Lancashire is a ceremonial county in North West England. The administrative centre is Preston; the county has an area of 1,189 square miles. People from Lancashire are known as Lancastrians; the history of Lancashire begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire; the land that lay between the Ribble and Mersey, Inter Ripam et Mersam, was included in the returns for Cheshire. When its boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire. Lancashire emerged as a major industrial region during the Industrial Revolution. Liverpool and Manchester grew into its largest cities, with economies built around the docks and the cotton mills respectively; these cities dominated the birth of modern industrial capitalism. The county contained the collieries of the Lancashire Coalfield. By the 1830s 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire. Accrington, Bolton, Bury, Colne, Manchester, Oldham, Preston and Wigan were major cotton mill towns during this time.
Blackpool was a centre for tourism for the inhabitants of Lancashire's mill towns during wakes week. The historic county was subject to a significant boundary reform in 1974 which created the current ceremonial county and removed Liverpool and Manchester, most of their surrounding conurbations to form the metropolitan and ceremonial counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester; the detached northern part of Lancashire in the Lake District, including the Furness Peninsula and Cartmel, was merged with Cumberland and Westmorland to form Cumbria. Lancashire lost 709 square miles of land to other counties, about two fifths of its original area, although it did gain some land from the West Riding of Yorkshire. Today the ceremonial county borders Cumbria to the north, Greater Manchester and Merseyside to the south, North and West Yorkshire to the east; the county palatine boundaries remain the same as those of the pre-1974 county with Lancaster serving as the county town, the Duke of Lancaster exercising sovereignty rights, including the appointment of lords lieutenant in Greater Manchester and Merseyside..
The county was established in 1182 than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain; the towns of Manchester, Ribchester, Burrow and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county formed part of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the Domesday Book, land between the Ribble and Mersey were known as "Inter Ripam et Mersam" and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, it is by no means certain, it is claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, Westmorland and Cheshire; the county was divided into hundreds, Blackburn, Lonsdale and West Derby.
Lonsdale was further partitioned into Lonsdale North, the detached part north of the sands of Morecambe Bay including Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale South. Lancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government. In 1889, the administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the historic county except for the county boroughs such as Blackburn, Barrow-in-Furness, Wigan and Manchester; the area served by the Lord-Lieutenant covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and in Cheshire, southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became urbanised the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Bolton, Burnley, Liverpool, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, St. Helens and Wigan were added Warrington and Southport.
The county boroughs had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire. By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK; the administrative county was the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county was abolished, as were the county boroughs; the urbanised southern part became part of two metropolitan counties and Greater Manchester. The new county of Cumbria incorporates the Furness exclave; the boroughs of Liverpool, Knowsley, St. Helens and Sefton were included in Merseyside. In Greater Manchester the successor boroughs were
Michael Steven Bublé is a Canadian singer, songwriter and record producer. His first album reached the top ten in Canada and the UK, he found a worldwide audience with his 2005 album It's Time as well as his 2007 album Call Me Irresponsible – which reached number one on the Canadian Albums Chart, the UK Albums Chart, the US Billboard 200, the Australian ARIA Albums Chart and several European charts. Bublé's 2009 album Crazy Love debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 after three days of sales, remained there for two weeks, it was his fourth number one album on Billboard's Top Jazz Albums chart. His 2011 holiday album, was in first place on the Billboard 200 for the final four weeks of 2011 and the first week of 2012, totalling five weeks atop the chart, it made the top 5 in the United Kingdom. With this, Christmas became his third-consecutive number-one album on the chart. To Be Loved was released in April 2013. Bublé has sold over 75 million records worldwide, he has won numerous awards, including multiple Juno Awards.
Michael Steven Bublé was born in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, on September 9, 1975, to Lewis Bublé, a salmon fisherman, Amber. He has two younger sisters, Brandee, a children's book author, Crystal, an actress; the siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith. He attended Cariboo Hill Secondary School. Bublé is a Croatian last name from the town of Trogir, his paternal grandfather Frank was a native of Croatia. Frank's paternal grandmother was a Radoslavić, his own mother a Galović. According to an Oprah Winfrey interview on October 9, 2009, Bublé dreamed of becoming a famous singer from the age of two; when he was a teenager, he prayed to become a singer. His interest in jazz began around age five when his family played Bing Crosby's White Christmas album; the first time his family noticed his singing talent was at Christmas time when Bublé was 13 years old, they heard him powerfully sing the phrase "May your days be merry and bright" when the family was singing to the song "White Christmas" on a car ride.
