Mario Monicelli was an Italian director and screenwriter and one of the masters of the Commedia all'Italiana. He was nominated six times for an Oscar. Monicelli was the youngest son of journalist Tommaso Monicelli, his older brother, worked as writer and translator. Another older brother, was a journalist, he attended studies in the local lyceum, entered the film world through his friendship with Giacomo Forzano, son of playwright Giovacchino Forzano, put in charge of the founding of cinema studios in Tirrenia by Benito Mussolini. Monicelli lived a carefree youth, many of the cinematic jokes he shot in Amici Miei were inspired by his own experience. Monicelli made his first short in 1934, in collaboration with his friend Alberto Mondadori, he followed up this work with the silent film I ragazzi della Via Paal, an award-winner in the Venice Film Festival. His first feature length work was made in 1937. From 1939–42, he produced up to 40 numerous screenplays, worked as an assistant director. Monicelli made his official debut with Totò cerca casa, along with Steno.
From the beginning of his career Monicelli's cinematic style had a remarkable flow to it. The duo produced eight successful movies including Guardie e ladri and Totò a colori. From 1953 onwards Monicelli worked alone, without leaving his role as a writer of screenplays. Monicelli's career includes some of the masterpieces of Italian cinema. In I soliti ignoti, featuring the ubiquitous comedian Totò in a side role, he discovered the comical talent of Vittorio Gassman and Marcello Mastroianni and started the new genre of the modern commedia all'italiana. While better known in the English-speaking world under the title Big Deal on Madonna Street, the actual translation from the Italian is "the usual unknown perpetrators"; the film was nominated for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 31st Academy Awards. La Grande Guerra, with Vittorio Gassman, Alberto Sordi and Silvana Mangano released one year is regarded as one of his most successful works, which rewarded Monicelli with a Leone d'Oro in the Venice Film Festival, an Academy Award nomination for the Best Foreign Film.
The film, featuring Gassman and the other superstar of Italian comedy, Alberto Sordi, excelled in the absence of rhetorical accents and for its sharp, tragicomical sense of history. Monicelli received two more Academy Award nominations with The Girl with the Pistol. L'armata Brancaleone is another masterpiece of Italian cinema; the film tells the tragicomic tale of a Middle Ages Italian knight, with uncertain nobility and few means but high ideals, self-confidence and pomposity. The bizarre Macaronic Latin-Italian dialogues were devised by Age & Scarpelli, the most renowned writers of Italian comedies, represent a whole linguistic invention, followed by Brancaleone alle Crociate in 1970, less in Bertoldo, Bertoldino e Cacasenno. Amici miei, featuring Ugo Tognazzi, Adolfo Celi, Gastone Moschin, Duilio Del Prete and Philippe Noiret, was one of the most successful films in Italy and confirmed Monicelli's genius in mixing humour and bitter understanding of the human condition; the film was popular to the point that some lines are today turned into well established idiomatic expression, a programming language has been created using a syntax based on film quotes.
His 1976 film Caro Michele won him the Silver Bear for Best Director at the 26th Berlin International Film Festival. Dramatic accents were predominant in the Un borghese piccolo piccolo, but he turned again to more cheerful comedy and attention to historical events from a popular, intimate point of view with Il Marchese del Grillo. Both films featured Alberto Sordi at his best, the latter leading Monicelli to his third Silver Bear for Best Director award at the 32nd Berlin International Film Festival. Among the final works by Monicelli are Speriamo che sia femmina, Parenti serpenti and Cari fottutissimi amici, featuring Paolo Hendel; the latter won an Honourable Mention at the 44th Berlin International Film Festival. His 1999 film Dirty Linen was entered into the 21st Moscow International Film Festival, his last feature film was The Roses of the Desert. In 1991 he received the Golden Lion for Career of the Venice Film Festival. A documentary made by Roberto Salinas and Marina Catucci, Una storia da ridere, breve biografia di Mario Monicelli, appeared in 2008.
