Modern pentathlon at the 1932 Summer Olympics
At the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, a modern pentathlon event was contested. A total of 25 athletes from 10 nations competed at the Los Angeles Games: France Germany Great Britain Hungary Italy Mexico Netherlands Portugal Sweden United States
Interstate 110 and State Route 110 (California)
Route 110, consisting of State Route 110 and Interstate 110, is a state highway in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, built to freeway standards. The entire route connects San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena; the southern segment from San Pedro to Interstate 10 in downtown Los Angeles is signed as I-110, while the northern segment to Pasadena is signed as SR 110. The entire length of I-110, as well as SR 110 south of the Four Level Interchange with US 101, is the Harbor Freeway, SR 110 north from US 101 to Pasadena is the historic Arroyo Seco Parkway, the first freeway in the western United States. I-110 is one of two 3-digit interstate designations to appear on opposite coasts; the Harbor Freeway, signed as Interstate 110, begins at Gaffey Street in San Pedro, where it travels due north to the Santa Monica Freeway at a point south of downtown Los Angeles, where it becomes signed as State Route 110. I-110 is within the city limits of Los Angeles, running right the South Los Angeles region and the Harbor Gateway, a two-mile wide north–south corridor, annexed by the city of Los Angeles to connect San Pedro and the Port of Los Angeles with the rest the city.
In addition, the Harbor Transitway, a grade-separated bus and high-occupancy vehicle corridor in the median of the 110, runs between State Route 91 and the south side of Downtown Los Angeles. The Harbor Freeway, along with the Long Beach Freeway, are the principal means for freight from the port of Los Angeles to rail yards and warehouses further inland, its interchange with the Santa Monica Freeway is notoriously busy and congested, the portions bordering Bunker Hill in northwest Downtown Los Angeles are choked with traffic at peak travel times. Notable landmarks and attractions near the Harbor Freeway include the California State University, Dominguez Hills. A. Live, Los Angeles Harbor College. SR 110 continues north on the Arroyo Seco Parkway to Pasadena; the Harbor Freeway is noted for its elaborate high-occupancy toll lane feature, with the HOT lanes elevated above the rest of traffic in many areas, constructed in 1994 by C. C. Myers, Inc. as HOV lanes and converted to HOT lanes in 2012. Of particular note is the Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange, which contains the most elaborate network of direct HOV/HOT connectors in Los Angeles County.
It includes a 7-story ramp that connects the Century Freeway's HOV lanes to the Harbor Freeway's northbound HOT lanes and offers splendid views of the entire Los Angeles Basin and the San Gabriel Mountains. The interchange with State Route 91 is fairly large. Route 110 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. In the 1924 Major Street Traffic Plan for Los Angeles, a widening of Figueroa Street to San Pedro as a good road to the Port of Los Angeles was proposed. Progress was slow, in 1933 the state legislature added the entire length to the state highway system as Route 165, an unsigned designation; this route not only extended from San Pedro north to Los Angeles, but continued through the city-built Figueroa Street Tunnels and along the northern extension of Figueroa Street to Eagle Rock, followed Linda Vista Avenue to Route 9 at the Devil's Gate Reservoir.
The entire length of Route 165 became Sign Route 11 in 1934. U. S. Route 6 was assigned to the portion between SR 1 and Avenue 26 in 1937, at about the same time US 66 was moved from Eagle Rock Boulevard to Figueroa Street, overlapping SR 11 between Sunset Boulevard and Colorado Street; the state completed the Arroyo Seco Parkway, added to the state highway system in 1935 as Route 205, in early 1941, providing a faster route between SR 11 at Avenue 26 and Pasadena. US 66 was moved to the new route, while SR 11 remained on Figueroa Street and Linda Vista Avenue, the former becoming a new U. S. Route 66 Alternate. Construction of a freeway to San Pedro was much slower, despite having been in the earliest plans for an integrated system; the Harbor Parkway was to split at the merge with the Venice Parkway northeast of the University of Southern California, with the East By-Pass and West By-Pass straddling the Los Angeles Central Business District and rejoining at the split between the Arroyo Seco Parkway and Riverside Parkway south of Dodger Stadium.