Bublé had a strong passion for ice hockey and wanted to become a professional hockey player for the Vancouver Canucks growing up, but he believed he was not good enough. "I wanted so bad to be a hockey player... If I was any good at hockey, I wouldn't be singing right now." He played hockey in his youth, watched Vancouver Canucks games with his father, said that he "went to every single home game as a kid... I remember I wanted to be Gary Lupul, I wanted to be Ivan Hlinka. I used to think that being named Michael Bublé was pretty cool because I was close to being called Jiri Bubla." Bublé shared his hockey interest with his grandfather. From the age of 14, Bublé spent six years working during the summer as a commercial fisherman with his father and crewmates, he called the experience "the most deadly physical work I'll know in my lifetime. We'd be gone for two, sometimes three months at a time and the experience of living and working among guys over twice my age taught me a lot about responsibility and what it means to be a man."His first singing engagements were in nightclubs at the age of 16 and were facilitated by his Italian grandfather, Demetrio Santagà, a plumber from Preganziol, Treviso who offered his plumbing services in exchange for stage time for his grandson.
Bublé's grandfather paid for his singing lessons. Both his voice teacher, Sandi Siemens, his maternal grandfather never stopped believing that he would become a star. Bublé's maternal grandmother, was Italian, from Carrufo, L'Aquila; as a child entertainer he used the name "Mickey Bubbles". Bublé grew up listening to his grandfather's collection of jazz records and credits his grandfather in encouraging his love for jazz music. "My grandfather was my best friend growing up. He was the one who opened me up to a whole world of music that seemed to have been passed over by my generation. Although I like rock and roll and modern music, the first time my granddad played me the Mills Brothers, something magical happened; the lyrics were so romantic, so real. It was like seeing my future flash before me. I wanted to be a singer and I knew that this was the music that I wanted to sing."Bublé never stopped believing he would become a star but admitted he was the only one who believed in his dream, stating that his maternal grandfather thought Bublé was going to be "an opening act for somebody in Las Vegas".
He stated he never learned to read and write music, using only emotion to drive his songwriting ability. At the age of 18, Bublé entered a local talent contest and won, but he was disqualified by organizer Bev Delich for being underage. Delich entered him in the Canadian Youth Talent Search. After Bublé won that contest, he asked Delich to be his manager. Delich represented him for the next seven years, during which Bublé worked diligently at any job that came along: clubs, cruise ships, hotel lounges, shopping malls, talent shows. In 1996, Bublé appeared in TV's Death Game as a Drome Groupie. In 1996, he appeared in two episodes of The X-Files as a member of a submarine crew, his first national TV performance was on a 1997 award-winning Bravo! Documentary titled Big Band Boom!, directed by Mark Glover Masterson. Beginning in 1997, he became a frequent guest on Vicki Gabereau's national talk show on the CTV network. During its first season, the Vancouver-based program aired live, which worked in Bublé's favour.
When a scheduled guest was forced to cancel, the show's music producer asked Bublé to fill in at the last minu
Four Lads Who Shook the Wirral
Four Lads Who Shook the Wirral is the seventh album by Wirral-based UK rock band Half Man Half Biscuit, released in June 1998. Stewart Mason, AllMusic: "Half Man Half Biscuit released this album within one calendar year of its predecessor, 1997's Voyage to the Bottom of the Road, that accounts for the somewhat lackluster feel. Here is enough of interest here to appeal to the converted, but newcomers should start elsewhere." The album title is a parody of a phrase associated with The Beatles, "Four lads who shook the world", referring instead to the band's origin in Wirral Techstep is a subgenre of drum and bass, popular in the late 1990s Wensum is a river in Norfolk A split single is a single which includes tracks by two or more separate artists A Country Practice was a multi-Logie award-winning Australian television serial/drama series 1981–93 Goa is a state located in the southwestern region of India a Portuguese colony, known as a destination for hippies "Keeping Two Chevrons Apart" refers to the official UK motorway road sign "Keep Apart 2 Chevrons", advising drivers of safe distances between vehicles.
