The Karatal River, known as the Qaratal River, is a river in Kazakhstan that originates in the Dzungarian Alatau Mountains near the border of with China and flows into Lake Balkhash. It is the easternmost of two rivers that flow into the lake, the other is the Ili River. The Karatal is one of the rivers of the historic region of Zhetysu. The river empties into Lake Balkhash near the centerpoint of its southern side, Karatal freezes up in December and stays icebound until March. Because of irrigation, the flow into Lake Balkash is limited. Great Soviet Encyclopedia National Aeronautics and Space Administration
The Talas River rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan. It is formed from the confluence of the Karakol and Uch-Koshoy and it runs through the city of Taraz in Zhambyl Province of Kazakhstan and vanishes before reaching Lake Aydyn. The Ili and Talas are three rivers that flow west and north-west. The Ili River rises in Xinjiang, flows west to a point north of Lake Issyk Kul, the Chu River rises west of Lake Issyk Kul, flows out into the steppe and dries up before reaching the Syr Darya. The Talas River starts west and south of the Chu, flows west and north-west, during the Battle of Talas in 751, the Abbasid force defeated the Tang Chinese forces led by the General Gao Xianzhi over a dispute regarding a client kingdom in the Fergana Valley. The battle was won by the Abbasids after the Karluks defected, the Chinese monk Xuanzang arrived from the Chui river to Talas during one of his journeys
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It is in a basin located between Europe and Asia. It is bounded by Kazakhstan to the northeast, Russia to the northwest, Azerbaijan to the west, Iran to the south, the Caspian Sea lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. In its northern part, the Caspian Depression lies 28 to 130 m below sea level, the sea bed in the southern part reaches as low as 1023 m below sea level, which is the second lowest natural depression on earth after Lake Baikal. The ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean, probably because of its saltiness, the sea has a surface area of 371,000 km2 and a volume of 78,200 km3. It has a salinity of approximately 1. 2%, about a third of the salinity of most seawater, the word Caspian is derived from the name of the Caspi, an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia.
Strabo wrote that to the country of the Albanians belongs the territory called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian tribe, as was the sea, but the tribe has now disappeared. Moreover, the Caspian Gates, which is the name of a region in Irans Tehran province, the Iranian city of Qazvin shares the root of its name with that of the sea. In fact, the traditional Arabic name for the sea itself is Bahr al-Qazwin, in classical antiquity among Greeks and Persians it was called the Hyrcanian Ocean. In Persian antiquity, as well as in modern Iran, it is known as the دریای خزر, Daryā-e Khazar, ancient Arabic sources refer to it as Baḥr Gīlān meaning the Gilan Sea. Turkic languages refer to the lake as Khazar Sea, in Turkmen, the name is Hazar deňizi, in Azeri, it is Xəzər dənizi, and in modern Turkish, it is Hazar denizi. An exception is Kazakh, where it is called Каспий теңізі, old Russian sources call it the Khvalyn or Khvalis Sea after the name of Khwarezmia. In modern Russian, it is called Каспи́йское мо́ре, Kaspiyskoye more, the Caspian Sea, like the Black Sea, Namak Lake, and Lake Urmia, is a remnant of the ancient Paratethys Sea.
It became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to tectonic uplift and a fall in sea level. Due to the current inflow of water, the Caspian Sea is a freshwater lake in its northern portions, and is most saline on the Iranian shore. Currently, the salinity of the Caspian is one third that of Earths oceans. The Caspian Sea is the largest inland body of water in the world, the coastlines of the Caspian are shared by Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The Caspian is divided into three distinct regions, the Northern and Southern Caspian
Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a transcontinental country in northern Central Asia and Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan is the worlds largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the regions GDP, primarily through its oil/gas industry. It has vast mineral resources, Kazakhstan is officially a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18 million people as of 2014, Given its large area, its population density is among the lowest. The capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from Almaty, the territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic tribes. This changed in the 13th century, when Genghis Khan occupied the country as part of the Mongolian Empire, following internal struggles among the conquerors, power eventually reverted to the nomads.
By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times, in 1936, it was made the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy, especially its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Kazakhstans 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans, the Kazakh language is the state language, and Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. The name Kazakh comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, to wander, the name Cossack is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means land or place of, so Kazakhstan can be translated as land of the wanderers.
Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Neolithic Age, the regions climate, archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the regions vast steppes. Central Asia was originally inhabited by the Scythians, the Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in history, administrative districts were established. These eventually came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate, throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-based economy continued to dominate the steppe. Nevertheless, the region was the focus of ever-increasing disputes between the native Kazakh emirs and the neighbouring Persian-speaking peoples to the south, at its height the Khanate would rule parts of Central Asia and control Cumania
Mugodzhar Hills is a series of mountain ranges in Aktobe Region 275 miles long. Latitude, 48°3838 N Longitude, 58°3247 E and they are considered to be a continuation of Ural Mountains and connected with Southern Ural by Guberlinskiy hillocks. They form the divide between the Caspian Sea and Aral Sea basins, the Mughodzhary proper are of length about 200 km with width up to 30 km. They start at the Or River as a range that further splits in two, Eastern Mugodzhary and Western Mugodzhary. The highest place is at Eastern Mygodzhars, Mount Boktybay, major rivers that run from Mughodzhary are Or River, Emba River and Irgiz River
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are commonly divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons and they have been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries, lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world. Lagoons can be man-made and used for treatment, as is the case for e. g. aerated lagoons. Lagoons are shallow, often elongated bodies of water separated from a body of water by a shallow or exposed shoal, coral reef. Some authorities include fresh water bodies in the definition of lagoon, the distinction between lagoon and estuary varies between authorities. Richard A. Davis Jr. restricts lagoon to bodies of water with little or no fresh water inflow, and little or no tidal flow, Davis does state that the terms lagoon and estuary are often loosely applied, even in scientific literature.
Timothy M. Kusky characterizes lagoons as normally being elongated parallel to the coast, while estuaries are usually drowned river valleys, coastal lagoons are classified as inland bodies of water. Many lagoons do not include lagoon in their common names, in England, The Fleet at Chesil Beach has been described as a lagoon. In Latin America, the term laguna in Spanish, which translates to. However, sometimes it is used to describe a full-sized lake, such as Laguna Catemaco in Mexico. The brackish water lagoon may be explicitly identified as a coastal lagoon. In Portuguese the same usage is found, lagoa may be a body of sea water. Lagoon is derived from the Italian laguna, which refers to the waters around Venice, Laguna is attested in English by at least 1612, and had been Anglicized to lagune by 1673. In 1697 William Dampier referred to a Lagune or Lake of Salt water on the coast of Mexico, captain James Cook described an island of Oval form with a Lagoon in the middle in 1769. Atoll lagoons form as coral reefs grow upwards while the islands that the reefs surround subside, unlike the lagoons that form shoreward of fringing reefs, atoll lagoons often contain some deep portions.
Coastal lagoons form along gently sloping coasts where barrier islands or reefs can develop off-shore, coastal lagoons do not form along steep or rocky coasts, or if the range of tides is more than 4 metres. Due to the slope of the coast, coastal lagoons are shallow
The Lepsy River known as the Lepsa River or the Lepsi River, is a river in south-eastern Kazakhstan. It originates in the Dzungarian Alatau Mountains north of the border with China, the Lepsy is the easternmost of the two small rivers that flow into the eastern Balkhash on the south bank, the other being the Aksu River. The Lepsy is one of the rivers of the historic region of Zhetysu. The river empties into Lake Balkhash just east of the Aksu River on its southern side, Lepsy freezes up in December and stays icebound until March. Because of the amount of water taken for irrigation, the flow into Lake Balkash is limited
Chui River and Chuy River redirect here. For the river of Anhui see Chu River, for the South American Chuí or Chuy River, on the Brazil-Uruguay border and Brazils southernmost point, see Chuí Stream. For the Nam Sam River or Chu River, on the Lao-Vietnam border, the Chu is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan. Its one of the longest rivers in Kyrgyzstan and in Kazakhstan, the Chu River is formed by the confluence of rivers Joon Aryk and Kochkor in Kochkor District of Naryn Region. After approaching Lake Issyk Kul within a few kilometers, without either flowing into the lake or draining it, it turns to the northwest, in the 1950s an old riverbed called Ketmaldy linked the Chu River and Issyk Kul. During floods part of Chu water would reach the lake, after passing through the narrow Boom Gorge, the river enters the comparatively flat Chuy Valley, within which the Kyrgyz capital of Bishkek and the Kazakh city of Shu are located. Much of the Chus water is diverted into a network of canals to irrigate the fertile soils of the Chuy Valley for farming.