The West By-Pass was soon incorporated into the Harbor Parkway, the first short piece, by renamed the Harbor Freeway, opened on July 30, 1952 from the Four Level Interchange south to 3rd Street. The Harbor Freeway pushed south, opening to Olympic Boulevard on March 23, 1954 and Washington Boulevard on May 14, 1954. On March 27, 1956, the highway was extended to 42nd Street, on April 24, 1957 it reached temporary ramps at 88th Place. Further extensions were made to Century Boulevard on July 31, 1958, 124th Street on September 24, 1958, Alondra Boulevard on May 2
The Hollywood Hills is a hillside neighborhood of the same name in the central region of the city of Los Angeles, California. The Hollywood Hills straddle the Cahuenga Pass within the Santa Monica Mountains; the neighborhood touches Studio City, Universal City and Burbank on the north, Griffith Park on the north and east, Los Feliz on the southeast, Hollywood on the south and Hollywood Hills West on the west. It includes Forest Lawn Memorial Park, the Hollywood Reservoir, the Hollywood Sign, the Hollywood Bowl and the John Anson Ford Theater. Hollywood Hills is bisected southeast-northwest by US 101; the neighborhood is bounded on the northwest and north by the Los Angeles city line, on the east by a fireroad through Griffith Park, continuing on Western Avenue, on the south by Franklin Avenue and on the west by an irregular line that includes Outpost Drive. The neighborhood of Hollywood Hills includes the Hollywood Bowl and Forest Lawn Memorial Park as well as two private and three public schools.
Hollywood Hills contains several neighborhoods: A total of 21,588 people lived in the neighborhood's 7.05 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 3,063 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities in the city or the county. The population was estimated at 22,988 in 2008; the median age for residents was 37, considered old for the county. The percentages of residents aged 19 through 64 were among the county's highest; the neighborhood is "not diverse" for the city, the diversity index being 0.433, the percentage of Non-Hispanic Whites is considered high, at 74.1%. Latinos make up 9.4%, Asians are at 6.7%, African American at 4.6% and others at 5.3%. In 2000, Mexico and the United Kingdom were the most common places of birth for the 22.8% of the residents who were born abroad, considered a low percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The median household income in 2008 dollars was $69,277, considered high for the city but about average for the county.
The percentage of households earning $125,000 or more was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 1.8 people was low. Renters occupied 56.5% of the housing units, homeowners the rest. In 2000, there were 270 families headed by single parents, or 6.9%, a rate, low in both the county and the city. In 2000, 54.8% of residents aged 25 and older held a four-year degree, considered high when compared with the city and the county as a whole. There are five secondary or elementary schools within the neighborhood's boundaries: Immaculate Heart High and Middle School, private, 5515 Franklin Avenue Valley View Elementary School, LAUSD, 6921 Woodrow Wilson Drive The Neilson Academy, private, 2528 Canyon Drive Cheremoya Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 6017 Franklin Avenue The Oaks, private elementary, 6817 Franklin AvenueThe American Film Institute is at 2021 North Western Avenue The neighborhood includes: The Hollywood Bowl The John Anson Ford Amphitheatre A portion of Griffith Park, including Hollywoodland Camp Forest Lawn Memorial Park Elisha Cuthbert, actress Ben Affleck, actor Christina Aguilera, singer Earle D. Baker, Los Angeles City Council member Halle Berry, actress Jolene Blalock, actress Gisele Bundchen, Victoria's Secret supermodel, bought her three-bedroom house in the Hollywood Hills for close to $2 million Sam Cooke, singer Kevin Costner, actor Robert Culp, actor William De Los Santos, poet, producer, film director Richard Dreyfuss, actor Anna Faris, actress Errol Flynn, actor David Giuntoli, actor Stuart Hamblen, country singer Salma Hayek, actress Niall Horan, Irish pop singer Helen Hunt, actress Billy Idol, English rock musician Tom Leykis and internet talk show personality Demi Lovato, actress and songwriter Tobey Maguire paid more than $2 million for a modern home in the Hollywood Hills Johnny Mathis, singer Joel McHale, American actor and comedian Simon Monjack, producer, writer Brittany Murphy, actress Kristin Nelson and painter Ricky Nelson, actor and songwriter Tracy Nelson, actress Matthew Perry, actor Joaquin Phoenix, actor Chris Pratt, Keanu Reeves actor, bought a house in May 2003 for $4.5 million Kevin Smith, actor and comedian Sage Stallone and son of Sylvester Stallone Robert and Peggy Stevenson, Los Angeles City Council members Quentin Tarantino, film director Justin Timberlake, American singer, songwriter and record producer Bitsie Tulloch, actress Anna Kendrick, singer Rebel Wilson, actress and singer Lloyd G. Davies, Los Angeles City Council member, 1943–51, active against gravel extraction in the hills
Chinatown, Los Angeles
Chinatown is a neighborhood in Downtown Los Angeles, California that became a commercial center for Chinese and other Asian businesses in Central Los Angeles in 1938. The area includes restaurants and art galleries but has a residential neighborhood with a low-income, aging population of about 20,000 residents; the original Chinatown developed in the late 19th century, but it was demolished to make room for Union Station, the city's major ground-transportation center. A separate commercial center, known as "New Chinatown," opened for business in 1938. Street and natural limits of the Chinatown neighborhood are: north, Beaudry Avenue, Stadium Way, North Broadway. Chinatown beyond the concentrated business center is flanked by the Elysian Park to the north, Lincoln Heights to the east, Downtown to the south and southwest and Echo Park to the west and northwest. There are a branch library in Chinatown, as well as a city park and a state park. Many motion pictures have been filmed in the area. In the early 1860s, thousands of Chinese men, most of them originating from Guangdong province in southern China, were hired by Central Pacific Railroad Co. to work on the western portion of the first transcontinental railroad.