Gregory Dyke is a British media executive, football administrator and broadcaster. Since the 1960s, Dyke has had a long career in the UK in print and broadcast journalism, he is credited with introducing'tabloid' television to British broadcasting, reviving the ratings of TV-am. In the 1990s, he held chief executive positions at LWT Group, Pearson Television and Channel 5, he was the Director-General of the BBC from January 2000 to January 2004. Dyke was a director of Manchester United and chairman of Brentford football clubs, from 2013 to 2016 was chairman of the Football Association, he was Chancellor of the University of York from 2004 to 2015. He is the chairman of children's television company HiT Entertainment, is a panellist on Sky News' The Pledge. In 2019, Dyke became Chairman of London Film School. Dyke was born in 1947, in Hayes, the youngest of three sons in a "stable, lower middle class" family, his father was an insurance salesman. The family lived at 17 Cerne Close until he was 9 moved to Cedars Drive, Hillingdon.
He was educated at Yeading Primary School and Hayes Grammar School, which he left with one grade "E" at A-level mathematics. After school he was a trainee manager at Marks & Spencer before leaving to work as a trainee reporter for the Hillingdon Mirror, becoming chief reporter in eight months, he left the Mirror after attempting to stage a union-backed protest against poor pay conditions by the junior staff of the work on the paper. He got a job at the Slough Evening Mail. Amongst his colleagues was future music journalist Colin Irwin, he went on to study for a degree at the University of York as a mature student, graduating in 1974 with a bachelor's degree in politics. During his time at York, Dyke was active in student politics, was part of a collective that produced a psychedelic underground student magazine called Nouse, he met and married his first wife Christine Taylor whilst at the university. As he was a mature student with work experience, his politics were more of a traditional Labour supporter than some of the more radical far left students.
His contemporaries and friends at York included future journalists Linda Grant and Peter Hitchens, the latter active in the International Socialists. Dyke was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University in 1999 and was Chancellor from 2004 to 2015. After university, Dyke followed his first wife to Newcastle, he had become disillusioned with newspaper journalism, tried for a job as a junior reporter at BBC Radio Teesside. He was unsuccessful because the interviewers felt no-one would understand his accent. Dyke instead found work covering rural affairs for the Newcastle Journal, he moved back to London with Christine in 1974 to become campaign officer for the Wandsworth Community Relations Council. He left to campaign to be elected GLC councillor for Putney. Again he was unsuccessful, he was given assistance getting a job at London Weekend Television by fellow ex-Newcastle journalist Nicholas Evans, at the time working on Weekend World. Dyke got a junior position in the current affairs department.
His bosses there were Peter Jay. He attracted attention for trying to give the programmes he worked on a more populist edge; this led to him being given the chance to launch a new early evening current affairs topical news programme. This became The Six O'Clock Show, fronted by Michael Aspel, with co-hosts Danny Baker and Janet Street-Porter; the show is seen by many as the first example of British tabloid TV. After the success of The Six O' Clock Show, Dyke was brought in by Jonathan Aitken to become programme director at ailing station TV-am in April 1983; the station was doing badly in the ratings compared to the BBC's popular Breakfast Time magazine style programme. He was instrumental in reviving the breakfast show's fortunes by introducing a new schedule based around popular features including bingo, celebrity gossip and horoscopes. Dyke left TV-am, in May 1984 after Bruce Gyngell was brought in to enhance and improve the company to allow it to be financially viable. Ten days Michael Moor, the TV-am General Manager left the station.