Monicelli died on 29 November 2010 at the age of 95. He committed suicide by jumping from a window of the San Giovanni Hospital in Rome, where he had been admitted a few days earlier for prostate cancer, he was an outspoken atheist. Rue du Pied de Grue Sono fotogenico, directed by Dino Risi Il ciclone, directed by Leonardo Pieraccioni Sotto il sole della Toscana Official website Mario Monicelli on IMDb Presentation of the documentary Monicelli, Mario’s Version
68th Venice International Film Festival
The 68th annual Venice International Film Festival was held in Venice, Italy between 31 August and 10 September 2011. American film director Darren Aronofsky was announced as the Head of the Jury. American actor and film director Al Pacino was presented with the Glory to the Film-maker award on 4 September, prior to the premiere of his upcoming film Wilde Salomé. Marco Bellocchio was awarded with the Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement in September; the festival opened with the American film The Ides of March, directed by George Clooney, closed with Damsels in Distress by Whit Stillman. The international juries of the 68th Venice International Film Festival were composed as follows:Main competition Darren Aronofsky, American director, jury president Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Finnish visual artist and filmmaker David Byrne, British musician Todd Haynes, American director Mario Martone, Italian director Alba Rohrwacher, Italian actress André Téchiné, French directorHorizons Jia Zhangke, Chinese director, jury president Stuart Comer, British Curator of Film at Tate Modern Odile Decq, French architect Marianne Khoury, Egyptian director Jacopo Quadri, Italian film editorControcampo Italiano Stefano Incerti, Italian author, jury president Aureliano Amadei, Italian actor Cristiana Capotondi, Italian actressOpera Prima Carlo Mazzacurati, Italian director, jury president Aleksei Fedorchenko, Russian director Fred Roos, American producer Charles Tesson, French Artistic Director of the International Critics' Week at the Cannes Film Festival Serra Yilmaz, Turkish actress The following films were selected to compete for the Golden Lion: Highlighted title indicates the Golden Lion winner.
The following films were shown out of competition: The following films were selected for the Horizons section: Highlighted title indicates the Orizzonti Award for Best Feature Film winner. The following films, representing "new trends in Italian cinema", were screened in this section:In competition Out of competition The following films were screened for this section: The following films were screened as part of the Venice Days section The three nominees for the European Parliament's 2011 Lux Prize received screenings as part of this section; the following Official selection awards were conferred at the festival:In Competition Golden Lion: Faust Silver Lion for Best Director: Cai Shangjun, for People Mountain People Sea Special Jury Prize: Terraferma by Emanuele Crialese Volpi Cup for Best Actor: Michael Fassbender, for Shame Volpi Cup for Best Actress: Deanie Ip, for A Simple Life Marcello Mastroianni Award, for the best emerging actor or actress: Shōta Sometani and Fumi Nikaidō for Himizu Osella for Best Cinematography: Robbie Ryan for Wuthering Heights Osella for Best Screenplay: Yorgos Lanthimos and Efthimis Filippou for AlpsHorizons Horizons Award: Kotoko by Shinya Tsukamoto Special Horizons jury prize: Whores' Glory by Michael Glawogger Horizons Award for medium-length film: Accidentes Gloriosos by Mauro Andrizzi and Marcus Lindeen Horizons Award for short film: In attesa dell'avvento by Felice D'Agostino and Arturo Lavorato Special mentions: O Le Tulafale by Tusi Tamasese All The Lines Flow Out by Charles LIM Yi Yong Controcampo Italiano Best Feature film: Scialla! by Francesco Bruni Best Short film: A Chjàna by Jonas Carpignano Best Documentary: Pugni chiusi by Fiorella InfascelliSpecial Mentions: Black Block by Carlo Augusto Bachschmidt Francesco Di Giacomo for Pugni chiusiSpecial awards Golden Lion for Lifetime Achievement: Marco Bellocchio Jaeger-LeCoultre Glory to the Filmmaker Award: Al Pacino Persol 3D Award for the Most Creative Stereoscopic Film: Zapruder Filmmakers Group L'Oréal Paris Award for Cinema: Nicole Grimaudo The following official and collateral awards were conferred to films of the autonomous sections: Venice International Film Critics' Week Lion of the Future"Luigi de Laurentis" Award for a Debut Film: Là-bas by Guido LombardiCritics' Week Audience Award: Là-bas by Guido LombardiVenice Days Label Europa Cinemas Award: Guilty by Vincent Garenq Lina Mangiacapre Award: Shun Li and the Poet by Andrea Segre Laterna Magica Award: Shun Li and the Poet by Andrea Segre FEDIC Award: Shun Li and the Poet by Andrea Segre The following collateral awards were conferred to films of the official selection: FIPRESCI Award:Best Film: Shame by Steve McQueen Best Film: Two Years at Sea by Ben Rivers SIGNIS Award: Faust by Alexander SokurovSpecial mention: A Simple Life by Ann HuiFrancesco Pasinetti Award: Best Film: Terraferma by Emanuele Crialese Best Debut: The Last Man on Earth by Gian Alfonso Pacinotti Cicae Prize: The Orator by Tusi Tamasese Leoncino d'oro Agiscuola Award: Carnage by Roman Polanski Cinema for UNICEF Award: Terraferma by Emanuele Crialese C.
