Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
Yom Kippur War
The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought from October 6 to 25, 1973, by a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel. The war took place in Sinai and the Golan—occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War—with some fighting in African Egypt and northern Israel. Egypt's initial war objective was to use its military to seize a foothold on the east bank of the Suez Canal and use this to negotiate the return of the rest of Sinai; the war began when the Arab coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israeli positions, on Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, which occurred that year during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Egyptian and Syrian forces crossed ceasefire lines to enter the Sinai Peninsula and the Golan Heights, respectively. Both the United States and the Soviet Union initiated massive resupply efforts to their respective allies during the war, this led to a near-confrontation between the two nuclear superpowers.
The war began with a successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal. Egyptian forces crossed the cease-fire lines advanced unopposed into the Sinai Peninsula. After three days, Israel had mobilized most of its forces and halted the Egyptian offensive, resulting in a military stalemate; the Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and made threatening gains into Israeli-held territory. Within three days, Israeli forces had pushed the Syrians back to the pre-war ceasefire lines; the Israel Defense Forces launched a four-day counter-offensive deep into Syria. Within a week, Israeli artillery began to shell the outskirts of Damascus, Egyptian President Sadat began to worry about the integrity of his major ally, he believed that capturing two strategic passes located deeper in the Sinai would make his position stronger during post-war negotiations. The Israelis counter-attacked at the seam between the two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt, began advancing southward and westward towards the city of Suez in over a week of heavy fighting that resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.
On October 22, a United Nations–brokered ceasefire unraveled, with each side blaming the other for the breach. By October 24, the Israelis had improved their positions and completed their encirclement of Egypt's Third Army and the city of Suez; this development led to tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on October 25 to end the war. The war had far-reaching implications; the Arab world had experienced humiliation in the lopsided rout of the Egyptian–Syrian–Jordanian alliance in the Six-Day War but felt psychologically vindicated by early successes in this conflict. The war led Israel to recognize that, despite impressive operational and tactical achievements on the battlefield, there was no guarantee that they would always dominate the Arab states militarily, as they had through the earlier 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Suez Crisis, the Six-Day War; these changes paved the way for the subsequent peace process. The 1978 Camp David Accords that followed led to the return of the Sinai to Egypt and normalized relations—the first peaceful recognition of Israel by an Arab country.
Egypt continued its drift away from the Soviet Union and left the Soviet sphere of influence entirely. The war was part of the Arab–Israeli conflict, an ongoing dispute that included many battles and wars since 1948, when the state of Israel was formed. During the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel had captured Egypt's Sinai Peninsula half of Syria's Golan Heights, the territories of the West Bank, held by Jordan since 1948. On June 19, 1967, shortly after the Six-Day War, the Israeli government voted to return the Sinai to Egypt and the Golan Heights to Syria in exchange for a permanent peace settlement and a demilitarization of the returned territories, it rejected a full return to the boundaries and the situation before the war and insisted on direct negotiations with the Arab governments as opposed to accepting negotiation through a third party. This decision was it conveyed to any Arab state. Notwithstanding Abba Eban's insistence that this was indeed the case, there seems to be no solid evidence to corroborate his claim.
No formal peace proposal was made either indirectly by Israel. The Americans, who were briefed of the Cabinet's decision by Eban, were not asked to convey it to Cairo and Damascus as official peace proposals, nor were they given indications that Israel expected a reply; the Arab position, as it emerged in September 1967 at the Khartoum Arab Summit, was to reject any peaceful settlement with the state of Israel. The eight participating states – Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Algeria and Sudan – passed a resolution that would become known as the "three no's": there would be no peace, no recognition and no negotiation with Israel. Prior to that, King Hussein of Jordan had stated that he could not rule out a possibility of a "real, permanent peace" between Israel and the Arab states. Armed hostilities continued on a limited scale after the Six-Day War and escalated into the War of Attrition, an attempt to wear down the Israeli position through long-term pressure. A ceasefire was signed in August 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt died in September 1970
Abdul Hakim Murad (militant)
Abdul Hakim Ali Hashim Murad born January 4, 1968) is an Islamic terrorist, a co-conspirator in the Bojinka plot—the forerunner to the September 11 attacks. In 1996, he was convicted in the United States of trying to blow up a dozen airliners and was sentenced to life in prison, he was found to have many aliases. A Pakistani passport found had "Abdul Hakim, age 26, Pakistani passport No. C665334, issued in Kuwait." He used the alias Ahmed Saeed. He was mentioned on Ramzi Yousef's laptop personal computer as Obaid. Murad was born in Kuwait. After graduating from a Kuwaiti high school, he attained his commercial pilot's license at the Continental Flying School in the Philippines from November 1990 to January 1991, continued his studies at the Emirates Flying School in the United Arab Emirates in November 1991. Ramzi Yousef, a friend of Murad's who attended Afghan training camps, taught Murad how to make bombs in Lahore, Pakistan. During one of the practice sessions, a bomb exploded in Yousef's face.
