Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia is located in western Germany covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres. With a population of 17.9 million, it is the most populous state in Germany. It is the most densely populated German state apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg, the fourth-largest by area. Düsseldorf is the state capital and Cologne is the largest city. North Rhine-Westphalia features four of Germany's 10 largest cities: Düsseldorf, Cologne and Essen, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, the largest in Germany and the third-largest on the European continent. North Rhine-Westphalia was established in 1946 after World War II from the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the northern part of Rhine Province, the Free State of Lippe by the British military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, the city of Bonn served as the federal capital until the reunification of Germany in 1990 and as the seat of government until 1999.
The first written account of the area was by its conqueror, Julius Caesar, the territories west of the Rhine were occupied by the Eburones and east of the Rhine he reported the Ubii and the Sugambri to their north. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank, where the Sugambri neighboured several other tribes including the Tencteri and Usipetes. North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri; as the power of the Roman empire declined, many of these tribes came to be seen collectively as Ripuarian Franks and they pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the fifth century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence. By the eighth century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany and northern Gaul, but at the same time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south.
The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Saxons. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun, the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Otto I, both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine on the Moselle and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; the Ottonian dynasty had both Frankish ancestry. As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into numerous small, separate vicissitudes and special chronicles; the old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, although the name survives for example in Lorraine in France, throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, the nobility of these areas sought to preserve the idea of a preeminent duke within Lotharingia, something claimed by the Dukes of Limburg, the Dukes of Brabant.
Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military and political links between what is now Rhineland-Westphalia and neighbouring Belgium and the Netherlands. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, in 1806, the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions to which they had become accustomed under the republican rule of the French. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium. Around AD 1, numerous incursions occurred through Westphalia and even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements; the Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in nearby parts, his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180, Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa.
The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area
Lennestadt lies in the Sauerland in southeast North Rhine-Westphalia and is a community in Olpe district. It is the district’s most populous municipality. Lennestadt itself is not an actual town but a community which comprises several towns and villages. Lennestadt lies at the common point of the Ebbegebirge and Rothaargebirge Nature Parks and is crossed by the river Lenne, a tributary to the Ruhr. Besides the Hundem, which empties into the Lenne in the outlying centre of Altenhundem, the Veischede feeds this river. Lennestadt’s position is 51° 03' to 51° 12' N, 7° 58' to 8° 15' E; the town’s highest point is the Härdler, its lowest is on the Lenne near Borghausen. Lennestadt borders in the north on the communities of Eslohe and Finnentrop, in the east on Schmallenberg and Bad Berleburg, in the south on Kirchhundem, in the west on the towns of Attendorn and Olpe. Within Lennestadt’s municipal area lie the following centres: Altenhundem, Bilstein, Bonzelerhammer, Bruchhausen, Elspe, Einsiedelei, Germaniahütte, Gleierbrück, Grevenbrück, Hachen, Haus Hilmecke,Haus Valbert, Hengstebeck, Kickenbach, Kracht, Maumke, Melbecke, Oberelspe, Obervalbert, Oedingermühle, Saalhausen, Sporke, Stöppel and Trockenbrück.
The fact that there is not a physical town Lennestadt, but Lennestadt being an aggregation of smaller towns listed above leads to confusion among visitors. The town of Lennestadt was founded on 1 July 1969 as legal successor to the Amt of Bilstein out of seven former communities and outlying centres; the earliest traces of settlers in the current municipal area date to the Early Middle Ages. The centres of Elspe and Oedingen were first mentioned in a document in 1000 that Emperor Otto III had issued; this makes them the oldest places in Olpe district. In the 19th century, parts of the current town area were characterized by mining and metalworking. In 1975, Milchenbach was joined with Lennestadt, it had belonged to the community of Lenne. The current mayor is Stefan Hundt, of the CDU; the turnout was 49.2%. Until 1997, Lennestadt’s chief administrator bore the title Stadtdirektor; the Bürgermeister, or Mayor, was an honorary office and was ceremonial. The town’s arms were conferred on 31 December 1971.
The gold and green bars in the background were taken from the arms borne by the Amt of Bilstein. The wavy bend stands for the river Lenne, the town’s namesake, the rose comes from the outlying centre of Oedingen. Town council decided in 1995 to name Sir Thomas More as the town’s patron. Since 2001, the town has been awarding the Thomas-Morus-Preis to citizens “who in their acts have let themselves be led by the convictions of their conscience and who without regard to possible personal disadvantages through bravery and moral courage have thereby become examples to the good of others and our society.” The town of Lennestadt entered into a partnership with the town of Otwock in Poland in 1992. In May 2006, a cycling tour was held which saw 32 participants ride from Lennestadt by way of Berlin and Warsaw to Otwock as a symbol of solidarity; the Kulturgemeinde Hundem-Lenne, founded in 1946, offers a cultural programme in the Pädagogisches Zentrum, a venue with 480 seats at the Anne-Frank-Hauptschule in Meggen.
In Grevenbrück is found the town museum, the Museum der Stadt Lennestadt in whose building the town’s homeland and regional studies library and the town archive are to be found. Since 1998, the Förderverein Bergbaudenkmäler Lennestadt has run the Bergbaumuseum Siciliaschacht in Meggen, which recalls the town’s mining tradition. Among well known buildings in Lennestadt are Bilstein Castle, the Peperburg castle ruins, many timber frame houses, the so-called Sauerlandpyramiden, the Sicilia Mineshaft and the Hohe Bracht viewing tower. On Bundesstraße 55 between Oedingen and Eslohe, the Madonna der Straße roadside shrine is to be found. A spa is to be found in the outlying centre of Saalhausen, a recognized Luftkurort. Among the town’s regular events is the traditional Schützenfest, held in all of the bigger centres each year. Furthermore, every August there is a town festival lasting several days which since 2005 has been held together with the Sauerländer Straßenmusiker-Festival in Altenhundem.
Lennestadt is home to a variety of small and middle-sized businesses in the manufacturing field. Most prevalent are companies in the metal-working, machine building, automotive parts supply, electrical industry. Lennestadt’s town hall is located in the central constituent community of Altenhundem; the local court, the Amtsgericht Lennestadt, is located in the outlying centre of Grevenbrück. With its Altenhundem, Grevenbrück and Lennestadt-Meggen stations, Lennestadt lies on the Ruhr-Sieg line from Hagen to Siegen. Furthermore, buslines of the Verkehrsbetriebe Westfalen-Süd and Busverkehr Ruhr-Sieg run to Kirchhundem, Hilchenbach, Schmallenberg and Attendorn; until 1944 there was another railway connection to Erndtebrück by the Altenhundem–Birkelbach railway line, whose bridges, were blown up by retreating units of the German army in the Second World War. Parts of the tunnels are still preserved; the line to W
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012