Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is also the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, together, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Leeds, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Scotland, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index. It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relatives
Cultural impact of Elvis Presley
Since the beginning of his career, Elvis Presley has had an extensive cultural impact. According to Rolling Stone, it was Elvis who made rock n roll the international language of pop, Rolling Stone encyclopedia of Rock and Roll describes Presley as an American music giant of the 20th century who single-handedly changed the course of music and culture in the mid-1950s. His recordings, dance moves, attitude and clothing came to be seen as embodiments of rock and his music was heavily influenced by African-American blues, Christian gospel, and Southern country. In a list of the greatest English language singers, as compiled by Q Magazine, Presley was ranked first, Presley sang both hard driving rockabilly, rock and roll dance songs and ballads, laying a commercial foundation upon which other rock musicians would build their careers. African-American performers like Big Joe Turner, Wynonie Harris and Fats Domino came to prominence after Presleys acceptance among mass audiences of White American adults. Singers like Jerry Lee Lewis, the Everly Brothers, Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Little Richard, Buddy Holly, Johnny Cash, Roy Orbison, john Lennon later observed, Before Elvis, there was nothing. During the 1940s bobby soxers had idolized Frank Sinatra, but the buyers of his records were mostly between the ages of eighteen and twenty-two, Presley triggered a lot of demand for his records by near-teens and early teens aged ten and up. Meanwhile, American teenagers began buying newly available transistor radios. Teens were asserting more independence and Presley became a symbol of their parents consternation. Half a century later, historian Ian Brailsford commented, The phenomenal success of Elvis Presley in 1956 convinced many doubters of the financial opportunities existing in the youth market, Presley would nevertheless publicly cite his debt to African American music, pointing to artists such as B. B. King, Arthur Big Boy Crudup, Ivory Joe Hunter, the reporter who conducted Presleys first interview in New York City in 1956 noted that he named blues singers who obviously meant a lot to him. Was very surprised to hear him talk about the black performers down there and about how he tried to carry on their music. Later that year in Charlotte, North Carolina, Presley was quoted as saying, The colored folks been singing it and playing it just like I’m doin now, man, for more years than I know. They played it like that in their shanties and in their juke joints, Little Richard said of Presley, He was an integrator. They wouldnt let black music through and he opened the door for black music. Up to the black artists had sold minuscule amounts of their recorded music relative to the national market potential. Black songwriters had mostly limited horizons and could only eke out a living, but after Presley purchased the music of African American Otis Blackwell and had his Gladys Music company hire talented black songwriter Claude Demetrius, the industry underwent a dramatic change. In the spring of 1957 Presley invited African American performer Ivory Joe Hunter to visit Graceland, of Presley, Hunter commented, He showed me every courtesy, and I think hes one of the greatest
Colonel Tom Parker
Thomas Andrew Colonel Tom Parker was a Dutch-born American talent manager, best known as the manager of Elvis Presley. His management of Presley defined the role of masterminding talent management, Parkers healthy compensation has led some to question whether it came at the detriment of his client. While other managers took compensation in the range of 10–15 percent of earnings, Presley said of Parker, I dont think Id have ever been very big if it wasnt for him. For many years, Parker falsely claimed to have born in the United States. Parker was born in Breda, Netherlands, the seventh of 11 children in a Catholic family, as a boy, he worked as a barker at carnivals in his hometown, learning many of the skills that he would require in later life while working in the entertainment industry. At age 15, Parker moved to Rotterdam, gaining employment on the boats in the port town, at age 17, he first displayed signs of wanting to run away to America to make his fortune. A year later, with money to sustain him for a short period. During his first visit there, he traveled with a Chautauqua educative tent show, before returning briefly to the Netherlands. Alanna Nash would later write in The Colonel, her biography of him, Parker returned to America at age 20, finding work with carnivals due to his previous experience in the Netherlands. He enlisted in the United States Army, taking the name Tom Parker from the officer who interviewed him and he served two years in the 64th Coast Artillery, at Fort Shafter in Hawaii, and shortly afterwards re-enlisted at Fort Barrancas, Florida. Although Parker had served honorably before, he went AWOL this time and was charged with desertion. He was punished with solitary confinement, from which he emerged with a psychosis that led to two months in a hospital, and he was discharged from the Army due to his mental condition. Following his discharge, Parker worked at a number of jobs, including food concessions and he began to build up a list of contacts that would prove valuable in later years. In 1935, Parker married 27-year-old Marie Francis Mott and they struggled to survive through the Great Depression, working short cons and traveling the country seeking work. Parker would later claim that at times they had had to live on as little as $1 a week, Parker first became involved in the music industry as a music promoter in 1938, working with popular singer Gene Austin. Despite having sold over 86 million records since 1924 and earning over $17 million and he had wasted much of his fortune on partying, cars, mansions, and women, and his popularity had been eclipsed by new singers such as Bing Crosby. Parker, charged with the task of promoting the star, found the transition to be a smooth one, using much of his carny experience to sell tickets. He was a good promoter, but he had his sights set on management
Elvis' Christmas Album
It has been reissued in numerous different formats since its first release. The publication Music Vendor listed Elvis Christmas Album on their singles charts for two weeks in December 1957 – January 1958, with a position of #49. According to the latest certifications by the Recording Industry Association of America and it is the first Presley title to attain Diamond certification by the RIAA, and is also the best-selling Christmas/holiday album of all time in the United States. The album has sold 15 million copies worldwide, the two album sides divided into a program of secular Christmas songs on side one, with two traditional Christmas carols and the gospel numbers on side two. Those included two spirituals by innovator Thomas A. Dorsey, Peace in the Valley and Take My Hand, coincidentally, A Jolly Christmas from Frank Sinatra released the previous month by that other 1950s singing icon, also divided into a secular and a traditional side. While most of the songs selected were traditional Christmas fare, such as White Christmas and Silent Night, two new songs by regular suppliers of material for Presley were commissioned. One was Santa Bring My Baby Back and the other, was a rock and roll number, Santa Claus Is Back in Town, written by Jerry Leiber. Elvis had asked the pair to come up with another Christmas song during sessions for the album, within a few minutes, they had the song written, Silent Night and O Little Town of Bethlehem were arranged by Elvis Presley. While most US radio stations ignored Berlins request, at least one disc jockey was fired for playing a song from the album, unlike Elvis recording, however, their version attracted virtually no adverse reaction, and certainly no reported opposition from Irving Berlin. Part of the reason that The Drifters version of White Christmas was less controversial was because that version was played only on radio stations. Elvis Presleys version brought greater attention to The Drifters version which gained prominence with its inclusion in the 1990 movie Home Alone, original 1957 copies of Elvis Christmas Album were issued with a red booklet-like album cover featuring promotional photos from Elvis third movie Jailhouse Rock. Original copies with the gold sticker intact on the shrink wrap have proven to be among the most valuable of Elvis albums, adding to its already high value are limited red vinyl albums and album covers with gold print down the spine. Record labels for all original 1957 pressings are black with all-silver print, the famous His Masters Voice dog logo at the top of label, and LONG 33 1⁄3 PLAY at the bottom. The other new composition on the album, Santa, Bring My Baby Back to Me was paired with Santa Claus Is Back In Town, the single reached number seven on the UK Singles Chart in November 1957. Santa Claus Is Back In Town/Blue Christmas was a 1965 single release for the US market, Blue Christmas would re-enter the Christmas or Holiday Singles chart many times in the years that follow. Two different EPs, Elvis Sings Christmas Songs, EPA4108 in December 1957, the former topped the newly established Billboard EP Chart, while the latter failed to chart. Elvis Christmas Album was reissued two years after its first release, replacing the cover of the original with a close-up of Elvis as he posed against an outdoor. The album continued to reach the charts each year until 1962
Elvis Is Back!
Elvis Is Back. is the tenth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley. It was released on RCA Victor Records in mono and stereo in April 1960, recorded over two sessions in March and April, the album marked Presleys return to recording after his discharge from the U. S. Army. In 1957, as Presleys fame was soaring, he received a notice from the Memphis Draft Board. During Presleys two-year military service in Germany, RCA Victor and Paramount Pictures progressively released material he had completed prior to enlistment, during his last months in the Army, Presley experimented with new sounds and worked on further improving his performance. He also prepared material for his first session in Nashville, which was scheduled to take place upon his return, Presley returned to the United States on March 2,1960. The singer reunited with his original band The Blue Moon Boys, the first session was held on March 20–21 and the second session was held on April 3–4, completing the album. Topped the UK Albums Chart and reached two in Billboards Top LPs. Initially, the release received mixed reviews, but over subsequent years its critical reception became more positive. The album was certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1999, following his third and last appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show, Presley received a notice from the Memphis draft board on January 8,1957. The board announced his 1A classification and his draft before the end of the year. During the first half of 1957, Presley had three number one hits with Too Much, All Shook Up, and Teddy Bear and his second film, Loving You, opened on July 30 to box office success. His Christmas album was released on October 15 and his film, Jailhouse Rock. On December 20, Presley received his draft notice and he was granted a deferment so he could finish the forthcoming film King Creole, which had already received an investment of $350,000 from Paramount Pictures and producer Hal Wallis. At the beginning of 1958, Presleys single Dont topped the charts, Presley was inducted into the Army on March 24,1958. Soon after starting basic training at Fort Hood, Texas, he received a visit from Eddie Fadal, according to Fadal, Presley firmly believed his career was finished. After completing training, he joined the 3rd Armored Division in Friedberg, Germany, media reports echoed Presleys concerns about his career, but RCA producer Steve Sholes and Freddy Bienstock of Hill and Range had carefully prepared for his two-year absence. Prepared with unreleased material, they kept up a stream of regular, RCA also released four albums compiling old material during this period, most successfully Elvis Golden Records and 50,000,000 Elvis Fans Cant Be Wrong. During his final months in the Army, Presley started to experiment with new material and thinking ahead to his anticipated return to recording
Elvis for Everyone!
Is the twenty-third album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, issued by RCA Victor in mono and stereo, LPM/LSP3450, in August 1965. Recording sessions took place over a span at Sun Studio in Memphis, RCA Studio B in Nashville, Tennessee. It peaked at number 10 on the Top Pop Albums chart, sessions in late May 1963 failed to coalesce into his fifth studio album of the 1960s, and by 1965 Presleys musical output had been focused exclusively on his movie career and soundtrack output. He had not released a studio album since Pot Luck in June 1962. RCA Victor invented the concept of an Anniversary Album to celebrate Presleys tenth year with the label, the albums cover depicting Presley standing next to the RCA Victor trademark Nipper the dog, sitting atop a cash register. Since May 1963, Presley had only made one non-movie session in January 1964 that yielded a mere three tracks, two of which had already been issued as sides for singles. Bereft of new material, RCA Victor assembled this album from unused tracks going all the way back to the Sun Records years, from sessions for both soundtracks and regular commercial releases. Possibly owing to its assembly from scraps and rejects, although it made the top ten on the LP chart, several tracks had appeared on film, but had not been issued on record before. In My Way had appeared in the 1961 film Wild in the Country, Sound Advice in the 1962 film Follow That Dream, the remaining eight tracks had been unissued in any form. RCA had intended to include the unreleased Sun Records track Tennessee Saturday Night, in 2014 Elvis for Everyone was reissued on the Follow That Dream label in a special 2-disc edition that contained the original album tracks along with numerous alternate takes
Jailhouse Rock (EP)
Jailhouse Rock is an extended-play, seven-inch 45 RPM record released on RCA Victor, catalogue EPA4114, during November 1957. Recording sessions took place at Radio Recorders in Hollywood on April 30 and May 3,1957 and it peaked at #1 on the newly inaugurated Billboard EP chart. Unlike Loving You but like Love Me Tender, a full long-playing album soundtrack was not devised for Jailhouse Rock, the title song Jailhouse Rock had already been released as a single on September 24,1957, and went to #1 on the singles chart. The writing and production team of Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller played prominent roles in the making of the soundtrack, writing four of its songs and working with Presley closely in the studio. Dont Leave Me Now had also appeared on the Loving You album, additional original music for the film was composed by producer Jeff Alexander, and the song sung by the Hunk Houghton character, One Day, was by Roy C. Bennett and Sid Tepper. The songs from the EP are available on the 1950s box set from 1992, three tracks were previously unreleased alternate takes, along with two newly mixed stereo versions of Love Me Tender and Poor Boy. Elvis Presley – vocals, acoustic guitar, electric bass Scotty Moore – electric guitar Dudley Brooks – piano Bill Black – double bass, fontana – drums The Jordanaires – background vocals