Music of Los Angeles
As well as being one of the most important cities in the world in the film industry, Los Angeles, California, is one of the most important places in the world for the recorded music industry. Many landmarks in Los Angeles - such as Capitol Records, which resembles a stack of albums - are representative of this. A&M Records long occupied a studio off Sunset Boulevard built by Charlie Chaplin; the Warner Bros. built a major recording business in addition to their film business. During the 1930s and 1940s Los Angeles had a vibrant African-American musical community when it was small: a numund Central Avenue, the community produced a number of great talents, including Charles Mingus, Buddy Collette, Gerald Wilson, but in the 1950s it disappeared. In the 1950s Ritchie Valens was a rock and roll pioneer and a forefather of the Chicano rock movement, Valens' recording career lasted eight months, as it abruptly ended when he died in a plane crash. In the 1960s the Sunset Strip became a breeding ground for bands like The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, Spirit and The Doors.
The Beach Boys were founded in nearby Hawthorne. In the 1970s, bands such as Toto were some of the most'heard' bands on radio. There was a sizable punk rock movement in the 1970s which spawned the hardcore punk movement featuring bands like X, Black Flag and Wasted Youth. Los Angeles' original late 1970s punk scene received less press attention than their counterparts in New York or London, but it included cult bands the Screamers, the Germs, the Weirdos, the Dils, the Bags, 45 Grave, Nervous Gender, X. There was an East LA music scene that spawned bands like Los Lobos, The Plugz, Los Illegals among many others. In the 1980s, the Paisley Underground movement was native to Los Angeles in rock music. In rap music, the seminal career of N. W. A. would lead the development of G-Funk out of the combination of P-Funk and gangsta rap. Much internationally acclaimed hard rock has come out of Los Angeles since the 1980s, including hard rockers Van Halen from nearby Pasadena. In the early'90s, many of the biggest alternative rock / alternative metal bands such as Tool, Jane's Addiction, Rage Against the Machine and Red Hot Chili Peppers hailed from the Los Angeles area.
In the mid-1990s, Los Angeles' contribution to rock music continued with acclaimed artists such as Elliott Smith, Beck and Sublime of Long Beach. At the end of the 1990s, the nu metal band Linkin Park was formed in Agoura, was named after Lincoln Park in Santa Monica, near their recording studio. In addition, the gangsta rap and G-funk of the solo careers of Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Tupac Shakur and Snoop Dogg, among related acts, flourished in this decade and reestablished Los Angeles as a center of African-American musical development and G-funk as one of hip-hop's major living styles. In the late 1990s, indie rock artists such as Eels rose to fame. In the new millennium, the city retains its importance as a center of live rock music, of the music industry. After 2000, LA based noise rock acts like Liars, Health and No Age became famous worldwide touring bands; the Game became one of the most prominent voices in modern hip-hop, rising to prominence internationally in part due to a feud with New York's famous rapper 50 Cent.
The L. A. indie scene rides the wave through neighborhoods like Hollywood, Los Feliz and Echo Park, which have given rise to such bands as Weaving the Fate, Moving Units, Rilo Kiley, Autolux, Scarling. Giant Drag, Best Coast, Local Natives; the venue The Smell became a prominent spot after 2000 where many new avant garde indie rock acts like Abe Vigoda, Ancestors, BARR, Foot Village, Carla Bozulich, Captain Ahab, David Scott Stone, Laco$te, Lavender Diamond, The Mae Shi, Mika Miko, Nite Jewel, Mellowdrone, No Age, Silver Daggers and Upsilon Acrux started their careers. The rap-rock group Hollywood Undead represents one of the most prominent acts of the so-called budding scene music subgenre developing in Los Angeles out of the emo subculture; the rave scene and electronic music have become popular in Los Angeles in the late 2000s and 2010s. House music and drum and bass, which have all developed strong scenes in Los Angeles; the Electric Daisy Carnival festival, an electronic dance music festival and had an attendance of over 185,000 people over a two-day weekend.
