Kurfürstenstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Kurfürstenstraße is part of the Berlin U-Bahn network in Germany. It is on the U1 and U3; the station opened on 24 October 1926 and it is located in Berlin Mitte borough. It lies just to the north of Bülowstraße, the corresponding station on the U2, in the southeast corner of Tiergarten; the area has a rather seedy reputation due to prostitution. Potsdamer Straße is a major thoroughfare
Berlin Potsdamer Platz station
Berlin Potsdamer Platz is a railway station in Berlin. It is underground and situated under Potsdamer Platz in central Berlin. Regional and S-Bahn services call at the station; the first station at Potsdamer Platz was the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminus, closed on 27 September 1945 due to war damage. In 1939 the S-Bahn, or Stadtbahn, arrived; the idea for a North-South Link rapid transit rail line from Unter den Linden to Yorckstrasse, via Potsdamer Platz and Anhalter Bahnhof, had first been mooted in 1914, but it was not planned in detail until 1928, approval had to wait until 1933. Begun in 1934, it was plagued with disasters. Determination to have it finished in time for the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936 meant vital safety measures were ignored: on 20 August 1935, a tunnel collapse just south of the Brandenburg Gate buried 23 workmen of whom only four survived. Needless to say, the line was not ready for the Berlin Olympics. In spite of all the setbacks, it was opened from Unter den Linden to Potsdamer Platz on 15 April 1939, extended to Anhalter Bahnhof on 9 October, to Yorckstrasse, to complete the link, on 6 November.
The Potsdamer Platz S-Bahn station contained an underground shopping arcade, the largest in Europe. Four platforms were provided at the station and all were used although just two were planned to suffice: the other two were intended to be utilised by another new line, to branch off eastwards and run under the city to Görlitzer Bahnhof. A connection from Anhalter Bahnhof was to be made. Although construction of some tunnel sections went ahead, the line was never opened. During the war, many of the sections in the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn were all closed due to enemy action, the sections through Potsdamer Platz were of no exception; the S-Bahn North-South Link, less than six years old, became the setting for one of the most contentious episodes of the final Battle for Berlin, in late April and early May 1945. On 2 May, the Tunnel was flooded as a consequence of the decision of the remaining Nazi leaders to blow up the section of the North-South Tunnel beneath the nearby Landwehrkanal as a desperate measure to slow the Soviet advance.
Because of this incident, the North-South Link was unable to be used until 1947. Shortly after war's end the Ringbahnhof got a reprieve of sorts, temporarily reopening on 6 August 1945 as terminus of the Wannseebahn trains, while the Nord-Süd-Tunnel received massive repairs; the Ringbahnhof closed for good on 27 July 1946 after some fragmentary train workings had resumed along the North-South Link on 2 June. Full services recommenced on 16 November 1947, although repairs were not complete until May 1948; the S-Bahn North-South Link saw a more bizarre - - state of affairs. This line, plus two U-Bahn lines elsewhere in the city, suffered from a quirk of geography in that they passed through East German territory en route from one part of West Berlin to another; this gave rise to the infamous "Geisterbahnhofe", Potsdamer Platz being the most notorious, those unfortunate ones on the eastern side that were sealed off from the outside world and which trains ran straight through without stopping, being there from 1961 to 1989.
They would slow down however, affording passengers the strange sight of dusty, dimly lit platforms patrolled by armed guards, there to prevent any East Berliners from trying to escape to the West by train. At the points where the lines passed directly beneath the actual border, concrete "collars" were constructed within the tunnels with just the minimum clearance for trains, to prevent people clinging to the sides or roof of the coaches; the station was the last to be reopened, with major refurbishment work included to the entire North South line and the station, with re-coating/repainting of the station and huge removal of wartime flood damage, on the 3 March 1992. Major refurbishment began to be carried out on January 1991; the U-Bahn, or Untergrundbahn, was a major revolution in Berlin's public transport, the forerunner of similar systems now seen in several German cities. The underground sections alternated with sections elevated above ground on viaducts – hence the alternative name Hochbahn.
The first line ran from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz. Begun on 10 September 1896 and opened on 18 February 1902, the actual Potsdamer Platz station was rather poorly sited. Though it was reached via an entrance right outside the main-line terminus, people had to walk about 200 metres along an underground passage beneath the appropriately named Bahnstraße, it was built by a Swedish architect Grenander in 1902, it was supposed to be named Potsdamer Bahnhof, or Potsdamer Ringbahnhof. But after 5 years the station was relocated just 180m to the southwest at Leipziger Platz; that year, the system was developed into a through line running from Warschauer Brücke to Knie, which placed Potsdamer Platz on a branch accessed via a triangle of lines between Möckernbrücke and Bülowstraße stations near the current Gleisdreieck station. The first Potsdamer Platz U-Bahn station saw use for just over five and a half years, until its inconvenient site, the desire to reach other parts of the city, enabled it to be superseded by a better sited new station on an extension of the line to Spittelmarkt.
