Embarrassment or awkwardness is an emotional state, associated with mild to severe levels of discomfort, and, experienced when someone has a unacceptable or frowned-upon act or condition, witnessed by or revealed to others. Some perception of loss of honor or dignity is involved, but the embarrassment level and the type depends on the situation. Embarrassment is similar to shame in some sense, except that shame may be experienced for an act known only to oneself. Embarrassment carries the connotation of being caused by an act, socially unacceptable, rather than morally wrong. Embarrassment can be personal, caused by unwanted attention to private matters or personal flaws or mishaps; some causes of embarrassment stem from personal actions, such as being caught in a lie or in making a mistake. In many cultures, being seen nude or inappropriately dressed is a stressful form of embarrassment. Personal embarrassment can stem from the actions of others who place the embarrassed person in a awkward situation—such as a parent showing one's baby pictures to friends, having someone make a derogatory comment about one's appearance or behavior, discovering one is the victim of gossip, being rejected by another person, being made the focus of attention, or witnessing someone else's embarrassment.
Personal embarrassment is accompanied by some combination of blushing, nervousness and fidgeting. Sometimes the embarrassed person tries to mask embarrassment with smiles or nervous laughter in etiquette situations; such a response is more common in certain cultures. There may be feelings of anger depending on the perceived seriousness of the situation if the individual thinks another person is intentionally causing the embarrassment. There is a range of responses, with the most minor being a perception of the embarrassing act as inconsequential or humorous, to intense apprehension or fear; the idea that embarrassment serves an apology or appeasement function originated with Goffman who argued the embarrassed individual "demonstrates that he/she is at least disturbed by the fact and may prove worthy at another time". Semin and Manstead demonstrated social functions of embarrassment whereby the perpetrator of knocking over a sales display was deemed more likable by others if he/she appeared embarrassed than if he/she appeared unconcerned – regardless of restitution behaviour.
The capacity to experience embarrassment can be seen as functional for the group or culture. It has been demonstrated that those who are not prone to embarrassment are more to engage in antisocial behaviour – for example, adolescent boys who displayed more embarrassment were found less to engage in aggressive/delinquent behaviours. Embarrassment exhibited by boys more to engage in aggressive/delinquent behaviour was less than one-third of that exhibited by non-aggressive boys, thus proneness to embarrassment can act as a brake on behaviour that would be dysfunctional for a group or culture. Embarrassment can be professional or official after statements expressing confidence in a stated course of action, or willful disregard for evidence. Embarrassment increases in instances involving official duties or workplace facilities, large amounts of money or materials, or loss of human life. Examples of causes include a government's failed public policy, exposure of corrupt practices or unethical behaviour, a celebrity whose personal habits receive public scrutiny or face legal action, or officials caught in serious embarrassing situations.
Small errors or miscalculations can lead to greater official embarrassment if it is discovered that there was willful disregard for evidence or directives involved. Not all official failures result in official embarrassment if the circumstances lead to some slight personal embarrassment for the people involved. For example, losing a close political election might cause some personal embarrassment for the candidate but would be considered an honorable loss in the profession and thus not lead to professional embarrassment. A scientist might be disappointed and embarrassed if one of his hypotheses was proven wrong, but would not suffer professional embarrassment as a result. By contrast, exposure of falsified data supporting a scientific claim would lead to professional embarrassment in the scientific community. Professional or official embarrassment is accompanied by public expressions of anger, denial of involvement, or attempts to minimize the consequences. Sometimes the embarrassed entity issues press statements, removes or distance themselves from sub-level employees, attempts to carry on as if nothing happened, suffers income loss, emigrates, or vanishes from public view.
Vicarious embarrassment is an embarrassed feeling from observing the embarrassing actions of another person. People who rate themselves as more empathic are more to experience vicarious embarrassment; the effect is present whether or not the observed party is aware of the embarrassing nature of their actions, although awareness increases the strength of the felt vicarious embarrassment, as does an accidental action. One typology of embarrassment is described by Stafford. There are six types of embarrassment: Privacy violations – for example where a part
King of the Hill
King of the Hill is an American animated sitcom created by Mike Judge and Greg Daniels for the Fox Broadcasting Company that ran from January 12, 1997, to May 6, 2010. It centers on a middle-class American family in the fictional city of Arlen, Texas. Patriarch and main character Hank Hill, who works as assistant manager at Strickland Propane, is the everyman and general protagonist of the series, his modest conservative views and biases clash with that of his wife, Peggy. Hank is friends with other residents on his block Bill Dauterive, Dale Gribble, Jeff Boomhauer, all of whom he has known since elementary school, it attempts to maintain a realistic approach, seeking humor in the conventional and mundane aspects of everyday life. Judge began creating King of the Hill during his time making the MTV series Beavis and Butt-Head, which he created and voiced. After pitching the pilot to Fox, Judge was paired with Greg Daniels, an experienced writer who worked on The Simpsons; the series debuted on the Fox network as a mid-season replacement in 1997 becoming a hit.