Making it the largest dance music festival in North America and one of the largest in the world. Other festivals such as Together As One, Monster Massive and Hard Fest have had attendances of 50,000+ to 125,000+, Which undoubtedly makes Los Angeles the rave capital of North America. Los Angeles party crews garnered cult followings in the city's expanding nightlife culture. Event organizers Brownies & Lemonade, Space Yacht, Ham On Everything continue to host curated event series that showcase lesser-known electronic music artists; the event series vary drastically in both venue type. Past events have been held at Union Nightclub, The Roxy Theatre, the El Rey Theatre along with a variety of warehouse and gallery locations. Brownies and Lemonade helped foster the growth of artists Ryan Hemsworth, Jai Wolf, Louis the Child, Sam Gellaitry, Prince Fox, others by providing a platform for lesser known electro
Port of Los Angeles
The Port of Los Angeles called America's Port, is a port complex that occupies 7,500 acres of land and water along 43 miles of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. The port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles 20 miles south of downtown. A department of the City of Los Angeles, the Port of Los Angeles supports employment for 517,000 people throughout the LA County Region and 1.6 million worldwide. The cargo coming into the port represents 20% of all cargo coming into the United States; the Port's Channel Depth is 53 feet. The port has 27 cargo terminals, 86 container cranes, 8 container terminals, 113 miles of on-dock rail; the LA Port imports furniture, electronics, automobile parts, plastics. The Port exports wastepaper and animal feed, scrap metal and soybeans; the port's major trading partners are China, Hong Kong, South Korea and Vietnam. For public safety, the Port of Los Angeles utilizes the Los Angeles Port Police for police service in the port and to its local communities, the Los Angeles Fire Department to provide fire and EMS services to the port and its local communities, the U.
S. Coast Guard for water way security at the port, Homeland Security to protect federal land at the port, the Los Angeles County Lifeguards to provide lifeguard services for open water outside the harbor while Los Angeles City Recreation & Parks Department lifeguards patrol the inner Cabrillo Beach. In 1542, Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo discovered the "Bay of Smokes." The south-facing San Pedro Bay was a shallow mudflat, too soft to support a wharf. Visiting ships had two choices: stay far out at anchor and have their goods and passengers ferried to shore, or beach themselves; that sticky process is described in Two Years Before the Mast by Richard Henry Dana, Jr., a crew member on an 1834 voyage that visited San Pedro Bay. Phineas Banning improved shipping when he dredged the channel to Wilmington in 1871 to a depth of 10 feet; the port handled 50,000 tons of shipping that year. Banning owned a stagecoach line with routes connecting San Pedro to Salt Lake City and Yuma, in 1868 he built a railroad to connect San Pedro Bay to Los Angeles, the first in the area.
After Banning's death in 1885, his sons pursued their interests in promoting the port, which handled 500,000 tons of shipping in that year. The Southern Pacific Railroad and Collis P. Huntington wanted to create Port Los Angeles at Santa Monica and built the Long Wharf there in 1893. However, the Los Angeles Times publisher Harrison Gray Otis and U. S. Senator Stephen White pushed for federal support of the Port of Los Angeles at San Pedro Bay; the Free Harbor Fight was settled when San Pedro was endorsed in 1897 by a commission headed by Rear Admiral John C. Walker. With U. S. government support, breakwater construction began in 1899, the area was annexed to Los Angeles in 1909. The Los Angeles Board of Harbor Commissioners was founded in 1907. In 1912 the Southern Pacific Railroad completed its first major wharf at the port. During the 1920s, the port surpassed San Francisco as the West Coast's busiest seaport. In the early 1930s, a massive expansion of the port was undertaken with the construction of a breakwater three miles out and over two miles in length.
In addition to the construction of this outer breakwater, an inner breakwater was built off Terminal Island with docks for seagoing ships and smaller docks built at Long Beach. It was this improved harbor. During World War II, the port was used for shipbuilding, employing more than 90,000 people. In 1959, Matson Navigation Company's Hawaiian Merchant delivered 20 containers to the port, beginning the port's shift to containerization; the opening of the Vincent Thomas Bridge in 1963 improved access to Terminal Island and allowed increased traffic and further expansion of the port. In 1985, the port handled one million containers in a year for the first time. In 2000, the Pier 400 Dredging and Landfill Program, the largest such project in America, was completed. By 2013, more than half a million containers were moving through the Port every month. Since 2018, the SpaceX BFR, designed for human missions to Mars, is being produced in a factory at the port; the port district is an independent, self-supporting department of the government of the City of Los Angeles.
The port is under the control of a five-member Board of Harbor Commissioners appointed by the mayor and approved by the city council, is administered by an executive director. The port maintains the highest rating attainable for self-funded ports; the port has about a dozen pilots, including two chiefs. Pilots have specialized knowledge of San Pedro Bay, they meet the ships waiting to enter the harbor and provide advice as the vessel is steered through the congested waterway to the dock. The port's container volume was 9.3 million twenty-foot equivalent units in calendar year 2017, a 5.5% increase over 2016's record-breaking year of 8.8 million TEU. It's the most cargo moved annually by a Western Hemisphere port; the port is the busiest port in the United States by container volume, the 19th-busiest container port in the world, the 10th-busiest worldwide when combined with the neighboring Port of Long Beach. The port is the number-one freight gateway in the United States when ranked by the value of shipments passing through it.
The port's top trading partners in 2016 were: China/Hong Kong Japan Vietnam South Korea Tai
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain and Latin America, respectively. More it includes all Americans who speak the Spanish language natively, who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Honduran, Panamanian, Bolivian, Spanish American, Ecuadorian, Peruvian and Venezuelan. Brazilian Americans, other Portuguese-speaking Latino groups, non-Spanish speaking Latino groups in the United States are defined as "Latino" by some U. S. government agencies. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States.
People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two designated categories of ethnicity in the United States, Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran, Guatemalan or Colombian origin; the predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies in different locations across the country. Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites. Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida.
Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states. A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry; the terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.
In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both Native American ancestry. Others are predominantly of European ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well; the difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. The U. S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest; the 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.
The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States"; this is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain and immigrants from Latin America are both Latino; this definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U. S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use Latino interchangeably. A definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. However, an immigrant from Spain would be classified as European or White by American sta
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks
Sports in Los Angeles
The Los Angeles metropolitan area is home to several professional and collegiate sports teams. The Greater Los Angeles Area has eleven major league professional teams: the Anaheim Ducks, the Los Angeles Angels, the Los Angeles Chargers, the Los Angeles Clippers, the Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles FC, LA Galaxy, the Los Angeles Kings, the Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles Sparks, the Los Angeles Rams. USC Trojans football, UCLA Bruins men's basketball, USC Trojans baseball, USC Trojans track & field, Cal State Fullerton Titans baseball are all premier organizations in college sports. Other major sports teams include UCLA Bruins Football, Pepperdine Waves baseball, the Los Angeles Raiders and Los Angeles Aztecs. Between them, these Los Angeles area sports. Los Angeles area colleges have produced upwards of 200 National Championship Teams from USC Trojans and UCLA Bruins of the Pac-12 Conference; the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics were held in Los Angeles. In 2028 the city will host the Olympics for a third time.
Los Angeles is home to major league sports teams from all five major leagues — MLB, MLS, the NBA, the NFL, the NHL — as well as one team in the WNBA, a top level women's league. The following are the major professional teams in the Los Angeles area; the Los Angeles area is one of four metropolitan areas to host two Major League Baseball teams—the Los Angeles Dodgers in the National League and the Los Angeles Angels in the American League. The Dodgers are one of the most valuable franchises in MLB; the Dodgers were founded in New York. Los Angeles and the Dodgers are set to host the MLB All-Star Game in summer of 2020. Los Angeles boasts the Los Angeles Lakers and the Los Angeles Clippers. Both share the Staples Center; the Lakers are one of the most valuable franchises in the NBA and have gained a considerable fanbase over the years. They have the most titles of all Los Angeles franchises, having gained 11 titles in LA and 16 overall, their title count is second only to the Boston Celtics. The LA Lakers were founded as the Minneapolis Lakers, having moved to Southern California in 1960.
The LA Clippers were founded as the Buffalo Braves in 1970. When he died in 2013, Lakers owner Jerry Buss owned the city's WNBA franchise, the Los Angeles Sparks, which plays at Staples Center, his family still owns the Lakers, but has since sold the Sparks to Guggenheim Partners, the current owners of the Dodgers. One year longtime Clippers owner Donald Sterling was banned from the NBA after derogatory statements he made became public, was subsequently forced to sell the team; the franchise was purchased by former Microsoft executive Steve Ballmer in August 2014. The Clippers plan to build a new arena in Inglewood, across from the Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park, by 2024 when their lease with Staples Center expires; the region has two National Football League teams: Los Angeles Rams. The Rams played in LA from 1946 to 1994, while the Chargers shared LA with them for only one season in 1960; the NFL approved the Rams' relocation back to Los Angeles from St. Louis in 2016 with an option for the San Diego Chargers or Oakland Raiders to join at a date.
The Rams play their home games at Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum in Exposition Park until their new stadium, Los Angeles Stadium at Hollywood Park in Inglewood, is completed in 2020. In 2017, the Chargers announced they would be leaving San Diego to rejoin the Rams as the second team. For 2017 through 2019, the Chargers are playing in Carson at the soccer-specific Dignity Health Sports Park until the new shared stadium is complete. 2017 marked the first time since 1960 that the Rams and Chargers shared the same market and the first time since 1994 that the market had two NFL teams. The region has two NHL teams — the Los Angeles Kings, which entered the league when it doubled in size in 1967, the Anaheim Ducks, which joined in 1993 as the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim; the Kings have won 2 titles, in 2012 and 2014. The Ducks have won the Stanley Cup once in 2007; the Los Angeles area hosts two teams in Major League Soccer, the top flight of the men's sport in the US—LA Galaxy, a charter member of the league, Los Angeles FC, which began play in 2018.