I. C. T. UNESCO Enrico Fulchignoni Award: Tahrir 2011: The Good, the Bad, the Politician by Tamer Ezzat, Ahmad Abdalla, Ayten Amin, Amr Salama Nazareno Taddei Award: A Simple Life by Ann Hui CinemAvvenire Award - Best Film: Shame by Steve McQueen Best Film - Il cerchio non è rotondo Award: The Orator by Tusi Tamasese Equal Opportunity Award: A Simple Life by Ann Hui Future Film Festival Digital Award: Faust by Alexander SokurovSpecial mention: Kotoko by Shinya TsukamotoGianni Astrei Award: A Simple Life by Ann Hui Brian Award: The Ides of March by George Clooney Queer Lion Award: Wilde Salomé by Al Pacino Lina Mangiacapre Award - Special mention: Maternity Blues by Fabrizio Cattani (C
84th Academy Awards
The 84th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, honored the best films of 2011 in the United States and took place on February 26, 2012, at the Hollywood and Highland Center Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST. During the ceremony, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented Academy Awards in 24 categories; the ceremony was televised in the United States by ABC, produced by Brian Grazer and Don Mischer, with Mischer serving as director. Actor Billy Crystal hosted the show for the ninth time, he first presided over the 62nd ceremony held in 1990 and had last hosted the 76th ceremony held in 2004. On June 14, 2011, Academy president Tom Sherak announced at a press conference that, in an attempt to further revitalize interest surrounding the awards, the 2012 ceremony would feature between five and ten Best Picture nominees depending on voting results, as opposed to a set number of nominees. In related events, the Academy held its third annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 12, 2011.
On February 11, 2012, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Milla Jovovich. The Artist won five awards, including Best Actor for Jean Dujardin, Best Director for Michel Hazanavicius, Best Picture, the first silent feature to win an Academy Award for Best Picture since 1927's Wings, the inaugural winner in 1929. Other winners included Hugo with five awards, The Iron Lady with two awards, Beginners, The Descendants, The Fantastic Flying Books of Mr. Morris Lessmore, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, The Help, Midnight in Paris, The Muppets, Saving Face, A Separation, The Shore, Undefeated with one; the telecast garnered more than 39 million viewers in the United States. The nominees for the 84th Academy Awards were announced on January 24, 2012, at 5:38 a.m. PST at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Tom Sherak, president of the Academy, the actress Jennifer Lawrence. Hugo led all nominees with eleven nominations.
The winners were announced during the awards ceremony on February 26, 2012. While many confuse The Artist as a silent feature, it is a sound picture with an accompanying soundtrack; the 1927 film Wings is still the only silent film to win Best Picture, an honor received at the inaugural awards ceremony in 1929. Moreover, it was the first black-and-white feature to win Best Picture since 1993's Schindler's List. Best Actor winner Jean Dujardin became the first French actor to win an Oscar. With her latest win for Best Actress, Meryl Streep became the fifth performer to win at least three acting Oscars. At age 82, Best Supporting Actor winner Christopher Plummer made Oscar history by becoming the oldest performer to win a competitive acting Oscar. Winners are listed first, highlighted in boldface, indicated with a double dagger; the Academy held its 3rd Annual Governors Awards ceremony on November 12, 2011, during which the following awards were presented. James Earl Jones — For his legacy of consistent excellence and uncommon versatility.
Dick Smith — For his unparalleled mastery of texture, shade and illusion. Oprah Winfrey The following individuals, listed in order of appearance, presented awards or performed musical numbers; because of the declining viewership of recent Academy Awards ceremonies, the Academy sought ideas to revamp the show while renewing interest with the nominated films. In light of the previous year's telecast, whose performance by co-hosts James Franco and Anne Hathaway yielded critically negative reviews and a 9% decline in viewership, many within the Motion Picture Academy proposed new ways to give the awards a more populist appeal. After a two-year experiment with ten Best Pictures nominees, AMPAS president Tom Sherak announced that the number of final nominees can now range from five to ten as opposed a fixed number; the nomination voting process would be the same as before, through preferential balloting, but now only films that receive a minimum of 5% of total number-one votes are eligible for Best Picture nominations.
Academy then-executive director Bruce Davis explained, "A Best Picture nomination should be an indication of extraordinary merit. If there are only eight pictures that earn that honor in a given year, we shouldn't feel an obligation to round out the number." Changes in the Best Animated Feature were announced. In response to the growing number of animated features released per year, the Academy stated in a press release that four to five films would now be nominated per year contingent on how many animated feature films were released in that year; the Academy selected director Brett Ratner as co-producer of the ceremony with Don Mischer in August 2011. Actor and comedian Eddie Murphy was hired by Ratner to preside over hosting duties. However, after commenting to radio host Howard Stern during an interview promoting the film Tower Heist that "rehearsal is for fags" and disparaging remarks about actress Olivia Munn, Ratner resigned from his co-producing duties on November 8. Murphy subsequently stepped down as host the following day.