While they were in Metro Manila in the Philippines and Yousef went to two karaoke bars, the XO on Adriatico Street, the Firehouse on Roxas Boulevard in Pasay City. According to Murad, they never went to the mosque, he attended a series of flight schools, including Emirates Flying School in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, the Alpha Tango Flying Service in San Antonio and flight schools in Schenectady, New York, New Bern, North Carolina and Pasay City, Philippines. He told officials he had attended four different American flight schools. On June 8, 1992, he received a Commercial Pilot certificate while at Coastal Aviation Incorporated, after completing 275 hours of required flight time. Murad was a co-conspirator with Ramzi Yousef, one of the main perpetrators and creator of the bomb for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. After moving to the Philippines under the direction of Yousef's uncle Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, they planned the unsuccessful Bojinka Plot which would set the pattern for the Al Qaeda September 11 attacks.
The plan involved assassinating Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Philippines while attention was drawn to the Pope's death, bombs would be placed inside toy cars and planted on airline flights out of Bangkok, killing thousands. After testing and detonating his deadly bomb on Philippine Airlines Flight 434, Yousef returned to Manila and began preparing at least a dozen bombs each with a higher concentration of explosive materials, but just weeks before the Bojinka Plot was due to be launched, Murad was mixing chemicals which started a fire on January 6, 1995. Yousef and Murad fled the fire, but Murad was sent back to retrieve the laptop computer in the apartment, which contained the plans for the attack, he called. He offered 110,740 Philippine pesos to the Manila police. Although they did not make that much money in a year, Aida Fariscal, the watch commander, refused to let him go. Police grew suspicious after "Saeed" mumbled that, "two Satans that must be destroyed: the Pope and America."
This led a further search of room 603, where they found a bomb factory and a computer with data relating to the plot. His interrogations by Philippine National Police Intelligence consisted of waterboarding, being beaten with chairs and lumber, having cigarettes extinguished on his penis and testicles. A Philippine National Police raid in another Manila apartment revealed evidence that Abdul Murad, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Yousef had drawn up plans for flying an airplane into the CIA headquarters; the information was passed on to the FAA. As part of the Bojinka plot, Murad was slated to bomb two United Airlines aircraft, was slated to be the suicide pilot who would fly a small plane filled with explosives into the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. Information about plane bombings was sent to the FBI. Abdul Hakim Murad was sent to the United States on April 12, 1995, would help convict Yousef based on Murad's testimony. Murad was convicted on September 5, 1996, of seven counts of conspiring and attempting to bomb 12 planes.
On May 16, 1998, Murad received a life sentence to prison. Murad, Federal Bureau of Prisons #37437-054, is serving his time in USP Marion, in Marion, Illinois
1993 World Trade Center bombing
The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,336 lb urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to send the North Tower crashing into the South Tower, bringing both towers down and killing tens of thousands of people, it killed six people and injured over a thousand. The attack was planned by a group of terrorists including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, Ahmed Ajaj, they received financing from Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj and Salameh; the charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property, interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb.
Ramzi Yousef, born as Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim in Kuwait, spent time at an al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan, before beginning in 1991 to plan a bombing attack within the United States. Yousef's uncle Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Ali Fadden, considered the principal architect of the September 11 attacks, gave him advice and tips over the phone, funded his co-conspirator Mohammed Salameh with a US$660 wire transfer. Yousef arrived illegally in the United States on September 1, 1992, traveling with Ahmed Ajaj from Pakistan, though both sat apart on the flight and acted as though they were traveling separately. Ajaj tried to enter with a forged Swedish passport, though it had been altered and thus raised suspicions among INS officials at John F. Kennedy International Airport; when officials put Ajaj through secondary inspection, they discovered bomb-making instructions and other materials in his luggage, arrested him. The name Abu Barra, an alias of Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, appeared in the manuals.