The Galaxy have five MLS championships, more than any other MLS team at present. The two teams play in the cross-town derby. From 2005 to 2014, the Galaxy and Chivas USA played in the SuperClasico. Chivas USA folded in 2014 and was replaced by Los Angeles FC; the collegiate level East Los Angeles Dodgers and their rival the Orange County Angels in the Southern California Collegiate Baseball League. The metropolitan area has two teams in the NBA G League, each of, owned by one of the area's two NBA teams; the Agua Caliente Clippers play in Ontario, the South Bay Lakers play in El Segundo. The amateur sport of Gaelic football has been played in Los Angeles since the early 20th century. Los Angeles were national champions in 1959; the Cougars GFC were founded in play and train on the westside of Los Angeles. In Culver City/Santa Monica area; the Cougars season consists of attending tournaments in nearby San Diego and the annual USGAA Nationals Championship. As of 2018, the Cougars membership consisted of 50 members with the club being 55% American, 45% Irish, some being complete beginners.
The Cougars play in a 3-game series against their local rivals, The Wild Geese Gaelic Football Club, Inc. founded in 1978 who administers Gaelic footb
Los Angeles Police Department
The Los Angeles Police Department the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles, California. With 9,988 officers and 2,869 civilian staff, it is the third-largest municipal police department in the United States, after the Chicago Police Department and the New York City Police Department; the department operates in a population of 4,030,904 people. The LAPD has been fictionalized in numerous films and television shows throughout its history; the department has been associated with a number of controversies concerned with racism, police brutality, police corruption. The first specific Los Angeles police force was founded in 1853, as the Los Angeles Rangers, a volunteer force that assisted the existing County forces; the Rangers were soon succeeded by another volunteer group. Neither force was efficient and Los Angeles became known for its violence and vice; the first paid force was created in 1869, when six officers were hired to serve under City Marshal William C. Warren.
By 1900, under John M. Glass, there were one for every 1,500 people. In 1903, with the start of the Civil Service, this force was increased to 200; the CBS radio show Calling All Cars hired LAPD radio dispacher Jesse Rosenquist to be the voice of the dispatcher. Rosenquist was famous because home radios could tune in to early police radio frequencies; as the first police radio dispatcher presented to the public ear, he was the voice that actors went to when called upon for a radio dispatcher role. During World War II, under Clemence B. Horrall, the overall number of personnel was depleted by the demands of the military. Despite efforts to maintain numbers, the police could do little to control the 1943 Zoot Suit Riots. Horrall was replaced by retired United States Marine Corps general William A. Worton, who acted as interim chief until 1950, when William H. Parker succeeded him and would serve until his death in 1966. Parker advocated police autonomy from civilian administration. However, the Bloody Christmas scandal in 1951 led to calls for civilian accountability and an end to alleged police brutality.
The iconic television series Dragnet, with LAPD Detective Joe Friday as the primary character, was the first major media representation of the department. Real LAPD operations inspired Jack Webb to create the series and close cooperation with department officers let him make it as realistic as possible, including authentic police equipment and sound recording on-site at the police station. Due to Dragnet's popularity, LAPD Chief Parker "became after J. Edgar Hoover, the most well known and respected law enforcement official in the nation" at that time. In the 1960s, when the LAPD under Chief Thomas Reddin expanded its community relations division and began efforts to reach out to the African-American community, Dragnet followed suit with more emphasis on internal affairs and community policing than solving crimes, the show's previous mainstay. Under Parker, LAPD created the first SWAT team in United States law enforcement. Officer John Nelson and then-Inspector Daryl Gates created the program in 1965 to deal with threats from radical organizations such as the Black Panther Party operating during the Vietnam War era.
The old headquarters for the LAPD was Parker Center, named after former chief William H. Parker, which still stands at 150 N. Los Angeles St; the new headquarters is 300 yards west in the purpose built Police Administration Building located at 100 W. 1st St. south of Los Angeles City Hall, which opened in October 2009. The Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners known as the Police Commission, is a five-member body of appointed officials which oversees the LAPD; the board is responsible for setting policies for the department and overseeing the LAPD's overall management and operations. The Chief of Police reports to the board; the Office of the Inspector General is an independent part of the LAPD that has oversight over the department's internal disciplinary process and reviewing complaints of officer misconduct. It was created by the recommendation of the Christopher Commission and it is exempt from civil service and reports directly to the Board of Police Commissioners; the current Inspector General is Mark P. Smith, the Constitutional Policing Advisor for the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.
