Dubai is the largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates. On the southeast coast of the Persian Gulf, it is the capital of the Emirate of Dubai, one of the seven emirates that make up the country. Dubai is a global business hub of the Middle East, it is a major global transport hub for passengers and cargo. Oil revenue helped accelerate the development of the city, a major mercantile hub, but Dubai's oil reserves are limited and production levels are low: today, less than 5% of the emirate's revenue comes from oil. A growing centre for regional and international trade since the early 20th century, Dubai's economy today relies on revenues from trade, aviation, real estate, financial services. Dubai has attracted world attention through large construction projects and sports events, in particular the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa; as of 2012, Dubai was the most expensive city in the Middle East. In 2014, Dubai's hotel rooms were rated as the second most expensive in the world.
Many theories have been proposed as to the origin of the word "Dubai". One theory suggests the word was used to describe the souq, similar to the souq in Ba. An Arabic proverb says "Daba Dubai", meaning "They came with a lot of money." According to Fedel Handhal, a scholar on the UAE's history and culture, the word Dubai may have come from the word daba, referring to the slow flow of Dubai Creek inland. The poet and scholar Ahmad Mohammad Obaid traces it to the same word, but to its alternative meaning of "baby locust" due to the abundant nature of locusts in the area before settlement; the history of human settlement in the area now defined by the United Arab Emirates is rich and complex, points to extensive trading links between the civilisations of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia, but as far afield as the Levant. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Dubai at Al-Ashoosh, Al Sufouh and the notably rich trove from Saruq Al Hadid show settlement through the Ubaid and Hafit periods, the Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq periods and the three Iron Ages in the UAE.
The area was known to the Sumerians as Magan, was a source for metallic goods, notably copper and bronze. The area was covered with sand about 5,000 years ago as the coast retreated inland, becoming part of the city's present coastline. Pre-Islamic ceramics have been found from the 4th centuries. Prior to the introduction of Islam to the area, the people in this region worshiped Bajir. After the spread of Islam in the region, the Umayyad Caliph of the eastern Islamic world invaded south-east Arabia and drove out the Sassanians. Excavations by the Dubai Museum in the region of Al-Jumayra found several artefacts from the Umayyad period; the earliest recorded mention of Dubai is in 1095 in the Book of Geography by the Andalusian-Arab geographer Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. The Venetian pearl merchant Gasparo Balbi visited the area in 1580 and mentioned Dubai for its pearling industry. Dubai is thought to have been established as a fishing village in the early 18th century and was, by 1822, a town of some 7–800 members of the Bani Yas tribe and subject to the rule of Sheikh Tahnun bin Shakhbut of Abu Dhabi.
In 1833, following tribal feuding, members of the Al Bu Falasah tribe seceded from Abu Dhabi and established themselves in Dubai. The exodus from Abu Dhabi was led by Obeid bin Saeed and Maktoum bin Butti, who became joint leaders of Dubai until Ubaid died in 1836, leaving Maktum to establish the Maktoum dynasty. Dubai signed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 along with other Trucial States, following the British punitive expedition against Ras Al Khaimah of 1819, which led to the bombardment of the coastal communities of the Persian Gulf; this led to the 1853 Perpetual Maritime Truce. Dubai – like its neighbours on the Trucial Coast – entered into an exclusivity agreement in which the United Kingdom took responsibility for the emirate's security in 1892. In 1841, a smallpox epidemic broke out in the Bur Dubai locality, forcing residents to relocate east to Deira. In 1896, fire broke out in Dubai, a disastrous occurrence in a town where many family homes were still constructed from barasti - palm fronds.
The conflagration consumed half the houses of Bur Dubai, while the district of Deira was said to have been destroyed. The following year, more fires broke out. A female slave was subsequently put to death. In 1901, Maktoum bin Hasher Al Maktoum established Dubai as a free port with no taxation on imports or exports and gave merchants parcels of land and guarantees of protection and tolerance; these policies saw a movement of merchants not only directly from Lingeh, but those who had settled in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah to Dubai. An indicator of the growing importance of the port of Dubai can be gained from the movements of the steamer of the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company, which from 1899 to 1901 paid five visits annually to Dubai. In 1902 the company's vessels made 21 visits to Dubai and from 1904 on, the steamers called fortnightly – in 1906, trading seventy thousand tonnes of cargo; the frequency of these vessels only helped to accelerate Dubai's role as an emerging port and trading hub of preference.
Lorimer notes the transfer from Lingeh'bids fair to become complete and permanent', that the town had by 1906 supplanted Lingeh as the chief entrepôt of the Trucial States. The'great storm' of 1908 struck the pearling boats of Dubai and the coastal emirates t
Rosehill Gardens Racecourse
The Rosehill Gardens Racecourse is located in the Western Sydney suburb of Rosehill, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It operated by the Australian Turf Club. Rosehill holds horse races for thoroughbred gallopers on a grass surface, it is one of the two premier racecourses in the other one being Randwick Racecourse. One of the main events held at Rosehill is the Golden Slipper race for two-year-olds; the track has a circumference of 2,048 metres with a home straight of 408 metres. The racecourse is served by trains on the Carlingford line stopping at Rosehill station. John Bennett purchased a large section of Rosehill to construct a recreation area. Construction started in 1883 and was completed in April 1885 for a grand total of £12,000. Bennett constructed a private railway line connecting the racecourse to the main line located at Clyde which opened on 17 November 1888. From 1943 Rosehill Gardens Racecourse was managed by the Sydney Turf Club and remained so until 2011 when the Sydney Turf Club and Australian Jockey Club combined to become the Australian Turf Club.
The Australian Turf Club are the current operators of Rosehill Gardens Racecourse. The following is a list of Group races. Australian Turf Club - Rosehill
Nad Al Sheba Racecourse
Nad Al Sheba Racecourse was Thoroughbred horse racing facility in Dubai, United Arab Emirates opened in 1986. It had a left-handed turf course of the same distance, it operated from November through March and featured the Dubai International Racing Carnival and its Dubai World Cup Night. Nad Al Sheba Golf Club ceased operations on May 31, 2007 because of the rebuilding of the racing complex, it is now called Meydan Racecourse. In 2010, all races held in Nad Al Sheba Racecourse moved to Meydan Racecourse. Other Conditions races at Nad Al Sheba Racecourse included these: Group 2: Al Fahidi Fort Jebel HattaGroup 3: Al Shindagha Sprint Al Rashidiya Dubai City of Gold Stakes UAE 2000 Guineas Balanchine Stakes Zabeel MileListed UAE 1000 Guineas Nad Al Sheba Racecourse
The Australian Derby is an Australian Turf Club Group 1 Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-olds at set weights held at Randwick Racecourse, Australia in April, during the Autumn ATC Championships Carnival. The race is considered to be the top ranked event for three-year-olds in Australian and New Zealand race classifications. Inaugurated in 1861 as the AJC Randwick Derby Stakes, the first race was won by Kyogle, a grandson of the Touchstone, a four-time Champion sire in Great Britain & Ireland. In 1865 the name of the race was changed to the AJC Australia Derby Stakes from 1873 through 1993 it was called the AJC Derby. Although the race became the AJC Australian Derby in 1994, it is still referred to as the AJC Derby; the official records show that Prince Humphrey won the 1928 Derby. It was a horse called Cragsman, with a different dam; this substitution came to light when Dick Tate of Toowoomba saw a picture of the Derby winner and was aware that Prince Humphrey had different markings, had photographs to prove it.
From 1932 to 1956, geldings were banned from competing in the Derby. Run at a distance of 1 1⁄2 miles, in 1972 the race was changed to 2,400 metres to conform to the metric system. In 1978 there was no race held and under a reorganisation, it was changed from a spring racing event to be run in the autumn beginning in 1979. Contested over 2,400 metres on a right-handed turf course, it has been won by some of the greats of the Australian turf, including Phar Lap and Kingston Town. Time record: 2:28.41 - Octagonal Largest winning margin: 10 lengths - Trident Most wins by a jockey: 6 - Thomas Hales Notes: Australian Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing List of Australian Group races Group racesThe premiere race for three-year-old Thoroughbreds in other countries: New Zealand Derby Derby Italiano Deutsches Derby Epsom Derby Kentucky Derby Prix du Jockey Club Queen's Plate First three placegetters Australian Derby
Peter Young Stakes
The Peter Young Stakes, registered as the St George Stakes, is a Melbourne Racing Club Group 2 Thoroughbred horse race held under weight for age conditions over a distance of 1800 metres at Caulfield racecourse, Australia in late February. Total prize money is A$200,000; the race was renamed in 2012 in honour of former Chairman of the Melbourne Racing Club, Peter Young, involved the rebranding of the Victoria Amateur Turf Club to the Melbourne Racing Club and the construction of the Sir Rupert Clarke Grandstand at Caulfield Racecourse. 1900–2011 – St George Stakes 2012 onwards – Peter Young Stakes 1900–1903 – 1 mile 1904–1972 – 11⁄8 miles 1973–1978 – 1800 metres 1979 – 1200 metres 1980–1981 – 1800 metres 1982 – 1600 metres 1983 – 1800 metres 1984–1987 – 1600 metres 1988–1994 – 1800 metres 1995 – 2000 metres 1996 onwards – 1800 metres 1900–1978 – Principal Race. 1979 onwards – Group 2 During World War II the event was held at Flemington Racecourse. In 1996 the event was held at Flemington Racecourse due to reconstruction of Caulfield Racecourse.
List of Australian Group races Group races
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat
A colt is a male horse below the age of four years. The term "colt" only describes young male horses and is not to be confused with foal, a horse of either sex less than one year of age. A yearling is a horse of either sex between the ages of one and two. A young female horse is called a filly, a mare once she is an adult animal. In horse racing for Thoroughbreds in the United Kingdom, a colt is defined as an uncastrated male from the age of two up to and including the age of four. An adult male horse, if left intact, is called either a horse. In some cases informal nomenclature, a gelding under four years is still called a colt. A rig or ridgling is a male equine with a retained testicle or one, incompletely castrated. In the wild, colts are driven from their herds by the herd stallion somewhere between the age of one and two; this may be, in part. When driven out, they join with other young stallions in a bachelor herd, they stay with this band. The terms "rag" or "rake" have been used to refer to a group of colts, but they have fallen out of modern usage