Many of them settled in Los Angeles. In 1871, 19 Chinese men and boys were killed by a mob of about 500 white men in one of the most serious incidents of racial violence that has occurred in the American West; this incident became known as "Massacre of 1871". The first Chinatown, centered on Alameda and Macy Streets, was established in 1880. Reaching its heyday from 1890 to 1910, Chinatown grew to fifteen streets and alleys containing some two hundred buildings, it boasted three temples, a newspaper and a telephone exchange. But laws prohibiting most Chinese from citizenship and property ownership, as well as legislation curtailing immigration, inhibited future growth. From the early 1910s, Chinatown began to decline. Symptoms of a corrupt Los Angeles discolored the public's view of Chinatown; as tenants and lessees rather than outright owners, the residents of Old Chinatown were threatened with impending redevelopment, as a result the owners neglected upkeep of their buildings. The entire area was sold and resold, as entrepreneurs and developers fought the area.
After thirty years of decay, a Supreme Court ruling approved condemnation of the area to allow for construction of a major rail terminal, Union Station. Residents were evicted to make room for Union Station without a plan for the relocation of the Chinatown community. Chinatown was demolished, leaving many businesses without a place to do business and forcing some to close. A remnant of Old Chinatown persisted into the early 1950s, situated between Union Station and the Old Plaza. Several businesses and a Buddhist temple lined Ferguson Alley, a narrow one-block street running between the Plaza and Alameda; the most notable of the surviving buildings was the old Lugo house, having been built in 1838 by the prominent Californio family. Some decades the Lugo house became the original home of Loyola Marymount University, it was rented to Chinese-Americans who ran shops on the ground floor and a lodging house upstairs. Christine Sterling, who had brought to fruition the Olvera Street and China City projects, argued that remaining buildings of Old Chinatown were an eyesore and advocated for the razing of all the remaining structures between the Plaza and Union Station."The original Chinatown's only remaining edifice is the two-story Garnier Building, once a residence and meeting place for immigrant Chinese," according to Angels Walk – Union Station/El Pueblo/Little Tokyo/Civic Center guide book.
The Chinese American Museum is now situated in Garnier Building. Seven years passed before an acceptable relocation proposal was put into place, situating a new Chinatown in its present location. In the late 1950s the covenants on the use and ownership of property were removed, allowing Chinese Americans to live in other neighborhoods and gain access to new types of employment. Christine Sterling, who worked on the conversion of a neglected street into the Mexican-themed Olvera Street, conceived of a similar plan for the displaced Chinese American population. In 1938, she opened China City, a walled enclave featuring Chinese-style architecture, shops, rickshaw rides, a lotus pond, a temple. Costumed workers greeted tourists, a Chinese opera troupe performed live shows in front of the shops; some replica buildings in China City came from the set of the 1937 Hollywood blockbuster, The Good Earth. China City received mixed support from businessmen. Many welcomed the economic opportunity. Others preferred the New Chinatown project, considered less distorted by the stereotyping lens of Hollywood.
During its eleven-year existence, China City was rebuilt numerous times. In 1949, an act of arson destroyed China City; the neighborhood that has become Chinatown was Little Italy. In the early 20th century, Italian immigrants settled in the area north of the Old Plaza. Many built businesses, including wineries; the Italian American Museum of Los Angeles in the El Pueblo de Los Ángeles Historical Monument opened in 2016. In the 1930s, under the efforts of Chinese-American community leader Peter Soo Hoo Sr. the design and operational concepts for a New Chinatown evolved through a collective community process, resulting in a blend of Chinese and American architecture. The Los Angeles Chinatown
Elysian Park, Los Angeles
Elysian Park is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, encompassing Chavez Ravine, with a low-income community of 2,600+ people. Besides the city park of the same name, Dodger Stadium is located within the neighborhood, as are a Catholic high school, an elementary school and the Los Angeles Police Academy; the southeastern corner of the park is near the Los Angeles River at the location where the Portolá expedition gave the river its name in 1769. The first Europeans to see inland areas of California camped near this spot on August 2, California Historical Landmark #655 is located at the Meadow Road entrance; the park is the second largest park in Los Angeles at 600 acres. It is the city's oldest park, founded in 1886 by the Elysian Park Enabling Ordinance, it hosted shooting as well as the shooting part of the modern pentathlon event for the 1932 Summer Olympics. In 1964 the Citizens Committee to Save Elysian Park was founded to prevent the City of Los Angeles from constructing the Municipal Convention Center on 62 acres of park land.