The Academy selected film producer Brian Grazer to replace Ratner as co-producer. Actor and veteran Oscar emcee Billy Crystal was recruited by Grazer to take over hosting duties. Multiple others participated in the production of the ceremony. Musicians Hans Zimmer and Pharrell Williams composed new music exclusive to the Oscars ceremony, released as an album via the iTunes Store. Oscar-winning production designer John Myhre designed a n
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
New York University Tisch School of the Arts
The New York University Tisch School of the Arts is the performing and media arts school of New York University. Founded on August 17, 1965, Tisch is a training ground for artists, scholars of the arts, filmmakers; the school is divided into three Institutes: Performing Arts, Emerging Media, the Kanbar Institute of Film & Television. Many undergraduate and graduate disciplines are available for students, including: acting, drama, performance studies, design for stage and film, musical theatre writing, game design and development, film and television studies; the school offers an inter-disciplinary "collaborative arts" program, high school programs, continuing education in the arts for the general public, as well as the Clive Davis School Institute of Recorded Music, which teaches entrepreneurial strategies in the music recording industry. A dual MFA/MBA graduate program is offered, allowing students to take coursework at both Tisch and NYU's Stern School of Business, it is located at 721 Broadway, adjacent to the University's Department of Philosophy building and the Gallatin School of Individualized Study, in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City.
As of 2017, the school had more than 25,000 alumni working in the arts and related professions, has more alumni in Broadway theatre than any other school for theater in the United States. In 2017 alone, six members of the Tisch alumni community were nominated for an Oscar. Over the past 10 Student Academy Award ceremonies, it is one of only two US schools to have double-digit wins; the school is among the most competitive American film schools to enroll in. The Tisch School of the Arts was founded in order to provide conservatory training in theater and film in the context of a research university; the school created additional departments such as dance, theatre design, cinema studies within a few years. Following the creation of the undergraduate Department of Drama in 1974, the school expanded into other artistic forms, including the Interactive Telecommunications Program, Department of Dramatic Writing, Department of Performance Studies, Graduate Musical Theatre Writing Program, Department of Photography and Imaging, The Department of Art and Public Policy.
In 1985, the school's first dean, David Oppenheim, solicited a donation from Laurence A. and Preston Robert Tisch that made possible the acquisition and renovation of the location at 721 Broadway where most of the school’s programs are housed. In recognition of the generosity of the Tisch family, the school was renamed Tisch School of the Arts. Tisch School of the Arts has three institutes and 16 programs and offers the Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Arts, Master of Fine Arts, Master of Arts, Master of Professional Studies, Doctor of Philosophy degrees. Tisch offers a selection of classes to NYU students not enrolled in any of its programs through the Open Arts curriculum; the three institutes are: The Institute of Performing Arts, including the Art & Public Policy, Design for Stage & Film, Graduate Acting, Graduate Musical Theatre Writing, Open Arts, Performance StudiesThe Maurice Kanbar Institute of Film & Television, including Cinema Studies, the Goldberg Department of Dramatic Writing, Graduate Film, Undergraduate Film & TelevisionThe Institute of Emerging Media, including the Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music, ITP/IMA, Photography & Imaging, NYU Game CenterThe school offers an inter-disciplinary "collaborative arts" program, as well as the Clive Davis School Institute of Recorded Music, one of the few programs in the US to combine musical arts and business strategies in the recording industry.
A dual MFA/MBA graduate program is offered, allowing students to take coursework at both Tisch and NYU's Stern School of Business. It offers high school programs as an outgrowth of the undergraduate classes, professional courses for the general public as part of a commitment to continuing education in the arts. NYU's first branch campus abroad was the result of a partnership with Singapore Government agencies under Singapore's Global Schoolhouse program. Tisch Asia was Singapore’s first graduate arts school and offered Master of Fine Arts degrees in animation and digital arts, dramatic writing and international media producing. Summer programs included non-credit certificate courses; the campus opened in fall 2007 on the former Ministry of Education & Republic Polytechnic grounds at 3 Kay Siang Road, with the intention to enroll 250 students. The anticipated enrollment figures were not achieved, financial irregularities were alleged and Tisch Asia President Pari Sara Shirazi was dismissed from her post by NYU in November 2011.
In a letter to the Tisch Asia community dated 8 November 2012, Dean Mary Schmidt Campbell announced that the campus would close after 2014 with recruitment and admission of new students suspended with immediate effect. While celebrating the c
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.