Roberta Frances "Bobbi" Fiedler is a former Republican U. S. Representative from California. Born Roberta Frances Horowitz in Santa Monica, California on April 22, 1937, Fiedler attended area public schools. Studies continued at Santa Monica City College. Fiedler formed her political identity at Encino's Lanai Road Elementary School, where she mobilized other mothers to protest court-ordered desegregation busing. Fiedler formed an organization called Bustop in 1976, the organization grew to 30,000 members in weeks. Fiedler's role in the grass-roots group helped propel her to public office, as she won a surprising upset in 1977 against Los Angeles school board president Robert Docter, who favored desegregation busing. While serving on the Los Angeles Board of Education and fellow board member Roberta Weintraub were fierce opponents of desegregation busing. In 1980, Fiedler ran as a Republican for Congress against Democrat James C. Corman, who had served 20 years in Congress. Fiedler was an underdog, running against Corman in a district, 62% Democratic, with the incumbent next in line to be chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.
But in a year in which Reagan's coattails drew large numbers of Democratic voters to the GOP, the National Republican Congressional Committee targeted Corman, hoping not to defeat him, but to embarrass him. Desegregation busing was the central issue in the election between Corman. Time magazine reported on the campaign as follows: "Again the issue is local: busing, ordered by the California Supreme Court in 1977 to desegregate public schools in Los Angeles County. Corman's campaign manager, Clint Reilly recalled that his candidate's position on racial integration drew heavy fire from Fiedler, whom he described as "the leader of LA's anti-busing movement." Reilly noted that the Republican Party raised more than a million dollars for Fiedler, "the campaign was waged in the racially charged atmosphere of the San Fernando Valley." After a fierce campaign in which Corman was picketed by anti-integration activists, the candidates entered election day in a dead heat in the polls, Corman lost to Fiedler by 750 votes out of 200,000 cast.
Fiedler was one of several Jewish woman, elected to Congress from California. Fiedler considered herself an independent Republican, breaking with her party over her support for abortion rights and the Equal Rights Amendment. After her narrow victory in 1980, Fiedler was re-elected in 1982, defeating Democrat George Henry Margolis 71.8% to 24.1%. She won in another landslide in 1984, defeating Charlie Davis 72.3% to 25.9%. In 1986, Fiedler did not run for re-election to the House of Representatives, opting instead to make what proved to be an unsuccessful bid for the Republican nomination to challenge three-term Democratic incumbent Alan Cranston for his United States Senate seat, she was charged with political corruption in January 1986 after an undercover investigation showed that Fiedler offered $100,000 to a rival, State Senator Ed Davis, if he would withdraw from the Republican senatorial primary. The charges were dismissed by Judge Robert Altman. Despite the dismissal of the charges in February 1986, Fiedler garnered only 7.2% of the vote in the Republican primary.
Fiedler passed away on March 3, 2019 in California. List of Jewish members of the United States Congress Women in the United States House of Representatives Official Congressional Biography
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Simi Valley, California
The city of Simi Valley, in the eponymous valley, is in the southeast corner of Ventura County, United States, 40 miles from downtown Los Angeles, making it part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. The city sits next to Thousand Oaks and Los Angeles; the city's 2014 population has been estimated at 126,871, up from 111,351 in 2000. The city of Simi Valley is surrounded by the Santa Susana Mountain range and the Simi Hills, west of the San Fernando Valley, northeast of the Conejo Valley, it is a commuter bedroom community, feeding the cities in the Los Angeles area and the San Fernando Valley to the east, cities in Ventura County to the west. The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where the former president was buried in 2004, is in Simi Valley. Simi Valley has been ranked twice as the 18th most conservative city in the United States; the Reagan Library has hosted Republican primary debates, last in 2012, the first primary debates in 2016. A study done by the University of Vermont ranked Simi Valley as the fifth-happiest city in the United States.
According to crime statistics by the FBI in 2013, Simi Valley is the seventh-safest city in the U. S. with a population of 100,000 or more. The U. S. Census Bureau of 2012 reported a median household income of $87,894, higher than the California median of $70,231 and the national average of $62,527. Simi Valley was once inhabited by the Chumash people, who settled much of the region from the Salinas Valley to the Santa Monica Mountains, with their presence dating back 10,000–12,000 years. Around 5,000 years ago these tribes began processing acorns, harvesting local marshland plants. 2,000 years as hunting and fishing techniques improved, the population increased significantly. Shortly after this sharp increase a precious stone money system arose, increasing the viability of the region by offsetting fluctuations in available resources relating to climate changes; the native people who inhabited Simi Valley spoke an interior dialect of the Chumash language, called Ventureño. Simi Valley's name derived from the Chumash word Shimiyi, which refers to the stringy, thread-like clouds that typify the region.
The name could have derived from strands of mist from coastal fog that move into the Oxnard Plain and wind their way up the Calleguas Creek and the Arroyo Las Posas into Simi Valley. The origin of the name was preserved because of the work of the anthropologist John P. Harrington, whose brother, Robert E. Harrington lived in Simi Valley. Robert Harrington explained the name: "The word Simiji in Indian meant the little white wind clouds so seen when the wind blows up here and Indians living on the coast, would never venture up here when those wind clouds were in the sky; the word Simiji was constructed by whites to the word Simi. There are other explanations about the name Simi, but this one was given to me by my brother who worked over 40 years for the Smithsonian Institution and it seems most plausible to me". Three Chumash settlements existed in Simi Valley during the Mission period in the late 18th and early 19th century: Shimiyi, Ta’apu, Kimishax or Quimisac. There are many Chumash cave paintings in the area containing pictographs, including the Burro Flats Painted Cave in the Burro Flats area of the Simi Hills, located between the Simi Valley, West Hills and Bell Canyon.
