to increase the page size and improve legibility; the Almanack's current Executive Editor is Ruth Northey, whilst former editor Hilary Marsden continues to contribute. There have been nine editors since 1868: In the short story "A Holiday Task" by Saki, a titled amnesiac looks through the list of peers in Whitaker's in an unsuccessful attempt to remember who she is. Whitaker's Almanack provides the key to a book cipher message at the beginning of Arthur Conan Doyle's 1915 Sherlock Holmes novel The Valley of Fear. Whitaker's Almanack is mentioned in chapter 2 of Bram Stoker's Dracula, with a copy being owned by the Count, it is mentioned in Virginia Woolf's short story "The Mark on the Wall", the James Bond novel Moonraker and Evelyn Waugh's Vile Bodies.
In "The Round Dozen", a short story by W. Somerset Maugham, a character recalls being advised by a famous novelist that the two most useful books for a writer are the Bible and Whitaker's Almanack. Official website Bloomsbury.com
Aurélio Pires Quaresma Martins is a São Toméan journalist and politician, who until May 2018 was leader of the Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party. Martins started his career as a journalist at São Tomé and Príncipe's National Radio between 1984 and 1985, worked at Angola's National Radio from 1999 to 2007, he is the head of construction and security company Gibela Group and president of FAMA. Martins was elected to the National Assembly of São Tomé and Príncipe for the Lobata District in the 2010 legislative election and afterwards became president of the Humans Rights and Gender Commission in the National Assembly, he was elected President of the MLSTP/PSD on the party's ordinary congress in January 2011. Aurélio Martins was his party's candidate in the 2011 presidential election, but got only 4.06% of the votes and lost to former and MLSTP leader Manuel Pinto da Costa. He was suspended from the party in mid-May 2018 due to backing the government's dismissal of three supreme court justices who had ruled in favour of handing over the Rosema Brewery in Neves - controlled by the party's largest donor Antonio Monteiros and his brother Domingos Monteiros, who were both MPs for the party - to an Angolan businessman.
He was replaced as party president with Jorge Bom Jesus at an extraordinary congress on 30 June. Martins was elected Figura do Ano in 2007, 2008 and 2009