The new station opened first, on 29 September 1907, the rest of
Hallesches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
The underground station Hallesches Tor is part of the Berlin U-Bahn network at the intersection of the east-west bound U1/U3 and the north-south bound U6 in the central Kreuzberg quarter. It is named; the historic gate of the Customs Wall, laid out from 1737 onwards to replace the medieval city fortifications, marked the southern tip of the Friedrichstadt neighbourhood. It was located at the southern end of the Rondell. Neighbouring gates were on Potsdamer Platz in the west and on Wassertorplatz in the east, where the present course of the U1 viaduct corresponds to the former city wall. South of the gate, a wooden bridge led across the Landwehr Canal; the present-day stone bridge was built between 1874 and 1876. The U1 and U3 platform on an elevated railway at the northern banks of the Landwehr Canal opened on 18 February 1902 with Berlin's first U-Bahn line from Stralauer Tor to Potsdamer Platz; the underground U6 platform was linked by a pedestrian tunnel. Up to today, changing from one platform to the other is a quite long distance.
Though damaged by the bombing of Berlin in World War II, both parts of the station had to be shut down due to numerous bombing hits and electricity shortage in April 1945. U-Bahn service at the underground platform was resumed on July 4, 1945; the viaduct was rebuilt by 1949, the lower platform was elongated and refurbished in 1976. The Amerika-Gedenkbibliothek on Blücherplatz and the Jewish Museum Berlin with its 1999 extension designed by Daniel Libeskind are nearby
Klosterstraße (Berlin U-Bahn)
Klosterstraße is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in the central Mitte district. The eponymous street is named after the Graues Kloster, a medieval Franciscan abbey, which housed the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster; the station opened on 1 July 1913 in the course of the eastern continuation of Berlin's second U-Bahn line from Spittelmarkt to Alexanderplatz. Architect Alfred Grenander planned a station featuring three tracks serving a branch-off toward eastbound Große Frankfurter Straße, never built and in 1930 was replaced by the U5 line. Today the broad platform between the two tracks with its asymmetric row of pillars is evidence of the original intention; the well-preserved station received protected landmark status as early as 1975. It was extensively restored in its original style prior to Berlin's 750-year jubilee in 1987, including the installation of a historic A-I type car of the U4 line at the northern end of the platform. Media related to U-Bahnhof Klosterstraße at Wikimedia Commons
Spittelmarkt (Berlin U-Bahn)
Spittelmarkt is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 line in Mitte, at the eastern end of Leipziger Straße. It opened on 1 October 1908 the terminus of Berlin's second U-Bahn line, connecting it with Potsdamer Platz on the initial Stammstrecke route, it is named after Spittelmarkt square, former site of the Saint Gertrude hospital established about 1400. The station, designed by Alfred Grenander, was lavishly erected right beneath the banks of the Spree river, with daylight windows above the water's surface. Spittelmarkt became a through station with the extension of the line to Alexanderplatz on 1 July 1913. In 1940 the windows were walled up as an air raid precaution. There was a direct bomb hit on the platform area on 3 February 1945, it was only by chance. Since this wall is the sea wall of the Spree, the inner-city tunnel system would have been flooded and would have disrupted the underground traffic in the long term. In 1990 a major accident occurred. Fourteen people were injured. Spilled oil had covered the tracks.
It did not reopen until extensive reconstruction works started in 2003. Media related to U-Bahnhof Spittelmarkt at Wikimedia Commons
U1 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U1 is a line on the Berlin U-Bahn, 8.8 kilometres long and has 13 stations. Its traditional line designation was BII, it runs east-west and its eastern end is south of the route of the historical Schlesischen Bahn at the Warschauer Straße S-Bahn station and runs through Kreuzberg, Wittenbergplatz on to the Kurfürstendamm. The eastern section of the line is the oldest part of the Berlin U-Bahn, although it is above ground; the U1 route was part of BII until 1957, where it was renamed to BIV until 1 March 1966. While the main section between Wittenbergplatz and Schlesisches Tor has been designated as line 1 since 1966, the western end of the line has changed twice, it was renumbered to Line "3" and "U3" in 1993, before being renamed U15 until 2004. The increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London.
Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York. These people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstrasse, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers. After many years and negotiations, Siemens proposal for an elevated railway line from Warschauer Brücke via Hallesches Tor to Bülowstraße was approved; this was only possible, because it passed through poor areas. The richer residents of Leipziger Straße pressed the city administration to prevent the line using their street. Siemens & Halske carried out all construction work and owned the line; the first sod was turned on 10 September 1896 in Gitschiner Straße. The construction work had to be carried out because the contract with the city of Berlin, signed with the granting of the concession, specified that the line had to be finished within two years, or a penalty of 50,000 marks would be payable.
The railway engineers developed a design for the supporting columns for the elevated railway, but it was unpopular and the architect Alfred Grenander was asked to submit an artistic solution for this problem. For the next 30 years Grenander was the house architect for the underground railway. After tough negotiations with the city of Charlottenburg it was decided to extend the line to Knie along the Tauentzienstrasse, but instead of being elevated it would be a subsurface railway; the management of the city of Berlin board of works regarded the idea of an underground railway sympathetically. Since the underground caused no apparent damage to the new sewer, an underground branch could be built from a junction at Gleisdreieck to Potsdamer Platz, Berlin’s city centre; the national government granted permission for the planning changes on 1 November 1900. The total length of the elevated and underground railway was now 10.1 kilometres. The largest part of the route 8 kilometres, would be established on viaducts and connect eleven elevated stations.
In addition there would be 2 kilometres of underground line with three underground stations. The planners believed that 8-carriage trains would not be needed and therefore designed it with 80 m-long platforms, sufficient only for 6-carriage trains; the first 6 kilometres of the line was finished in 1901 and on 15 February 1902 the first train ran on the line from Potsdamer Platz to Zoologischer Garten to Stralauer Tor and back to Potsdamer Platz. This allowed many prominent Berliners to participate in the opening trip, including the Prussian minister for public works, Karl von Thielen. On 18 February 1902 the first stage of the Berlin U-Bahn was opened. In March the line was extended to Zoologischer Garten and on 17 August it was extended by 380 m from Stralauer Tor to Warschauer Brücke. There were at that time only two lines: From Warschauer Brücke to Zoologischer Garten via Potsdamer Platz. From Warschauer Brücke directly to Zoologischer Garten. On 14 December the line was extended to Knie; the section between Gleisdreieck and Knie is now part of U2.
In the summer of 1907, the elevated railway company of the new city of Wilmersdorf suggested the building of an underground line to the Wilmersdorf area. It suggested a line to Nürnberger Platz and, if Wilmersdorf would pay to Breitenbachplatz. Since Wilmersdorf municipality had poor transport connections, the Wilmersdorf city fathers were pleased to take up this suggestion; the royal domain of Dahlem, south of Wilmersdorf and was still undeveloped supported a U-bahn connection and wanted it extended from Breitenbachplatz to Thielplatz. However, the future line would run through the city of Charlottenburg, which saw the city of Wilmersdorf as a major competitor for the settlement of wealthy ratepayers. Long negotiations ensued, until in the summer 1910 a solution was found: an additional line would be built under the Kurfürstendamm to Uhlandstraße. Work began on these lines in the same summer; the double-track Wittenbergplatz station, which only had two side platforms, had to be rebuilt. The new station required five platforms with a sixth prepared for an entrance hall.
The cities of Wilmersdorf and Charlottenburg submitted many suggestions for its design. The house architect of the elevated railway company, Alfred Grenander, was appointed to design the station on the recommendation of the royal police chief; the add
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy-Park (Berlin U-Bahn)
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy-Park is a Berlin U-Bahn station opened in 1998 on the U 2 line in the Tiergarten district, at the border with Kreuzberg. The station received its name after a small park east of the building, itself named in honor of the composer Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy known as Felix Mendelssohn. Though it is one of the youngest stations of the Berlin U-Bahn system, it is located on the first Stammstrecke line of 1902, where its northern branch crosses the Landwehr Canal on a viaduct and passes north through part of the Scandic Hotel before heading underground towards Potsdamer Platz. With the building of the Berlin Wall on 13 August 1961, train service was interrupted and for a brief time in 1991 the tracks served for the experimental M-Bahn maglev line, stopping at Bernburger Strasse station to the north. Following reunification, the M-Bahn was removed to allow the U-Bahn U2 to be reinstated; the line was reopened on 13 November 1993, the station with access to the debis headquarters of the former Daimler-Benz company however was not opened until 2 October 1998.
The station has disabled access with lifts on the South entrance of the station