The area of river was originally home to the Iranian Sughds who spoke Soghdian. During the Middle Ages, the area was strategically important and it was the setting of Suayub, the capital of the Western Turkic Khaganate, and Balasagun, the capital of the Kara-Khitans. Chu River posed a risk of flooding for settlements located in Chu Valley, in winter 1878, an ice gorge formed on Chu River upstream town Tokmok that was the center of Semirechye Province. This was followed by flooding that damaged the town and the center of the province was moved to Pishpek. After this, Tokmak gradually lost its significance, the river flow is regulated by the dam at Orto-Tokoy Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan built in 1957, and the dam at Tasotkel Reservoir in Kazakhstan built in 1974. The Kyrgyz State Agency on Hydrometeorology and Kazakhstan Hydrometeorological Service operate a number of water quality monitoring stations on the Chu River and its tributaries. According to Kyrgyz State Agency on Hydrometeorology, in 2004–08, water pollution index of the Chu River in Chu Valley ranged from 0.25 to 0.7 units that is interpreted as Class II.
The only exception was a point downstream Vasilyevka village where water pollution index ranged from 0.4 to 1.2 unit. According to Kazakhstan Hydrometeorological Service, water pollution index of Shu River in Jambyl Region of Kazakhstan amounted to 2.01 in 2008, such water quality parameters as biochemical oxygen demand, copper, phenols exceeded the maximum allowable concentrations. In Kyrgyzstan,4892 rivers and canals flow into Chu River
The Ili River is a river in northwestern China and southeastern Kazakhstan. It flows from the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region to the Almaty Province in Kazakhstan and it is 1,439 kilometres long,815 kilometres of which is in Kazakhstan. It takes its beginning in eastern Tian Shan from the Tekes and Kunges rivers, the Ili River drains the basin between the Tian Shan and the Borohoro Mountains to the north. Flowing into Lake Balkhash, the Ili forms a delta with vast wetland regions of lakes, marshes. Earlier mentions of Ili river is in Mahmud al-Kashgaris dictionary of Turkic languages, in the book, author defines, name of a river. Turkic tribes of Yaghma and Chiglig live on its banks, turkish countries regard the river as their Jayhoun. The name is originated from Uyghur word Il, means hook in English. The upper Ili Valley is separated from the Dzungarian Basin in the north by the Borohoro Mountains, the region forms part of Xinjiangs Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.
The main city of the region, Yining, is located on the side of the river some 100 kilometres upstream from the international border. Until the early 1900s, the city was known under the same name as the river. There are at least two dams on the Ilis right tributary, the Kash River in Nilka County, at 43°51′40″N 82°50′52″E, the region of Kazakhstan partially drained by the Ili and its tributaries is known in Kazakh as Zhetysu and in Russian as Semirechye. Tamgaly-Tas, some 20 kilometres downstream along Ili River is the site of rock drawings, the name Tamgaly in Kazakh means painted or marked place, Tas means stone. The Ili River discharges into the edge of Lake Balkhash. The delta is situated between the Saryesik-Atyrau Desert and the Taukum Desert, until 1948 the delta was a refuge of the extinct Turan tiger. A reintroduction project of the Siberian tiger to the delta has been proposed, since the Siberian tiger has turned out to be the closest relative, it has been proposed to introduce this subspecies instead.
Large populations of wild boar, which were a main base of the Turan tiger. There are some roe deer and in the steppes to the south of Lake Balkhash live saiga antelopes. A reintroduction of the Buchara deer, which was once an important prey item is under consideration, Buchara deer live in the forests at the Kapchagay Reservoir
The Ural or Jayıq/Zhayyq, known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan in Eurasia. It originates in the southern Ural Mountains and ends at the Caspian Sea, at 2,428 kilometres, it is the third-longest river in Europe after the Volga and the Danube, and the 18th-longest river in Asia. The Ural River is conventionally considered part of the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia, the river begins at the slopes of the Kruglaya Mountain of the Uraltau mountain ridge in South Ural, on the territory of the Uchalinsky District of Bashkortostan. There it has a width of 60 to 80 metres. It falls into the Yaik Swamp and after exiting it widens up to 5 kilometres, below Verkhneuralsk, its flow is characteristic of a flatland river, there it enters Chelyabinsk and Orenburg Oblasts. From Magnitogorsk to Orsk its banks are steep and rocky and the bottom has many rifts, after Orsk, the river abruptly turns west and flows through a 45-kilometre long canyon in the Guberlinsk Mountains.