In August 1984, Dyke became Director of Programmes for TVS. In April 1987, Dyke moved from TVS to LWT again to be Director of Programmes - having worked at LWT in 1978. At the same time, he helped LWT re-sectioning the company in a bid to cut costs and overhaul the working practices within the company ahead of a new franchise period, which it won. In 1992 Dyke was appointed the chairman of the ITV Council, LWT chief executive. In February 1993 Dyke was appointed chairman of the GMTV board and tasked with overhauling the station format, which included "more popular journalism", his role was to bring new and imaginative ideas to the station without taking on full day-to-day running. In 1994, he made a fortune when Granada bought out LWT. Dyke became chairman and chief executive of Pearson Television in January 1995, began expanding the company, his first acquisition was Grundy Television which helped build Pearson into the biggest non-US independent production company in the world. At the end of October 1995 a consortium guided by Dyke was awarded the licence for Channel 5, he became the first chairman of the new channel.
He was appointed Chairman of Channel 5 on 21 February 1997. In 1997 he was asked to review the Patients' Charter of the National Health Service. In 2000, he took over from John Birt as Director-General of the BBC, he was appointed despite Conservative protests that he had donated £50
Liverpool F.C. 0–2 Arsenal F.C. (26 May 1989)
The final match of the 1988–89 Football League season was contested at Anfield between Liverpool and Arsenal, the top two teams in the First Division, on 26 May 1989. The clubs were close enough on points for the match to act as a decider for the championship. Arsenal won by the margin they required to take the title. Midfielder Michael Thomas scored the second goal in the final seconds of the match, ending Arsenal's 18-year wait to be crowned champions; the two clubs were due to meet a month earlier, but the stadium disaster at Hillsborough, which killed 96 of Liverpool's supporters, meant the fixture was postponed out of respect. It was moved to days after the FA Cup Final which Liverpool won. Arsenal manager George Graham prepared for the match by giving his squad a minibreak and created a calming atmosphere in their training sessions, he adjusted his usual formation to a defensive one to stop Liverpool's attacking threat. A peak British television audience of over 12 million saw a first half of few chances as Arsenal nullified Liverpool.
Striker Alan Smith scored from a header as play resumed in the second half, but as the game drew to a close with the score 1–0, Arsenal needed a second goal to be crowned champions. In stoppage time, Arsenal's Thomas made a run through the Liverpool midfield and scored a last-minute goal, in the process denying Liverpool the chance of a second League and Cup double; the match is considered to be one of the most dramatic conclusions to a league season in the history of the English game. It is regarded as the starting point of a renaissance in English football; the title decider formed the centrepiece of Nick Hornby's book Fever Pitch. The 1988–89 season marked the 100th anniversary of the Football League. A season earlier, the body commemorated its founding by organising an exhibition game between a Football League-select XI, a World XI, followed by a Football Festival in April 1988; the celebrations culminated in October 1988, when Arsenal won a centenary tournament involving seven other First Division clubs.
Despite the efforts of the Football League, the events failed to capture the imagination of supporters and the media. In the same year, the Kenilworth Road riot – scuffles between fans of Millwall and Luton Town – resulted in Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's government setting up a "war cabinet" to combat football hooliganism. Incidents like the aforementioned tarnished the sport's reputation. In August 1988, ITV paid £ 44 million over four seasons to broadcast live; the arrangement came about as British Satellite Broadcasting withdrew its joint offer with the BBC, unhappy at how the clubs were run. By November 1988 the government issued a broadcasting shakeup, which aided the growth of multichannel satellite television. ITV's contract therefore acted as a precursor to rising broadcasting deals and growing pressures to keep the top clubs in line. For much of the 1988–89 season, Arsenal led the First Division table. At one stage Arsenal were 11 points clear of defending champions Liverpool, but their lead diminished following a run of bad results.
Liverpool, coached by player-manager Kenny Dalglish, capitalised after an indifferent start to the campaign, emerged as Arsenal's main challengers for the title. Towards the end of the season Liverpool supporters were involved in a sporting disaster at Hillsborough, where 96 of the club's supporters lost their lives as a result of overcrowding during a match against Nottingham Forest on 15 April; the disaster was the worst of its kind in English sporting history, led to an inquiry into safety standards of stadiums. Due to the tragedy, Liverpool's fixture at home to Arsenal on 23 April was postponed, it was rescheduled to 26 May – six days after the Cup final, on a Friday evening. The league season had ended for the remaining First Division clubs a week before; the 1988–89 title race was the closest in the history of the First Division. In the run-up to the Anfield match, Arsenal drew with Wimbledon. On the eve of the match, they were three points ahead, with the table looking as follows: Explanation of criteria A victory for Arsenal would have brought the two teams level on points.