In 1968, it hosted a hippie "Love-In." According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, the Elysian Park neighborhood is flanked on the north and northeast by Elysian Valley, on the east by Lincoln Heights, on the southeast and south by Chinatown and on the southwest and northwest by Echo Park. Street and other boundaries are: the northern apex at Exit 138 of the Golden State Freeway, thence southeasterly along the freeway, southerly along the Los Angeles River, westerly along North Broadway, northwesterly along Stadium Way, Academy Road and northerly along Elysian Park Drive; the Figueroa Street Tunnels take northbound State Route 110 through the park. Solano Canyon is a canyon within Elysian Park and the name of a residential district at the southern extremity of the Elysian Park neighborhood, directly north of the Los Angeles State Historic Park; the district is bisected near its southern tip by the Arroyo Seco Parkway, it shares a border with Chinatown. Solano Canyon was an old name for a ravine in the Hollywood Hills, named Runyon Canyon.
The 2000 U. S. census of the Elysian Park neighborhood counted 2,530 residents in its 1.65 square miles, which includes all the city park land as well as Dodger Stadium—an average of 1,538 people per square mile, one of the lowest population densities in Los Angeles county. In 2008 the city estimated that the population had increased to 2,659; the median age for residents was 31, about average for Los Angeles. The neighborhood was moderately ethnically diverse; the breakdown was Latinos, 47.6%. China and Mexico were the most common places of birth for the 54.4% of the residents who were born abroad, a high figure compared to rest of the city. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $28,263, low for Los Angeles; the average household size of 3.1 people was high for the city of Los Angeles. Renters occupied 81.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment owners 18.1%. Thirteen percent of the neighborhood residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, an average figure for the city.
The schools operating within the Elysian Park neighborhood borders are: Cathedral High School, private, 1253 Bishops Road. It was founded by Archbishop John Joseph Cantwell as the first Los Angeles Archdiocesan high school for boys in fall 1925; the Christian Brothers have operated the school since its opening. It was designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument number 281 in 1984. Solano Avenue Elementary School, LAUSD, 615 Solano Avenue. In 1955, the school, which had 230 pupils, was honored as one of the 221 schools given a California Distinguished School award; the Los Angeles Times reported that: "At Solano Avenue Elementary School, things are done right. Parents chip in, teachers stick around for years, children learn, the surrounding community claims it for their own; the campus is a thing of pride-no graffiti or trash problems here." Principal John Stoll noted that nearly half the children began school speaking limited English, having been raised in Spanish or Cantonese-speaking homes.
The school was "adopted" by the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1980, it was known for sending the student choir to Dodger Stadium to sing the National Anthem before a ballgame. It is a Solano tradition to hold culmination ceremonies at Dodger Stadium, the class of 2001 did not have this privilege. Ned R. Healy, L. A. City Council member and member of Congress, opposed slant oil drilling under the park List of districts and neighborhoods of Los Angeles List of parks in Los Angeles History of Elysian Park Elysian Park neighborhood crime map and statistics] SolanoCanyon.org Solano Canyon can be seen on the horizon of this 1873 photograph, labeled No. 50, as published in "The Story of Fifty Years: Where the City: In Which Southern California and the Los Angeles Times Grew Up Together," Los Angeles Times, December 4, 1931, page E-3
Runyon Canyon Park
Runyon Canyon Park is a 160-acre park in Los Angeles, California, at the eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains, managed by the Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks. The southern entrance to the park is located at the north end of Fuller Avenue in Hollywood; the northern entrance is off the 7300 block of Mulholland Drive. The Runyon Canyon Road, a fire road, closed to public motor vehicle access, runs through the center of the park between the northern and southern entrances along Runyon Canyon itself, there are numerous smaller hiking trails throughout the park; the highest point in the park at an elevation of 1,320 ft is known as Indian Rock. Because of its proximity to residential areas of Hollywood and the Hollywood Hills, celebrity sightings are common; the park is noted for having a liberal dog policy, with dogs allowed off-leash in 90 of the park's 160 acres. Runyon Canyon Park was purchased in 1984 from its last private owners, Adad Development, for use as a city park by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy and the City of Los Angeles.