After Uralsk, it flows north to south, through the territory of West Kazakhstan Province. There, the river widens and has lakes and ducts. Near the mouth, it splits into the Yaik and Zolotoy distributaries, the Yaik distributary is shallow, with almost no trees on the shores, and is rich in fish, whereas Zolotoy is deeper and is navigable. Ural River has a spectacular tree-like shape of the delta and this type of delta forms naturally in the slow rivers which deliver a great deal of sediments and flow into a quiet sea. In the delta,13.5 kilometres from the mouth of the Zolotoy distributary lies Shalyga Island, which is 2.5 kilometres long, with heights of 1 to 2 metres and maximum widths of 0.3 kilometres. The tributaries, in order going upstream, are Kushum, Chagan, Utva, Bolshaya Chobda, Sakmara, Salmys, Or, the entire length of the Ural River is considered the Europe-Asia boundary by most authoritative sources. Rarely, the smaller, shorter Emba River is claimed as the continental boundary, the Ural River bridge in Orenburg is even labeled with permanent monuments carved with the word Europe on one side, Asia on the other.
During the floods, the river widens to above 10 kilometres near Uralsk, water level is highest in April upstream and in May downstream. Its fluctuation is 3 to 4 metres in the stream,9 to 10 metres in the middle of the river. The average water discharge is 104 cubic metres per second near Orenburg, and 400 cubic metres per second at the Kushum village, the maximum discharge is 14,000 cubic metres per second and the minimum is 1.62 cubic metres per second. Average turbidity is 280 grams per cubic metre at Orenburg and 290 grams per cubic metre near Kushum, the river freezes at the source in early November and in the middle and lower reaches in late November. It opens in the lower reaches in late March and in early April in the upper reaches, the ice drift is relatively short
Boundaries between the continents of Earth
The boundaries between the continents of Earth are generally a matter of geographical convention. Several slightly different conventions are in use, the number of continents is most commonly considered six or seven but may range as low as four when the Americas and Afro-Eurasia are each considered a single continent. According to the definition of a continent in the sense, an island cannot be part of any continent. At its nearest point and Morocco are separated by only 13 kilometres, the Portuguese Atlantic island possession of the Azores is 1,368 km from Europe,1,507 km from Africa, and is usually grouped with Europe if grouped with any continent. By contrast, the Canary and Madeira islands off the Atlantic coast of Morocco are much closer to, the island nation of Malta is approximately 81 km from the coast of Sicily in Europe - much closer than the 288 km distance to the closest African coast. The nearby Italian island of Lampedusa is 207 km from Sicily while just 127 km from the African coast, Pantelleria is 100 km from Sicily, all of these islands are actually located on the African plate, and may be considered part of the continent of Africa.
However, for political and historical reasons, maps generally display them as part of Europe, since there is no significant physical separation between Europe and Asia, the border between the two is merely a “historical and cultural construct that has been defined variously. The Turkish city Istanbul lies on both sides of the Bosporus, making it a transcontinental city and Turkey are transcontinental countries with territory in both Europe and Asia by any definition except that of Eurasia as a single continent. While Russia is historically a European country with a history of imperial conquests in Asia, Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country by this definition, its West Kazakhstan and Atyrau provinces extending on either side of the Ural River. This Ural River delineation is the segment not to follow a major mountain range or wide water body. The Ural River bridge in Orenburg is even labeled with permanent monuments carved with the word Europe on one side, the Kuma–Manych Depression remains one less-commonly cited possible natural boundary in contemporary sources.
These border demarcations are not definitive and vary from one source to another, for instance, some geographic references place Georgia entirely in Europe, whereas others classify it as a transcontinental state that spans both Europe and Asia. A further complicating factor is that regardless of where one draws the continental border, although some geographic references place Cyprus in Asia, the country is generally accepted as part of modern Europe and has joined the European Union. According to the EU’s geographic requirements and geographic definitions of Europe are intertwined, the UNSD classification often differs from those of other United Nations organizations. For instance, while UNSD includes Georgia and Cyprus in Western Asia, the threefold division of the Old World into Europe and Africa has been in use since the 6th century BC, due to Greek geographers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus. The boundary between Europe and Asia is very unusual among continental boundaries because of its largely mountain-and-river-based characteristics north, Europe is more of a subcontinent within Eurasia in geological terms, and it has sometimes been referred to as such.
Anaximander placed the boundary between Asia and Europe along the Phasis River in the Caucasus, a convention followed by Herodotus in the 5th century BC. In the subsequent centuries a new convention emerged, which drew the boundary along Tanais