The OIG receives copies of every complaint filed against members of the LAPD as well as tracking specific cases along with any resultant litigation. The OIG conducts audits on select investigations and conducts regular reviews of the disciplinary system in order to ensure fairness and equality; as well as overseeing the LAPD's disciplinary process, the Inspector General may undertake special investigations as directed by the Board of Police Commissioners. The Office of the Chief of Police has the responsibility for assisting the Chief of Police in the administration of the department; the Chief of Staff is responsible for coordinating the flow of information from command staff to ensure that the Chief is informed prior to making decisions and coordinating special administrative audits and investigations, assisting and submitting recommendations to the Chief of Police in matters involving employee relations. The Office of the Chief of Staff is composed of the Board of Police Commissioners Liaison, the Public Communications Group, the Media Relations Division, the Employee Relations Group.
The Director of the Office of Constitutional Policing and Policy Police Administrator III Arif Alikhan reports directl
Government of Los Angeles
The Government of Los Angeles operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Los Angeles. The elected government is composed of the Los Angeles City Council with 15 city council districts and the Mayor of Los Angeles, which operate under a mayor–council government, as well as several other elective offices; the current mayor is Eric Garcetti, the current City Attorney is Mike Feuer and the current City Controller is Ron Galperin. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the Los Angeles Police Department, the Los Angeles Fire Department, the Los Angeles Department of Transportation, the Los Angeles Public Library, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; the government of the city of Los Angeles includes the following city officers: Mayor Members of the Council City Attorney City Clerk Controller Treasurer The members of the boards or commissions of the departments and the chief administrative officer of each department and office An Executive Director of the Board of Police Commissioners Other officers as prescribed by ordinance The Mayor of Los Angeles is the chief executive officer of the city.
The officeholder is elected for a four-year term, limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the California Constitution, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan; the 42nd and current Mayor is Eric Garcetti. The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of Los Angeles; the council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms and limited to three terms. The president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting after June 30 in odd-numbered years. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the president; the current president of the Los Angeles City Council is Herb Wesson, the president pro tempore is Mitchell Englander and the assistant president pro tempore is Nury Martinez. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution; the Los Angeles Police Department polices the city of Los Angeles.
It is governed by the Los Angeles Board of Police Commissioners and the Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department. The city maintains specialized police agencies; the Los Angeles General Services Police, which provided police coverage for Los Angeles city owned property and parks was absorbed into the LAPD in 2012. The Los Angeles Unified School District maintains it own separate police department, as do many other school districts and college campuses within the city; the Charter of the City of Los Angeles ratified by voters in 1999 created a system of advisory neighborhood councils that would represent the diversity of stakeholders, defined as those who live, work or own property in the neighborhood. The neighborhood councils are autonomous and spontaneous in that they identify their own boundaries, establish their own bylaws, elect their own officers. There are about 90 neighborhood councils; the Los Angeles City Attorney is an elected official whose job is legal counsel for the city and may prosecute misdemeanor criminal offenses within the city.
The Los Angeles City Clerk is in charge of record keeping for elections. The Los Angeles City Controller is the elected chief accounting officer of the city; the Los Angeles City Treasurer handles financial matters. In addition, there are numerous departments and appointed officers such as the: Los Angeles City Clerk Economic & Workforce Development Department Office of Finance Los Angeles Fire Department Los Angeles Housing + Community Investment Department Housing Authority of the City of Los Angeles Port of Los Angeles Los Angeles Port Police Los Angeles Public Library Department of Recreation and Parks Los Angeles Department of Transportation Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles Board of Water and Power Commissioners The most recent elections were in May 2013, with 13th district City Councilman Eric Garcetti defeating City Controller Wendy Greuel for Mayor; the voter turnout was about 19% of registered voters, one of the lowest turnouts on record, with Garcetti garnering about 54% of the votes.
The Charter of the City of Los Angeles is the founding document of Los Angeles. Pursuant to its Charter, all legislative power is vested in the Council and is exercised by ordinance subject to a veto by the Mayor. Pursuant to this power, the Council has caused to be promulgated the Administrative Code, consisting of administrative and procedural ordinances, the Municipal Code, consisting of codified regulatory and penal ordinances. Violations of the ordinances are misdemeanor crimes unless otherwise specified as an infraction and may be prosecuted by city authorities; the Los Angeles Superior Court, which covers the entire county, is not a County department but a division of the State's trial court system. The courthouses were county-owned buildings that were maintained at county expense, which created significant friction since the trial court judges, as officials of the stat