"No Man's Canyon" was the English name given to the gorge which lies above Franklin at Fuller Avenue, extends north to Mulholland Drive. It is reputed to have been a seasonal campsite for local Gabrielino/Tongva Indians, who hunted in the area known to them as the Nopalera. In 1867, "Greek George" Caralambo, AKA Allen, received the 160-acre parcel by federal patent in appreciation for his service in the US Army Camel Corps. Allen became famous by association when the bandit Tiburcio Vasquez was captured while hiding out at his home in 1874. Alfredo Solano, a prominent civil engineer, civic leader, symphony patron and one of the founders of the Los Angeles Athletic Club, purchased the canyon a year after Vasquez was hanged in 1876. Solano held the canyon as an investment before his widow, Ella Brooks Solano, sold the majority of the land to Carman Runyon in 1919. Runyon, having retired from a successful coal business in the East, came out with his new bride to enjoy the California climate; the marriage failed and Runyon moved to Hollywood where he met and married Ellen Hunt.
The new Mrs. Runyon was an accomplished horsewoman and the Runyons purchased the canyon to use for riding and hunting, they built a small bungalow near the Fuller Avenue entrance. Runyon lent his name to the canyon, the road and Carman Crest Drive before he sold the estate in 1930 to John McCormack, the world-famed Irish tenor. McCormack had fallen in love with the estate whilst filming Song O' My Heart there in 1929; the film was an early "talkie" and McCormack's salary for the picture went to purchase the property and build the mansion he called "San Patrizio", after Saint Patrick. He and his wife lived in the mansion until they returned to England in 1938. Remains of terraced gardens and buildings can still be seen below the Vista gates. McCormack toured and in his absence the mansion was rented out to such celebrities as Janet Gaynor and Charles Boyer; the McCormacks made many friends in Hollywood, among them Errol Flynn, Will Rogers, John Barrymore, Basil Rathbone, C. E. Toberman and the Dohenys.
After his farewell tour of America in 1937, the McCormacks deeded the estate back to Carman Runyon, expecting to return at a date. World War II intervened, and, McCormack's health was broken by a wartime concert tour. McCormack died in 1945. In the meantime, Huntington Hartford, heir to the A&P Grocery fortune and patron of the arts, purchased the property in 1942, moving into the mansion and renaming the estate "The Pines", he commissioned Frank Lloyd Wright and his son Lloyd Wright, who had offices in Hollywood, to draft ambitious plans for developing the estate. These included a "cottage hotel" lower canyon and a futuristic "play resort" country club on the ridge; when neighborhood opposition to the design put the project on hold, Hartford had Lloyd Wright design and build a pool pavilion on the crest of the hill at Inspiration Point, facing Hollywood. Schemes were proposed for galleries in the canyon, but after 1955, Hartford began to spend more time in New York where his Gallery of Modern Art was built.
In the mid'40s, Hartford wrote an adaptation of "Jane Eyre" called "Master of Thornfield," which ran for two weeks in Cincinnati and starred Errol Flynn as Mr. Rochester; this partnership led to Flynn staying in the pool-house in 1957–58, is the origin of a legend that "The Pines" was Flynn's estate. In 1964, Hartford offered the property as a gift to the city, but this was turned down by Mayor Sam Yorty; as Lloyd Wright recalled in 1977, "Here was this wealthy man and he wanted to give something stunning to Hollywood. The Chambers of Commerce, the hotel owners and the various businesses were jealous of the park, with the help of the City officials, the City refused to give us permits. Hunt was so angry that he wanted to get out and sold the property at a low price to Berman, who destroyed the mansion and let the place run down." Jules Berman, who had made a fortune importing the well-known Mexican coffee-flavored liqueur Kahlúa, saw the estate as a "Tiffany development, a beautiful subdivision of 157 luxury homes."
After purchasing the canyon, he razed Son Patrizio and the guest houses to avoid paying taxes on the deteriorating structures. His "Huntington Hartford Estates" development, trading on the name of its famous former owner, encountered resistance led by Daniel deJonghe, a park activist; the project was stopped in 1978. The Lloyd Wright pool-house remained standing until 1972 when a fire in the canyon destroyed all but its natural stone foundations. Between 1994 and 1999, two parallel subway tunnels for the Metro Red Line were mined unde