The cave is located on private land owned by Boeing operated by Rocketdyne for testing rocket engines and nuclear research. Other areas containing Chumash Native American pictographs in the Simi Hills are for instance by Lake Manor and Chatsworth; the first Europeans to visit Simi Valley were members of the Spanish Portolá expedition, the first European land entry and exploration of the present-day state of California. The expedition traversed the valley on January 13–14, 1770, traveling from Conejo Valley to San Fernando Valley, they camped near a native village in the valley on the 14th. Rancho Simi known as Rancho San José de Nuestra Senora de Altagracia y Simi, was a 113,009-acre Spanish land grant in eastern Ventura and western Los Angeles counties given in 1795 to Francisco Javier Pico and his two brothers, Patricio Pico and Miguel Pico by Governor Diego de Borica. Rancho Simi was the earliest Spanish colonial land grant within Santa Barbara Counties; the name derives from Shimiji, the name of the Chumash Native American village here before the Spanish.
It was one of the largest lands, but when Mexico became independent from Spain, land was handed out much more freely. The Simi Adobe-Strathearn House the home of Robert P. Strathearn, served as the headquarters of the rancho. José de la Guerra y Noriega, a Captain of the Santa Barbara Presidio, who had begun to acquire large amounts of land in California to raise cattle, purchased Rancho Simi from the Pico family in 1842. A few years after Jose de la Guerra's death in 1858, the rancho was sold to the Philadelphia and California Petroleum Company headed by Pennsylvania Railroad president, Thomas A. Scott; when no great amount of oil was discovered, Scott began to sell the rancho. In 1887, a portion of the rancho was bought by a newly formed company, the Simi Land and Water Company; the small colonial town known as "Santa Susana del Rancho Simi" throve in the late 19th century and had a Spanish-speaking majority, but since many Anglo-Americans have arrived to settle. Farms and groves dominated the valley's landscape until the 1970s.
For a brief time, its postal address was known as Simiopolis, though it was soon shortened again to Simi by 1910. The first public school was bu
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
California's 21st congressional district
California's 21st congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California, centered in the San Joaquin Valley, includes areas of Fresno County, Kern County, Kings County, Tulare County. Cities in it include Coalinga, Delano and outer parts of Bakersfield; the district is represented in 2019 by Democrat TJ Cox. It was represented by Republican David Valadao from 2013–2019. Democrat Emilio Huerta, who lost to Valadao in 2016, had announced that he would run against Valadao again in the 2018 midterm elections. However, Huerta withdrew from the race on March 2, 2018, one week before the filing deadline to appear on the primary election ballot. On March 6, 2018, T. J. Cox, an engineer and small businessman, withdrew from the CA-10 primary race to instead run in CA-21 against Rep. Valadao. Cox defeated Valadao in the 2018 general election. In 2017, the District leaned 5 points more Democratic than the nation as a whole, according to the Cook Political Report's Partisan Voting Index.
From 2003–2013, the 21st district covered all of Tulare County and the eastern half of Fresno County. As of January 2019, there are five former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from California's 21st congressional district that are living; the most recent representative to die was Augustus F. Hawkins on November 10, 2007; the most serving representative to die was James C. Corman on December 30, 2000. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 21st congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD21
Ventura County Star
The Ventura County Star is a daily newspaper published in Camarillo and serves all of Ventura County. It was founded in 1925 by the John P. Scripps Newspaper Group, which merged with E. W. Scripps in 1986. Around 1936, the Star acquired the Ventura Free Press, began publishing as the Ventura County Star-Free Press in 1938, it dropped the Free-Press addition in November 1994. Scripps spun out its newspapers to Journal Media Group in April 2015. Gannett acquired the Journal newspapers in April 2016; the editor from 1960–1987 was Julius Gius. As of April 2, 2011, the current publisher was George Cogswell III, he was the publisher for five years, leaving in 2012 to be publisher and chief revenue officer of The Commercial Appeal, in Memphis, TN. He was succeeded by Margie Cochrane in 2012; as of October, 2016 the current president is Mark J. Winkler. Succeeding former publisher Shanna Cannon; the Ventura County Star has faced many complaints that involved its circulation practices rather than its editorial content.
As of April 2, 2011, the Better Business Bureau listed ten separate "significant" complaints from the previous three years, of which two alleged the company unauthorized debits from the customers' checking accounts, four alleged problems obtaining refunds, two alleged the company harassed a customer or former customer, two alleged the improper billing, two alleged delivery continued after customers tried to cancel. In 2008, Judge Ken Riley ordered the Ventura County Star not to print the content of an affidavit that the public defender representing defendant Calvin Sharp claimed could prejudice potential jurors; this "gag" order is no longer in effect, a redacted copy of that affidavit is now online. Official website
California's 24th congressional district
California's 24th congressional district is represented by Salud Carbajal. Following redistricting, the district contains all of Santa Barbara County and San Luis Obispo County as well as the Los Padres National Forest in Ventura County. From 2003 -- 2013, the district covered most of inland Santa Barbara Counties. Republican Glenard P. Lipscomb won the special election to replace fellow Republican Norris Poulson, elected Mayor of Los Angeles. Data for this special election is not available; as of January 2019, there are four former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from California's 24th congressional district that are living. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 24th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD24