Icahn Stadium is a 5,000 seat track and field and multipurpose facility located on Randalls Island in Manhattan, New York City. Designed within the former site of Downing Stadium, it opened on April 23, 2005. Icahn Stadium is named after American businessman Carl Icahn, who made a $10 million donation towards the construction of the new stadium; the stadium features an International Association of Athletics Federations Class 1 certified running track with a 400-meter Mondo Super X Performance surface, it has been the site of many international and regional track and field events. Icahn Stadium was built to replace Downing Stadium, opened in 1936 as part of a larger New York City Parks project that included the construction of the Triborough Bridge; the opening of Downing Stadium made history as the facility hosted the U. S. Olympic Trials in 1936, at which Jesse Owens qualified for two events in the upcoming Berlin Olympics. Downing Stadium made history in 1939 as the site of the first televised college football game, Fordham vs. Waynesburg.
The site went was subsequently home to the New York Cosmos soccer team, as well as various sporting events and summer concerts. The stadium lights, taken from Ebbets Field after it was torn down, were left in place to light the new field. After years of use, the old facility was in need of renovation. In order to maximize the potential of the site, the old stadium was razed, Icahn Stadium was constructed in its place along with Field 10, a FIFA-certified soccer field, on the north side; the track and field built is one of only five International Association of Athletics Federations Class 1-certified tracks in the United States. The 5,000 seat stadium is sheltered by a cantilevered roof, is illuminated by a pair of lighting towers. In addition, the soccer field on the north of the stadium is outfitted with a scoreboard, fencing and bleachers for spectator events. Run by the Randalls Island Park Alliance, Icahn Stadium serves the residents of New York City and beyond, it houses some of RIPA’s various Randalls Island Kids programs, including the Jesse Owens track club, RIK Dance programs, components of RIK summer camp.
RIPA was founded in 1992 as a public–private partnership to work on behalf of Randalls Island Park. The Alliance, in conjunction with City leadership and the local community, works to realize the Island’s unique potential by developing sports and recreational facilities, restoring its vast natural environment and maintaining parkland, sponsoring community-linked programs for the children of New York City. RIPA runs free youth sports programs that bring over 14,000 under-resourced public school children from Harlem and the South Bronx to the island annually. Since its opening, Icahn Stadium has hosted more than 200,000 high school and professional athletes and spectators during the track season; each year, the number of meets and events that are scheduled has grown, bringing larger numbers of people to the facility. In 2005 the Reebok Grand Prix was held at the stadium. Known as the Adidas Grand Prix of the IAAF Diamond League, the annual summer tournament welcomes top runners from around the world.
From its inception it has distinguished itself as one of top meets to feature Olympic and World Champions. On May 31, 2008, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt set the world record in the 100m on the Icahn Stadium track with a time of 9.72 seconds at the Reebok Grand Prix.02 seconds faster than the previous record held by his countryman, Asafa Powell. On June 9, 2012, Kenyan runner David Rudisha set the record in the 800m in the U. S. with a time of 1:41.74 seconds at the Adidas Grand Prix. In December 2012, the New York Lizards of Major League Lacrosse announced that the team would play two home games at Icahn Stadium for the 2013 season; the team played at the venue on June 6 and 13, 2013. On June 27, 2013, the New York Cosmos revealed that their annual Cosmos Copa NYC soccer tournament would hold its final at the stadium, as many of the games were held at Randalls Island. Due to scheduling issues, the final was relocated. However, the site was used as a venue for the 2014 Cosmos Copa group stages.
Icahn Stadium was incorporated as a training center into the New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Future New York City Olympic bids will potentially use the stadium as a training facility, because it meets IAAF specifications. Icahn Stadium
John Stevens (inventor, born 1749)
Col. John Stevens, III was an American lawyer and inventor who constructed the first U. S. steam locomotive, first steam-powered ferry, first U. S. commercial ferry service from his estate in Hoboken. He was influential in the creation of U. S. patent law. Stevens was born June 1749, in New York City, New York, he was the only son of John Stevens Jr. a prominent state politician who served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, Elizabeth Alexander. His sister, Mary Stevens, married Robert R. Livingston, the first Chancellor of the State of New York, his maternal grandparents were James Alexander, the Attorney General of New Jersey, Mary Provoost Alexander, herself a prominent merchant in New York City. His paternal grandfather, John Stevens, emigrated from London England around 1695, was married to Mary Campbell, he graduated King's College in May 1768. After his graduation from King's College, he studied law and was admitted to the bar of New York City in 1771, he lived across the river. At public auction, he bought from the state of New Jersey a piece of land, confiscated from a Tory landowner.
The land, described as "William Bayard's farm at Hoebuck" comprised what is now the city of Hoboken. Stevens built his estate at Castle Point, on land that would become the site of Stevens Institute of Technology. In 1776, at age 27, he was appointed a Captain in Washington's army in the American Revolutionary War. During the War, he was promoted to Colonel and became Treasurer of New Jersey, serving from 1776 to 1779. In 1790, Stevens petitioned Congress for a bill. Through his efforts, his bill became a law on April 10, 1790, which introduced the patent system as law in the United States. In 1802, he built a screw-driven steamboat and in 1806, he built the Phoenix, a steamboat that sailed from Hoboken to Philadelphia in 1809, thereby becoming the first steamship to navigate the open ocean. In October 1811, Stevens' ship; the first railroad charter in the U. S. was given to others in 1815 for the New Jersey Railroad. The charter gave Stevens and his partners, through the Camden & Amboy Railroad, a monopoly on railroads in the state of New Jersey.
In 1825, he designed and built a steam locomotive, which he operated on a circle of track at his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey. He helped develop United States patent law. On October 17, 1782, he married the daughter of John Cox, she was a descendant of the Langeveldts who settled New Brunswick, New Jersey. Together, they had thirteen children; the children included: John Cox Stevens, first commodore of the New York Yacht Club who married Maria C. Livingston in 1809. Robert Livingston Stevens, applied the wave line to shipbuilding, president of Camden and Amboy Railroad, the first railroad built in New Jersey. James Alexander Stevens Richard Stevens Francis Bowes Stevens Edwin Augustus Stevens, the founder of Stevens Institute of Technology who married Mary Barton Picton and, after her death, Martha Bayard Dod Elizabeth Juliana Stevens, who married Thomas Anderson Conover Mary Stevens, the first wife of Rear Admiral Joshua R. Sands Harriet Stevens, the second wife of Joshua R. Sands Esther Bowes Stevens Catherine Sophia Van Cortlandt Stevens Stevens died on March 6, 1838, at his estate in Hoboken, New Jersey.
Col. John Stevens, III at Find a Grave John Stevens Collection, 1808 - 1881 Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution; the National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. John Stevens article, volume 11, page 21, published 1901 by John T. White. Rutger exhibitions
Aqueduct Racetrack is a Thoroughbred horse-racing facility and racino in the South Ozone Park and Jamaica neighborhoods of Queens, New York City. Its racing meets are from late October/early November through April; the racetrack is located adjacent to a casino called Resorts World New York City. Operating near the site of a former conduit of the Brooklyn Waterworks that brought water from eastern Long Island to the Ridgewood Reservoir, Aqueduct Racetrack opened on September 27, 1894 by the Queens County Jockey Club; the track was named "Aqueduct" after the former Ridgewood Aqueduct. The facility was expanded and a new clubhouse was constructed before the 1941 summer meet. In 1955, the Greater New York Association took over Aqueduct along with Belmont Park, Saratoga Race Course, Jamaica Race Course, deciding to make major upgrades to Aqueduct, after which Jamaica Race Course would be sold for redevelopment as a housing project. Aqueduct closed in 1956, reopening September 14, 1959 after $33 million of renovations designed by noted racetrack architect Arthur Froehlich of the firm Arthur Froehlich and Associates of Beverly Hills, California.
The Equestris Restaurant in the clubhouse opened in 1981 and was the largest restaurant in New York City at the time. Additional renovations were made in 2001, 2006, 2007. Before 1976, the Inner Dirt Track was a turf course and was known as the Main Turf Course, with the present turf course being the Inner Turf Course. One annual meeting is held at Aqueduct from the last Wednesday in October until the first Sunday in May. Races had been run on the Inner Dirt Track between the Wednesday after Thanksgiving until just before the Wood Memorial in recent years. Prior to 1977, a summer meeting was held at Aqueduct, from mid-June to late July. From 1963 through 1967, races run at Belmont Park, including the Belmont Stakes, were run at Aqueduct while Belmont's grandstand was being rebuilt; the Wood Memorial is Aqueduct's marquee race. The Remsen and Cigar Mile are major races; the prestigious Jockey Club Gold Cup was run there between 1958 and 1974, what was the track's most distinctive race, the marathon 2 1⁄4 miles Display Handicap, was last contested in 1990.
The track played host to the second Breeders' Cup on November 2, 1985. Aqueduct is the site of the first triple dead heat for the win in a stakes race. In the 1944 running of the Carter Handicap, Brownie and Wait A Bit hit the finish line at the same time. On April 8, 2006, during an eleven-race program at Aqueduct that included the Wood Memorial Stakes, a rare event happened when dead heats for each of the three "money" positions occurred in three separate races: Saint Anddan and Criminal Mind dead-heated for Place in Race 5. Hall of Fame horse Cigar won the first two races in his 16-race win streak at Aqueduct. After he switched from grass to dirt, Cigar's first win was by eighth lengths in an allowance race on October 28, 1994, was followed by a seven-length win in the NYRA Mile on November 26, 1994, a Grade 1 race, renamed in the horse's honor in 1997. On May 31, 1965, 73,375 spectators were on hand at Aqueduct and watched Gun Bow win the Metropolitan Mile. At the time, it was the largest crowd to attend a thoroughbred horse racing event in New York.
Champion racehorse Secretariat was retired at Aqueduct before the public on November 6, 1973. He took his last steps on a racetrack there, he was sent to stud at Claiborne Farm. Pope John Paul II celebrated Mass in front of a crowd of 75,000 at Aqueduct on October 6, 1995; every weekend including Tuesdays, a flea market containing 500 vendors was operated in the racetrack's north parking lot, located along Rockaway Boulevard. Aqueduct Flea Market offered a hodgepodge of goods, such as bedding, incense and pans, nearly everything imaginable, it was open on Tuesdays and weekends year-round for 33 years. The Aqueduct Flea Market closed in 2011. In May 2017, NYRA announced that they would resurface the 1⅛-mile main track with a limestone base, convert the inner dirt track back into a turf course; the changes were completed in time for the start of the 2017 fall meet on November 3. With this change, the main track will now be used for winter racing. In May 2007, reports indicated that then-New York Governor Eliot Spitzer was considering closing Aqueduct and selling the 192-acre track and its stables, which house 400 horses, to developers when the New York Racing Association lease expired at the end of 2007.
According to the reports, Belmont Park, 8 miles east in Elmont, New York, would have become a nearly year-round track and would get the video lottery machines authorized to operate at Aqueduct. Belmont Park would have been modified to handle winter requirements, which would have included heated stands and the construction of new stables. According to the plans that were discussed, the oldest and most historic track in the state, Saratoga Race Course, would have been operated by the New York Racing Association, a new entity would have operated
New York Knickerbockers
The New York Knickerbockers were one of the first organized baseball teams which played under a set of rules similar to the game today. In 1845, the team was founded by Alexander Cartwright, considered one of the original developers of modern baseball. In 1851, the New York Knickerbockers wore the first recorded baseball uniforms. While a member of Knickerbocker Engine Company No. 12 of the New York City Fire Department, Alexander Joy Cartwright became involved in playing town ball on a vacant lot in Manhattan. In 1845, the lot became unavailable for use, the group was forced to look for another location, they found a playing field, the Elysian Fields, a large tree-filled parkland across the Hudson River in Hoboken, New Jersey run by Colonel John Stevens, which charged $75 a year to rent. In order to pay the rental fees, Cartwright organized a ball club so that he could collect the needed money; the club was named the "Knickerbockers", in honor of the fire company. The Knickerbockers club was organized on September 23, 1845.
The first officers were Duncan F. Curry, William R. Wheaton, vice-president, William H. Tucker, secretary-treasurer. Creating a club for the ball players called for a formal set of rules for each member to adhere to, foremost among them to "have the reputation of a gentleman". Wheaton and Tucker formalized the Knickerbocker Rules, a set of twenty rules for the team: Members must observe the time agreed upon for exercise, be punctual in their attendance; when assembled for exercise, the President, or in his absence, the Vice-President, shall appoint an umpire, who shall keep the game in a book provided for that purpose, note all violations of the By-Laws and Rules during the time of exercise. The presiding officer shall designate two members as Captains, who shall retire and make the match to be played, observing at the same time that the players opposite to each other should be as nearly equal as possible, the choice of sides to be tossed for, the first in hand to be decided in like manner.
The bases shall be from "home" to forty-two paces. No stump match shall be played on a regular day of exercise. If there should not be a sufficient number of members of the Club present at the time agreed upon to commence exercise, gentlemen not members may be chosen in to make up the match, which shall not be broken up to take in members that may afterwards appear. If members appear after the game is commenced, they may be chosen in; the game to consist of twenty-one aces. The ball must be pitched, not thrown, for the bat. A ball knocked out of the field, or outside the range of first or third base, is foul. Three balls being struck at and missed and the last one caught, is a hand out. If a ball be struck, or tipped, caught, either flying or on the first bound, it is a hand out. A player running the bases shall be out, if the ball is in the hands of an adversary on the base, or the runner is touched with it before he makes his base. A player running who shall prevent an adversary from catching or getting the ball before making his base, is a hand out.
Three hands out, all out. Players must take their strike in regular turn. All disputes and differences relative to the game, to be decided by the Umpire, from which there is no appeal. No ace or base can be made on a foul strike. A runner can not be put out in making one base, but one base allowed. It is that Wheaton picked some of his twenty rules based upon his previous experience in town ball play in Manhattan. According to his own account some fifty years his written rules for the Gotham Base Ball Club in 1837 eliminated "plugging" the runner and laid out the infield as a regular diamond; the twenty rules differed in several respects from other early versions of baseball and from rounders, the English game considered the closest relative of baseball. "Two of these rules—the one that abolished soaking and the one that designated a foul as a do-over—were revolutionary, while the others gave the game a new degree of uniformity." The formation of the Knickerbockers club across the Hudson River created a division in the group of Manhattan players.
According to Wheaton, "The new game became popular with New Yorkers, the numbers of the club soon swelled beyond the fastidious notions of some of us, we decided to withdraw and found a new organization, which we called the Knickerbocker." Membership in the Knickerbockers required the payment of dues. What was long considered the first "officially recorded" baseball game was played on June 19, 1846 at the Elysian Fields in Hoboken, New Jersey; the "Knickerbockers" and the "New York Nine", played with Cartwright's twenty rules. Cartwright's team, the Knickerbockers, lost 23 to 1 to the New Yorks in four innings; some say that Cartwright's team lost because his best players did not want to make the trip across the river. Cartwright fined one player six cents for cursing; the lineups for the teams: However, there were several other recorded games prior to this. On Octob
Carnesecca Arena is a 5,602-seat multi-purpose arena in the borough of Queens in New York City, New York. It was built in 1961 and renamed in honor of Hall of Fame Coach Lou Carnesecca on November 23, 2004, it is the exclusive home to the St. John's University Red Storm women's basketball team, along with Madison Square Garden, hosts home Red Storm men's basketball games; the building hosted first round games of the NCAA men's basketball tournament from 1970 to 1974. Up until March 2014, it was the most recent New York City venue to host the tournament. List of NCAA Division I basketball arenas Carnesecca Arena at RedStormSports.com
Lithography is a method of printing based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a metal plate with a smooth surface, it was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate; the stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; the ink would be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a polymer coating applied to a flexible plastic or metal plate; the image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a flexible sheet for printing and publication.
As a printing technology, lithography is different from intaglio printing, wherein a plate is either engraved, etched, or stippled to score cavities to contain the printing ink. Today, most types of high-volume books and magazines when illustrated in colour, are printed with offset lithography, which has become the most common form of printing technology since the 1960s; the related term "photolithography" refers to when photographic images are used in lithographic printing, whether these images are printed directly from a stone or from a metal plate, as in offset printing. "Photolithography" is used synonymously with "offset printing". The technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication and mass production of integrated circuits in the microelectronics industry. Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the positive part of an image is a water-repelling substance, while the negative image would be water-retaining.
Thus, when the plate is introduced to a compatible printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image and the water will clean the negative image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer and more detailed print runs than the older physical methods of printing. Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, the gum sticking only to the non-oily surface. During printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the mutual repulsion of water; the image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible. A wide range of oil-based media is available, but the durability of the image on the stone depends on the lipid content of the material being used, its ability to withstand water and acid.
After the drawing of the image, an aqueous solution of gum arabic, weakly acidified with nitric acid HNO3 is applied to the stone. The function of this solution is to create a hydrophilic layer of calcium nitrate salt, Ca2, gum arabic on all non-image surfaces; the gum solution penetrates into the pores of the stone surrounding the original image with a hydrophilic layer that will not accept the printing ink. Using lithographic turpentine, the printer removes any excess of the greasy drawing material, but a hydrophobic molecular film of it remains bonded to the surface of the stone, rejecting the gum arabic and water, but ready to accept the oily ink; when printing, the stone is kept wet with water. The water is attracted to the layer of gum and salt created by the acid wash. Printing ink based on drying oils such as linseed oil and varnish loaded with pigment is rolled over the surface; the water repels the greasy ink but the hydrophobic areas left by the original drawing material accept it.
When the hydrophobic image is loaded with ink, the stone and paper are run through a press that applies pressure over the surface, transferring the ink to the paper and off the stone. Senefelder had experimented during the early 19th century with multicolor lithography. Multi-color printing was introduced by a new process developed by Godefroy Engelmann in 1837 known as chromolithography. A separate stone was used for each color, a print went through the press separately for each stone; the main challenge was to keep the images aligned. This method lent itself to images consisting of large areas of flat color, resulted in the characteristic poster designs of this period. "Lithography, or printing from soft stone took the place of engraving in the production of English
The Metropolitan Oval known as Met Oval, is a soccer complex located in Maspeth, Queens in New York City. Village Voice named the complex, which takes up 4.2 acres, the "Best full soccer field in the middle of a residential neighborhood" in 2004, for its "pristine" playing surface and the view of the Manhattan skyline. In addition, the Metropolitan Oval is a U. S. Soccer Development Academy member; the Metropolitan Oval Academy and facility is led by an all-volunteer Board of Directors. Filippo Giovagnoli serves as Technical Director of the Academy; the Metropolitan Oval was built in 1925 by Germans and ethnic German-Hungarian immigrants to be a European style soccer field with facilities. From 1925 onwards, the Oval served as a soccer field for boys of all ages and ethnicities. Many U. S. national team players from the New York region played games at the Oval while youths. By the 1990s, the Oval was in a state of disarray. Any grass the field once had was gone from overuse, it owed hundreds of thousands of dollars in back taxes and was scheduled for foreclosure by the city.
In response to this state of affairs, the Metropolitan Oval Foundation was formed to save this historic site. The non-profit organization led by Jim Vogt, a longtime Queens native, Chuck Jacob and Valerie Jacob, two New York lawyers dedicated to the restoration of historic soccer fields across the city, raised enough money to save the field from foreclosure. In addition, Nike and U. S. Soccer Foundation each contributed $250,000 towards the construction of a FieldTurf field and new lights for the complex. FIFA president Sepp Blatter, who visited the Met Oval in November 2001 after the field was resurfaced, called FieldTurf the "future of football."Currently, the Oval hosts 3-5 games a week from March to November on the field. The Met Oval Academy plays at this field against other academy teams in the Northeast Preacademy League. Academies' objectives are to develop young, talented players to play in professional leagues around the world. In addition to being the name of the field, the Metropolitan Oval is dedicated to developing the highest-quality soccer talent in New York City while offering youth of all backgrounds the opportunity to play soccer in a committed environment through specialized training, team play and clinics.
The Met Oval has teams in age groups ranging from U-6 to U-14. The Academy is run by Emmy nominated dancer, actor and producer Jeffery Saunders; the Foundation is a § 501 not-for-profit, charitable foundation incorporated in 1998 with the mission to: provide youth soccer programs for committed players in the New York area, save and improve the historic Metropolitan Oval soccer facility, develop soccer players in the New York area to the highest level. Official website Hernandez, Raymond. "Newcomers Revive Old Soccer Haven". The New York Times