An Arsenal victory by two clear goals would have given them the title on goals scored, as the two teams would have been tied on goal difference at +37. A three-goal deficit or more would have won Arsenal the title on goal difference. Any other result would have given the title to Liverpool. Liverpool had not lost by two or more goals at Anfield in three years, Arsenal had not won there in fifteen. Furthermore, Liverpool had never been defeated when playing forwards John Aldridge and Ian Rush together; the home side therefore the overwhelming favourites to win the title – the Daily Mirror's
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. It has won 13 League titles, a record 13 FA Cups, two League Cups, the League Centenary Trophy, 15 FA Community Shields, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893, they reached the First Division in 1904. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, have won the second-most top-flight matches in English football history. In the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970 -- 71, they won their first FA Cup Double. Between 1989 and 2005, they won five FA Cups, including two more Doubles, they completed the 20th century with the highest average league position. Herbert Chapman died prematurely, he helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, added the white sleeves and brighter red to Arsenal's kit.
Arsène Wenger won the most trophies. He won a record 7 FA Cups, his title-winning team set an English record for the longest top-flight unbeaten league run at 49 games between 2003 and 2004, receiving the nickname The Invincibles, a special gold Premier League trophy. In 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the club crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, becoming close neighbours of Tottenham Hotspur, creating the North London derby. In 2006, they moved to the nearby Emirates Stadium. In terms of revenue, Arsenal is the ninth highest-earning football club in the world, earned €487.6m in 2016–17 season. Based on social media activity from 2014 to 2015, Arsenal's fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the third most valuable in England, with the club being worth $2.24 billion. In October 1886, Scotsman David Danskin and his fellow 15 munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with each member contributing sixpence and Danskin adding another three shillings to help form the club.
Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the whole complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C.'s first home was Plumstead Common, though they spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead, at the Manor Ground. Royal Arsenal won Arsenal's first trophies in 1890 and 1891, these were the only football association trophies Arsenal won during their time in South East London. In 1891, Royal Arsenal became the first London club to turn professional. Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893, they registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year. Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers and the arrival of more accessible football clubs elsewhere in the city, led the club close to bankruptcy by 1910.
Businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall became involved in the club, sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, North London; this saw their third change of name: the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to The Arsenal. In 1919, The Football League voted to promote The Arsenal, instead of relegated local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, into the newly enlarged First Division, despite only listing the club sixth in the Second Division's last pre-war season of 1914–15; some books have speculated. That year, The Arsenal started dropping "The" in official documents shifting its name for the final time towards Arsenal, as it is known today. With a new home and First Division football, attendances were more than double those at the Manor Ground, Arsenal's budget grew rapidly, their location and record-breaking salary offer lured star Huddersfield Town manager Herbert Chapman in 1925. Over the next five years, Chapman built a new Arsenal.
He appointed enduring new trainer Tom Whittaker, implemented Charlie Buchan's new twist on the nascent WM formation, captured young players like Cliff Bastin and Eddie Hapgood, lavished Highbury's income on stars like David Jack and Alex James. With record-breaking spending and gate receipts, Arsenal became known as the Bank of England club. Transformed, Chapman's Arsenal claimed their first national trophy, the FA Cup, in 1930. Two League Championships followed, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. Chapman presided over multiple off the pitch changes: white sleeves and shirt numbers were added to the kit. In the middle of the 1933–34 season, Chapman died of pneumonia, his work was left to Joe Shaw and George Allison, who saw out a hat-trick with the 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles, won the 1936 FA Cup and 1937–38 title. World War II meant The Football League was suspended for seven years, but Arsenal returned to win it in the second post-war season, 1947–48; this was Tom Whittaker's first season as manager, after his promotion to succeed Allison, the club had equalled the champions of England record.
They won a third FA Cup in 1950, won a record-breaking seven
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr