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Elseworlds was the publication imprint for American comic books produced by DC Comics for stories that took place outside the DC Universe canon. The "Elseworlds" name was trademarked in the same year as the first Elseworlds publication. From 1942 to the mid-1980s during the 1960s — the era of the Silver Age of Comic Books — DC Comics began to make a distinction between the continuity of its fictional universe and stories with plots that did not fit that continuity; these out-of-continuity stories came to be called Imaginary Stories. The title page of "Superman, Cartoon Hero!", stated that the story was "Our first imaginary story", continued to say: "In 1942, a series of Superman shorts started showing throughout the U. S.! So, with tongue in cheek, the DC team turned out this story of what might have happened if Lois Lane had decided to see... Superman, Cartoon Hero!". The story opens with Lois determined to learn Superman's secret identity and going to the theater to see the Max Fleisher Superman short "Mad Scientist" in hopes of seeing the animated Man of Steel reveal his secret identity.

In addition to other things, when the opening credits roll and state that the cartoons are based on DC Comics, Lois Lane states that she has never heard of DC Comics. Clark Kent wonders if the people there are clairvoyant. In the final panel, Clark Kent exchanges a knowing wink with the image of himself as Superman on the movie screen. Craig Shutt, author of the Comics Buyer's Guide column Ask Mr. Silver Age, states that true imaginary stories differed from stories that were dreams and hoaxes. Dreams and hoaxes were "gyps" on account of "not having happened", whilst true imaginary stories were canonical at least unto themselves. Since they were "just" imaginary and thus had no bearing on the characters’ regular stories, imaginary stories could show things like people dying and the victory of evil. In the optimistic and hopeful Silver Age of Comics, such stories would not be told. Most of these Imaginary Stories featured alternate histories of characters, such as "The Amazing Story of Superman-Red and Superman Blue!".

There, readers did not happen. One such story has Superman being raised by apes in imitation of Tarzan, an idea that would be recycled into a Elseworlds tale where Tarzan and Superman were switched at birth. Possible present times were shown, such as one story where Jonathan and Martha Kent, touched by pity, adopt a orphaned Bruce Wayne and raise him along with their own son, Clark. Thus, the present shows Superman and Batman as brothers, with Clark protecting Gotham and working for the Gotham Gazette instead of living in Metropolis, Batman inviting his foster parents, the Kents, to live with him in Wayne Manor. In keeping with the fact that imaginary stories allowed for much grimmer stories than usual, the story ended with Lex Luthor killing the Kents and Batman trying to murder him in revenge. Possible futures that "could well happen" were explored, such as Clark Kent revealing to Lois Lane his secret identity and marrying her. Futures that "perhaps never will" happen were examined, such as the permanent death of Superman.

Imaginary Stories appeared enough that some comics – such as Superman's Girl Friend, Lois Lane #15, the cover of which appears to depict Superman marrying Lois Lane – had to assure readers that their contents were not "imaginary". The cover of Lois Lane #59, by contrast, promised that its depiction of Lois as the romantic rival of Lara, Jor-El's girlfriend and future mother of Superman, was "real--not imaginary!". A few Imaginary Stories appeared in other DC publications. Batman editor Jack Schiff supervised stories in which the Dark Knight starts a family or loses his identity, though these were revealed at the end of the story to be stories written by Alfred. Schiff's stories were notable for the first appearance of the original Bruce Wayne Junior. Writer/editor Robert Kanigher supervised Wonder Woman's own series of Imaginary Stories called Impossible Tales which featured the same principle. There, Wonder Woman appeared along with Wonder Girl and Wonder Tot. However, the majority of Imaginary Stories were published in various Superman comics under the guidance of Superman editor Mort Weisinger, the "King of Imaginary Stories".

This was in part because, according to Shutt, Weisinger aimed for younger readers instead of older ones. Editors such as Julius Schwartz used the Imaginary Stories concept. Alan Moore's "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" two-part story in Superman #423 and Action Comics #583 in 1986 was the last Pre-Crisis story to use the Imaginary Stories label. The first Elseworlds title was Gotham by Gaslight, written by Brian Augustyn and drawn by Mike Mignola, which featured a Victorian Age version of the superhero Batman hunting Jack the Ripper, who had come to Gotham City; the title was not published as an Elseworlds comic, but its success led to the creation of the Elseworlds imprint and this title was retroactively declared the first Elseworlds story. The first book to feature the Elseworlds logo was Batman: Holy Terror in 1991. In 1994, the Elseworlds imprint was used as the theme for the annual edition comic books of that summer. DC sporadically published various Elseworlds titles from 1989 to 2003.

In August 2003, editor Mike Carlin mentioned that DC had scaled back the production of Elseworlds books in order to "put the luster back on them." Several titles that were announced as Elseworlds books prior to this, such as Superman

Bruce Beasley

Bruce Beasley is an American abstract expressionist sculptor born in Los Angeles and living and working in Oakland, California. He attended Dartmouth College from 1957–59, the University of California, Berkeley from 1959-62 where he earned his BA. Beasley ranks among the most productive sculptors of the post- Henry Moore/David Smith generation of abstract sculptors. Today, Beasley is recognised as one of the most noteworthy and innovative sculptors on the American West Coast, his work can be found in the permanent collection of 30 art museums around the world, including: Museum of Modern Art in New York City. In the 1960s, Beasley's first work consisted of welded sculptures made from broken cast iron; this work brought him national recognition when in 1961 one of his sculptures was included in the ground breaking exhibition The Art of Assemblage at the New York, Museum of Modern Art a piece which appeared in an exhibition which Philip Linhares, Chief Curator of Art of the Oakland Museum of California referred to as "seminal".

The following year his assemblage sculpture "Chorus" was acquired by New York's Museum of Modern Art, making Beasley the youngest artist to have work in the permanent collection. In 1961, while a student at Berkeley, Beasley joined Peter Voulkos in building one of the first sculptor-built foundries, the storied Garbanzo Works, instrumental in the Renaissance of bronze casting in American sculpture. Following an abstract esthetic, he began casting sculptures in aluminum. In 1963, he was one of eleven artists to represent the United States at the Biennale de Paris, where French Minister of Culture Andre Malraux awarded him the purchase prize. In 1968, Beasley began investigating the use of transparency as a sculptural medium, he was successful in creating small transparent sculptures in cast acrylic but experts at Dupont and Rohm & Hass were convinced that it was impossible to do castings as large as Beasley envisioned. That year, the State of California invited Beasley to participate in a competition for a monumental sculpture for the state.

At first, the jury was unaware that Beasley was experimenting with transparency as a sculptural medium and invited him based on his work in cast metal. Beasley proposed a monumental cast acrylic sculpture. Upon seeing Beasley's proposal, they questioned the sculptor about its viability, he convinced them that creating what he envisioned was no problem but knew that he would have to invent a new process, which he did. His proposal for Apolymon, a transparent sculpture in cast acrylic won and he installed the piece in Sacramento in 1970. Fascinated by the esthetics of transparency, Beasley worked in cast acrylic for the next ten years. In 1974, members of the undersea research community approached Beasley to see if he could adapt his technique to cast transparent bathyspheres for undersea exploration, he succeeded in creating the bathyspheres for Johnson Sea Link submersibles for Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute. It was these submersibles that were deployed to locate the crew compartment on the bottom of the ocean after the Space Shuttle Challenger disintegrated upon liftoff in 1986.

Beasley continued to make transparent sculpture for the next ten years. His transparent sculptures were exhibited both in the US and abroad including solo exhibitions in 1972 at the DeYoung Museum in San Francisco, the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, the San Diego Museum of Art, group shows including the Salon de Mai in Paris and at Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan. In 1980, Beasley turned back to metal, exploring a more formal geometry with a series of large sculptures produced in both stainless steel and aluminum, he created a number of monumental commissions for public institutions including the San Francisco International Airport, Stanford University. In 1987, he turned to a new direction of work involving cube-like intersecting polyhedra. While most of these were made in cast or fabricated bronze, he created them in carved granite; this work has been exhibited worldwide in more than 100 exhibitions in Asia. Public commissions for this series have included the cities of California. In 2008, Beasley began sculpting a new series of intersecting stainless steel disks.

One of this series, commissioned by the Chinese government for the Beijing Summer Olympics is 15 feet tall and remains permanently installed as part of the Beijing Olympic Park. The Expo 2010 in Shanghai commissioned a large sculpture in this series for permanent installation in Shanghai. Bruce Beasley: Skulpturen monograph which includes articles by Peter Selz and Manfred Fath, ISBN 3-89165-098-2 Sculpture by Bruce Beasley, monograph which includes articles by Albert Elsen and Peter Frank, ISBN 1-882140-35-4 Big Red, Oregon Encounter, Oregon Documentary by KQED-TV's Spark on Bruce Beasley KCBX-FM Public Radio, Part I, Interview with sculptor Bruce Beasley, KCBX-FM Public Radio, Part II, Interv


AB Stumbras is the oldest and largest producer of strong alcoholic drinks in Kaunas, Lithuania. The company began operations in 1906, it is the largest exporter of strong alcoholic beverages and one of the biggest taxpayers in Lithuania. The company's most famous brands include "Lithuanian vodka", "999", "Gloria", "Stumbro Starka", "Krupnikas" and "Poema"; the company name translates as Wisent. The origins of "Stumbras" lie in an 1894 law on monopolizing alcohol production by state-owned enterprises in the Russian Empire; the law was expected to improve the quality of produced vodka. The government of Kaunas acquired a suitable plot of land in 1903 for a high price of 52,200 Russian rubles; the buildings were finished and production started at the end of 1906. The official name of the company was "Kazionyj Nr.1 vinyj očistnyj sklad". The city's name was included in the title; the site included an electric power station, charcoal burner, evaporation heating, three-dimensional water supply system, six artesian wells, a rail connection.

The company was enlarged and modernised several times until 1914. During World War I Lithuania was occupied by Germany and production of strong alcohol was forbidden; the main building was converted into a public bathhouse. After the war, when Lithuania regained its independence, the cisterns were used by the Lithuanian state to store its spirits reserves and by the electric power station to store oil and kerosene; the warehouse belonged to the war commissariat. The idea of rebuilding the factory gained ground. Around 1921 -- 22 the company received large investments for modernisation; the production of strong alcoholic drinks was still a monopoly, generating considerable income for the national budget. Lithuania was occupied by the Soviets at the beginning of World War II and again from 1944. All factories and other businesses were nationalised; the factory continued to operate. In 1948 the Soviets decided to merge the Stumbras factory with the M. Velykis liquor factory, thus creating the largest alcohol producer in the Lithuanian SSR.

In 1975 three local spirit producers in Atanavas, Balbieriškis and Šilutė were merged into the company and it became known as "Stumbras". Stumbras was a state-owned company until 2003. UAB "Mineraliniai vandenys", a subsidiary of holding company MG Baltic, as of December 2008 owned 94.9% of the company's shares. After the privatisation, the company underwent management and organisational reforms, including the spinning off of the bioethanol plant in Šilutė. In 2006 and 2007 the company introduced several new brandy products. Increasing sales of these new products and growing exports resulted in significant growth in sales volume and net profits. However, 2008 saw decreases in sales and profits with the share price dropping from near 14 litas at the end of 2007 to around 4 litas at the beginning of 2009. In spring 2010 Stumbras started a project with the Lithuanian Institute of History to commemorate the 600th anniversary of Battle of Grunwald; the aim of the project is to create the biggest mock up model of the battle, which will be 20 sq. meters.

Stumbras produces a variety of drinks, including vodka, brandy and liqueurs. Awards "Prodexpo 2010" – bitter "999" was named "Prodexpo Star", "Lithuanian vodka" Gold received gold medal award "Wine & Spirits WSWA 2010" – "Lithuanian vodka" Gold received silver medal award "Drinks International Vodka Challenge 2009" - "Lithuanian vodka" received silver medal award "Prodexpo 2008" – "Lithuanian vodka" Gold was named "Prodexpo Star" In 2007 liqueur "Krupnikas" and bitter "999" were included in the list of Lithuanian Culinary Heritage "Prodexpo 2007" – "Stumbro Šimtmečio" received gold medal award "San Francisco World Spirits Competition 2006" – bitter "999" received double gold medal award, "Lithuanian vodka" Original received gold medal award, "Lithuanian vodka" Gold received gold medal award "Beverage Testing Institute 2005" – "Lithuanian vodka" Gold received gold medal award At the end of 2009, the Stumbras museum was opened in Kaunas. In the museum visitors can learn about the history and cultural context of alcohol consumption and production of strong alcoholic beverages in Lithuania, the history of the Stumbras factory: the century-old buildings, document archive and photos.

AB Stumbras homepage Stumbras vodka drinks Project "Žalgiriui 600"

Jean Pliya

Jean Pliya born on July 21, 1931 in Djougou and died on May 14, 2015 in Abidjan, Ivory Coast was a Beninese playwright and short story writer. Born in what was Dahomey, Pliya was educated at the University of Dakar and the University of Toulouse, he graduated in 1959 returned to his homeland to teach. He went on to hold ministerial positions in the Benin government, his work considers colonial history and issues of values. He has attempted to translate the Fon people's tales for a French speaking audience. L'Arbre fétiche, recueil de nouvelles, Yaoundé, Éditions CLE, 1971 Kondo le requin, consacré au roi Behanzin, Yaoundé, CLE, 1981 Les Chimpanzés amoureux, Le Rendez-vous, La Palabre de la dernière chance, les Classiques africains, 1977 La Secrétaire particulière, Yaoundé, Éditions CLE, 1973 Les Tresseurs de cordes, Hatier, Abidjan, CEDA, 1987 La Fille têtue, contes et récits traditionnels du Bénin, Abidjan. Official site

Summerland Oil Field

The Summerland Oil Field is an inactive oil field in Santa Barbara County, about four miles east of the city of Santa Barbara and next to the unincorporated community of Summerland. First developed in the 1890s, richly productive in the early 20th century, the Summerland Oil Field was the location of the world's first offshore oil wells, drilled from piers in 1896; this field, the first significant field to be developed in Santa Barbara County, produced 3.18 million of barrels of oil during its 50-year lifespan being abandoned in 1939-40. Another nearby oil field offshore, discovered in 1957 and named the Summerland Offshore Oil Field, produced from two drilling platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel before being abandoned in 1996; the productive region of the Summerland Oil Field is on the coast of southern Santa Barbara County, about four miles east of the city of Santa Barbara, includes most of the town of Summerland, as well as adjacent parts of Montecito. It covers an area of a bit more than a square mile – 740 acres – of which 380, a little more than half, is onshore.

The climate is Mediterranean, with an equable temperature regime year-round, most of the precipitation falling between October and April in the form of rain. Freezes are rare. Runoff is towards the ocean. Bluffs rise behind the beach, but rather than having an extended plateau behind the bluffs, as is the case along much of the south coast of Santa Barbara County, the land rises with a moderate slope towards the Santa Ynez Mountains; the town of Summerland is built on the coast-facing part of this hillside, taking advantage of the ocean view, with modern residential and commercial development covering long-abandoned oil wells. The offshore part of the main Summerland field was in shallow water adjacent to the beach, was drilled from piers. A popular beach extends the length of the former oil field below the town, a park – Lookout Park – sits atop the bluffs. Summerland Offshore Oil Field is a separate field in the Santa Barbara Channel about one and a half miles offshore, but within the 3-mile limit inside of which oil leasing is subject to state rather than federal regulation.

Two oil platforms, named Hilda and Hazel stood on this field. The Carpinteria Offshore Oil Field, about four miles to the southeast once contained a pair of platforms dismantled that same year, its three remaining platforms outside the 3-mile limit are visible from the shore at Summerland; the Summerland field is contained in a series of sedimentary rock units in a trough known as the Carpinteria Basin. Oil is trapped in the Pleistocene-age Casitas Formation underneath impermeable sediments, although petroleum makes its way to the surface in the form of asphalt seeps, here as elsewhere on the south coast of Santa Barbara County. Another unit underneath the Casitas Formation, the Oligocene-age Vaqueros Sandstone has considerable quantities of petroleum, with the capping unit being the impermeable Miocene-age Rincon Formation. Oil in the Casitas Formation is shallow, at an average depth of only 140 feet, accounting for its early discovery and easy exploitation. In the Vaqueros formation the average depth to oil is 1,400 feet in the main Summerland field, 7,000 feet in the Summerland Offshore field.

Oil and asphalt seeps in the vicinity of the Summerland field were known since prehistoric times, as the native Chumash peoples used tar from this spot and other similar seeps as sealant for their tomols, the watercraft with which they skilfully navigated the Santa Barbara Channel. Sometime before 1894, enterprising petroleum prospectors recognized the likelihood that economically viable deposits of oil and gas were the source for these seeps, began digging; the first finds of petroleum were heavy oil – API gravity of 7, so asphalt – but undeterred, they continued searching for more marketable oil. The earliest known oil well in the vicinity of Summerland dates from 1886, was drilled on the side of Ortega Hill, the topographic prominence just west of Summerland. While the well failed to produce marketable quantities of oil, it showed that there were indeed petroleum-bearing strata only several hundred feet below ground surface – well within the reach of late 19th-century drilling technology.

By 1895, wooden derricks had sprouted across the beaches and bluffs of Summerland changing the character of the community. Founded in 1889 the town had been a spiritualist community consisting of a cluster of small houses around a central building in which seances were held. H. L. Williams, the founder of the town, had sold lots for $25 each, bringing in many people from outside of the area to build small houses. Within a few years, those same lots were commanding prices up to $7,500 because of the unlimited quantities of oil that could be drawn from the ground. Prospectors recognized that the tar sheen in the surf, along with evidence of natural gas venting, indicated that the oil field extended offshore. Drilled in 1896, these were the world's first offshore oil wells. Seeing that the Southern Pacific Railroad line ran along the blufftop through the oil field, John Treadwell, a mining engineer with that company, decided to try to power locomotives with the heavy oil from the field rather than coal, to help with this enterprise built the largest of the wharves out into the ocean.

Named the Treadwell Wharf, in 1900 this structure alone had 19 wells alon

Lega Nord Marche

Lega Nord Marche is a regionalist political party in Italy, the "national" section of Lega Nord in the Marche region. The party has long been led by Luca Rodolfo Paolini, who has served in the Chamber of Deputies from 2008 to 2013 and again since 2018. In 2010 the party entered the Legislative Assembly of Marche for the first time with two regional councillors, while in 2015 it obtained its best result and, despite a reduction of the Assembly's numbers, obtained one more councillor; the party is a tiny one among the national sections of the LN, but it is gaining clout. In the 2015 regional election it won 13.0 % of the vote in its best result ever. While being stronger in the province of Pesaro and Urbino, the northern province, part of Romagna, in 2015 it obtained its best score in Macerata; the electoral results of Lega Nord Marche in the region are shown in the table below. National Secretary: Luca Rodolfo Paolini, Paolo Arrigoni National President: unknown, Stefano Gaetani, Giordano Giampaoli Official website