Yousef tried claiming political asylum. Yousef was allowed into the United States, was given a hearing date. Yousef set up residence in Jersey City, New Jersey, traveled around New York and New Jersey and called Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, a controversial blind Muslim cleric, via cell phone. After being introduced to his co-conspirators by Abdel Rahman at the latter's Al-Farooq Mosque in Brooklyn, Yousef began assembling the 1,500 lb urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device for delivery to the WTC, he ordered chemicals from his hospital room when injured in a car crash – one of three accidents caused by Salameh in late 1992 and early in 1993. El Sayyid Nosair, one of the blind sheikh's men, was arrested in 1991 for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane. According to prosecutors, "the Red" Mahmud Abouhalima convicted in the bombing, told Wadih el Hage to buy the.357 caliber revolver used by Nosair in the Kahane shooting. In the initial court case in NYS Criminal Court Nosair was acquitted of murder but convicted of gun charges.
Dozens of Arabic bomb-making manuals and documents related to terrorist plots were found in Nosair's New Jersey apartment, with manuals from Army Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, secret memos linked to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1,440 rounds of ammunition. According to the transcript of his trial, Yousef hoped that his explosion would topple Tower 1 which would fall into Tower 2, killing the occupants of both buildings, which he estimated to be about 250,000 people in vengeance for U. S. support for Israel against Palestine. According to the journalist Steve Coll, Yousef mailed letters to various New York newspapers just before the attack, in which he claimed he belonged to "Liberation Army, Fifth Battalion"; these letters made three demands: an end to all US aid to Israel, an end to US diplomatic relations with Israel, a pledge by the United States to end interference "with any of the Middle East countries' interior affairs." He stated that the attack on the World Trade Center would be the first of such attacks if his demands were not met.
In his letters, Yousef admitted that the World Trade Center bombing was an act of terrorism, but this was justified because "the terrorism that Israel practices must be faced with a similar one." Yousef did not make any religious justification for the bombing. When asked about his religious views, he was evasive. On Friday, February 26, 1993, Ramzi Yousef and a Jordanian friend, Eyad Ismoil, drove a yellow Ryder van into Lower Manhattan, pulled into the public parking garage beneath the World Trade Center around noon, they parked on the underground B-2 level. Yousef ignited the 20-foot fuse, fled. Twelve minutes at 12:17:37 p.m. the bomb exploded in the underground garage, generating an estimated pressure of 150,000 psi. The bomb opened a 30-m wide hole through four sublevels of concrete; the detonation velocity of this bomb was 10,066.2133 mph. Initial news reports indicated a main transformer might have blown, before it became clear that a bomb had exploded in the basement; the bomb cut off the World Trade Center's main electrical power line, knocking out the emergency lighting system.
The bomb caused smoke to rise to the 93rd floor of both towers, including through the stairwells which were not pressurized, smoke went up the damaged elevators in the World Trade Center Towers 1 & 2. With thick smoke filling the stairwells, evacuation was difficult for building occupants and led to many smoke inhalation injuries. Hundreds were trapped in elevators in the towers whe
A security guard is a person employed by a public or private party to protect the employing party’s assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures. Security guards do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, looking for signs of crime or other hazards, taking action to minimize damage, reporting any incidents to their clients and emergency services, as appropriate. Security officers are uniformed to represent their lawful authority to protect private property. Security guards are governed by legal regulations, which set out the requirements for eligibility and the permitted authorities of a security guard in a given jurisdiction; the authorities permitted to security guards vary by subnational jurisdiction. Security officers are hired by a range of organizations, including businesses, government departments and agencies and not-for-profit organizations; until the 1980s, the term watchman was more applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement.
This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security officers are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function. Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement, for example, at the request of a police officer or sheriff. A private security officer's responsibility is protecting their client from a variety of hazards. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property, they sometimes have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. In addition to basic deterrence, security officers are trained to perform specialized tasks such as arrest and control, operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, perform other tasks as required by the client they are serving.
All security officers are required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons and pepper spray. Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties; the number of jobs is expected to grow in the U. S. with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016. In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls and any other area where the general public congregate. One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence. For a high risk or high value property, the discount can exceed the money being spent on its security program. Discounts are offered because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs.
The presence of security officers tends to diminish "shrinkage", employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or sabotage. Many casinos hire security officers to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino's bank. Security personnel may perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates. Security officers are called upon to respond to potential hazards and to assist in serious emergencies by securing the scene to prevent further loss or damage, summoning emergency responders to the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, by documenting what happened on an incident report to give their client an idea of how to prevent similar situations from occurring. Armed security officers are contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene. Patrolling is a large part of a security officer's duties, as most incidents are prevented by being looked for instead of waiting for them to occur.
These patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. Until the most used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it, but electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, a
Ramzi Yousef is a convicted and incarcerated international terrorist, one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the bombing of Philippine Airlines Flight 434, was a co-conspirator in the Bojinka plot. In 1995, he was arrested by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence and U. S. Diplomatic Security Service at a guest house in Islamabad, Pakistan while trying to set a bomb in a baby doll extradited to the United States, he was tried in the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York along with two co-conspirators and was convicted of planning the Bojinka plot, he received two life sentences plus 240 years for his part in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and Bojinka plot. Yousef's maternal uncle is Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, with whom he planned the Bojinka plot. Mohammed is a senior al-Qaeda member accused of being the principal architect of the September 11 attacks in 2001. Yousef is serving his life sentences at ADX Florence, located near Florence, Colorado.
He shares a cell block, referred to as "Bombers Row" with Terry Nichols, Eric Rudolph, Ted Kaczynski. The name "Ramzi Yousef" is believed to be an alias; the 9/11 Commission claimed. He was born in Kuwait to his parents who were from Palestine, his father is Mohammed Abdul Karim from Pakistan. His mother is believed to be the sister of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed; when his family returned to Pakistan in the mid-1980s, Yousef was sent to the United Kingdom for education. In 1986, he enrolled at Swansea Institute in Wales, where he studied electrical engineering, graduating four years later, he studied at the Oxford College of Further Education to improve his English. Yousef returned to Pakistan, he began to learn bomb making in a terrorist training camp in Peshawar, before traveling to the United States in 1992. The World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack that occurred on 26 February 1993, when a car bomb was detonated below Tower One of the World Trade Center in New York City, New York; the 1,500 lb urea nitrate-hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to knock the North Tower into the South Tower, to bring both towers down and kill thousands of people.
It failed to do so, but killed six civilians and injured 1,042, including 919 civilians, 88 firefighters, 35 police officers. Ramzi Yousef sent a letter to The New York Times after the bombing that expressed his motive: We are, the fifth battalion in the Liberation Army, declare our responsibility for the explosion on the mentioned building; this action was done in response for the American political and military support to Israel, the state of terrorism, to the rest of the dictator countries in the region. Our Demands Are:1 – Stop all military and political aid to Israel.2 – All diplomatic relations with Israel must stop.3 – Not to interfere with any of the Middle East countries interior affairs. If our demands are not met, all of our functional groups in the army will continue to execute our missions against the military and civilian targets in and out the United States. For your own information, our army has more than hundred and fifty suicidal soldiers ready to go ahead; the terrorism that Israel practices must be faced with a similar one.
The dictatorship and terrorism that some countries are practicing against their own people must be faced with terrorism. The American people must know, that their civilians who got killed are not better than those who are getting killed by the American weapons and support; the American people are responsible for the actions of their government and they must question all of the crimes that their government is committing against other people. Or they -- Americans -- will be the targets of our operations. On 1 September 1992, Yousef entered the United States with an Iraqi passport of disputed authenticity, his companion, Ahmed Ajaj, carried multiple immigration documents, among, a crudely falsified Swedish passport. Providing a smokescreen to facilitate Yousef's entry, Ajaj was arrested on the spot when immigration officials found bomb manuals, videotapes of suicide car bombers, a cheat sheet on how to lie to U. S. immigration inspectors in his luggage. Directors of the American Counter-Terrorism program tied the travel arrangements to a phone call from Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman, an Egyptian militant Muslim preacher, to the Pakistani telephone number 810604.
Yousef was held for 72 hours and interrogated, but INS holding cells were overcrowded. Yousef, requesting political asylum, was given a hearing date of 9 November 1992, he told Jersey City Police that he was Abdul Basit Mahmud Abdul Karim, a Pakistani national born and brought up in Kuwait, that he had lost his passport. On December 31, 1992, the Pakistani Consulate in New York issued a temporary passport to Abdul Basit Mahmud Abdul Karim. Yousef travelled around New York and New Jersey, during which time he made calls to Abdel-Rahman via cell phone. Between 3 December and 27 December 1992, he made conference calls to key numbers in Balochistan, Pakistan. Ajaj never reclaimed the manuals and tapes, which remained at the New York office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation after Judge Reena Raggi had ordered the materials released in December 1992. Yousef, aided by Mohammed A. Salameh and Mahmud Abouhalima, began assembling the 1,500 lb urea nitrate-fuel oil device in his Pamrapo Avenue home in Jersey City ready for delivery
Bergdorf Goodman Inc. is a luxury department store based on Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. The company was founded in 1899 by Herman Bergdorf and was owned and managed by Edwin Goodman, his son Andrew Goodman. Today, Bergdorf Goodman operates from two stores situated across the street from each other at Fifth Avenue between 57th and 58th streets; the main store, which opened at its current location in 1928, is located on the west side of Fifth Avenue. A separate men's store, established in 1990, is located on the east side of Fifth Avenue, directly across the street. Bergdorf Goodman is a subsidiary of Neiman Marcus, owned by the private equity firm Ares Management; the company traces its origins to 1899 when Herman Bergdorf, an immigrant from Alsace, opened a tailor shop just above Union Square in downtown Manhattan. Edwin Goodman, a 23-year-old merchant, based in Lockport, New York, moved to New York City to work as an apprentice for Bergdorf. Within two years, Goodman had raised enough money to purchase an interest in the business, renamed Bergdorf Goodman in 1901.
In 1906, Bergdorf Goodman moved to a new location on 32nd Street, just west of Fifth Avenue and "Ladies' Mile". While Bergdorf preferred the less expensive side street location, Goodman prevailed with the new location and bought Bergdorf's interest in the company. Bergdorf would retire to Paris. Although Goodman had developed a good business as a ladies' tailor on 32nd Street, he decided to move uptown in 1914. Goodman constructed a five-story building at 616 Fifth Avenue, on the site of what is today Rockefeller Center. In 1914, Goodman became the first couturier to introduce ready-to-wear, making Bergdorf Goodman a destination for American and French fashion; the store moved to its present location at 5th Avenue and 58th Street in 1928, building its Beaux-Arts style store on the site of the Cornelius Vanderbilt II mansion. He was unsure of the success of the new store's location, as he was uncertain whether customers would follow the store uptown. So, Goodman designed the new store so that it could be subdivided into sections with storefronts that could be rented out if needed.
Early tenants included the Grande Maison de Blanc and Dobbs the Hatter. During the Great Depression, Goodman thrived, buying the entire building. Throughout the 1930s, Goodman purchased the mortgages of the surrounding businesses acquiring the entire block. During this period, Bergdorf Goodman was successful enough to have merited an expansion beyond the single store. However, Goodman preferred to operate in a single location where he would be able to maintain the quality of the merchandise and service. Goodman's son, assumed the role of president in 1951 and succeeded as head of the company in 1953, following the death of his father. Andrew was responsible for enhancing Bergdorf's reputation and expanding its range of merchandise and services. During Andrew's tenure as chairman, Bergdorf opened a fur salon, developed the successful Bergdorf Goodman Number Nine perfume, created Miss Bergdorf, a ready-to-wear line for younger customers; the store began a $1 million expansion in 1959 into two adjacent buildings.
The Boys and Girls gift shop expanded into a whole floor, the beauty salon and bridal and men's departments expanded. Eight years a $2.5 million expansion in 1967 nearly doubled the store's area, to 120,000 square feet. In 1972, Andrew Goodman sold Bergdorf Goodman to Broadway-Hale Stores, which would become Carter Hawley Hale Stores for $12.5 million. CHH had acquired Neiman Marcus, a three-unit operation at the time, in 1969. By the time of the sale, Bergdorf Goodman was the only large high-quality specialty store in the U. S. that remained independently owned. However, its decision not to build suburban branches left it with a modest profit margin. Goodman remained the landlord of the store and kept a penthouse apartment on the building's top floor. At first, CHH considered building branch locations only constructing one location, in nearby White Plains, New York, in 1972; this location became a Neiman Marcus branch in 1981. To combat its image difficulties, the company hired Dawn Mello in 1975 as vice president of fashion.
She was successful in reinvigorating the conservative store and became president in 1984. She left her post in 1989 to work for the floundering Italian fashion house Gucci, though she returned to her post as president in 1994. Bergdorf Goodman's parent company became the object of takeover bids in the 1980s; as a way to maintain its independence, Carter Hawley completed a major financial restructuring. In 1987, Bergdorf Goodman was spun-off, together with Neiman Marcus and Contempo Casuals, to form Neiman Marcus Group; the new company was headquartered in Dallas, where the larger Neiman Marcus had been based for 80 years. Chairman and CEO Ira Neimark expanded the women's store three times in the 1990s, he moved the men's store across the street to the former FAO Schwarz space at 745 Fifth Avenue in 1990. This move allowed more space for women's fashions. In 1997, the former Goodman family apartment on the building's ninth floor became the John Barrett Salon and Susan Ciminelli Day Spa. In 1999, the Beauty Level opened directly below the main floor, offering a luxury spa and Goodman's Café, serving lunch and afternoon tea.
In 2002, Bergdorf Goodman underwent a major renovation, during which artisans and craftspeople began a dramatic restoration of the main floor of the women's store. In 2003, the store introduced new boutiques for Chanel, Giorgio Armani, Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent; the Bergdorf Goodman Men's store features exclusive brands such as Loro Pi