The series' popularity led to worldwide syndication, reruns aired on Adult Swim from 2009 until 2018. Since July 24, 2018, reruns began airing on Comedy Central; the show became one of Fox's longest-running series. A total of 259 episodes aired over the course of its 13 seasons; the final episode aired on Fox on September 13, 2009. Four episodes from the final season were to have aired on Fox, but premiered in nightly syndication from May 3 to 6, 2010. In 2007, it was named by Time magazine as one of the top 100 greatest television shows of all time. King of the Hill was nominated for seven; the series' celebrity guest stars include Chuck Mangione, Tom Petty, numerous country music artists. King of the Hill is set in the fictional small town of Texas; the show centers around the Hill family, whose head is the ever-responsible, hard-working, loyal and honest propane salesman Hank Hill. The pun title refers to Hank as the head of the family as well as metaphorically to the children's game King of the Hill.
Hank is employed as the assistant manager at Strickland Propane, selling "propane and propane accessories". He is traditional and moral, he takes exceptionally good care of his dog, which he treats, more than not, as a member of the family. Hank is married to Peggy Hill, a native of Montana, a substitute Spanish teacher, although she has little grasp of the language, her overconfidence and trusting nature leads her into getting involved in complex schemes that Peggy does not recognize as criminal or irresponsible until it is too late. Hank and Peggy's only child, Bobby Hill, is a husky pre-pubescent boy, friendly and well-liked, but not bright, prone to making bad decisions. Throughout the series, Peggy's niece, Luanne Platter, the daughter of her scheming brother Hoyt and his alcoholic ex-wife Leanne, lives with the Hill family. Naïve and emotional, Luanne was encouraged to move out by her Uncle Hank, but over time, he accepts her as a member of the family. Over the course of the series, Luanne works as a beauty technician and puppeteer at a local cable access TV station.
Luanne marries Elroy "Lucky" Kleinschmidt, a snaggle-toothed layabout who lives on the settlements he earns from frivolous lawsuits. Hank has a healthy relationship with Tilly, a kind woman who lives in Arizona. Hank is, at first, uncomfortable with his mother dating Gary Kasner, a Jewish man, but he warmed up to Gary as their relationship progressed. Hank was dismayed by his mother's choice to break up with Gary to marry a man she's only known for a few weeks: Chuck Garrison, but found Chuck as likable as Gary. In contrast, Hank has a strained relationship with his father, Cotton Hill, a hateful World War II veteran, during which his shins were blown off by gunfire, who verbally abused Tilly during their marriage, leading to their divorce. Cotton marries Didi, a candy striper who attended kindergarten with Hank. Together and Didi have a son, "G. H.", who bears a striking resemblance to Bobby. Other main characters include their families. Dale Gribble is the Hills' chain-smoking, paranoid next-door neighbor and Hank's best friend.
As a result of his paranoia, he does not trust the government or "the system". He owns his own pest control business, Dale's Dead Bug, he is a licensed bounty hunter and President of the Arlen Gun Club. Dale is married to Nancy Hicks-Gribble, a weather girl—and anchor woman—for the Channel 84 news; the only Gribble child, Joseph is hinted at being the result of Nancy's 14-year-long affair with John Redcorn, a Native American healer. Their affair is obvious to everyone except Dale, who suspects nothing, idealizing his philandering wife and considering John Redcorn one of his best fr
Modern Family is an American television mockumentary family sitcom that premiered on ABC on September 23, 2009, which follows the lives of Jay Pritchett and his family, all of whom live in suburban Los Angeles. Pritchett's family includes his second wife, their son and his stepson, as well as his two adult children and their spouses and children. Christopher Lloyd and Steven Levitan conceived the series while sharing stories of their own "modern families". Modern Family employs an ensemble cast; the series is presented in mockumentary style, with the characters breaking the fourth wall. The series was renewed for a tenth season on May 10, 2017, which premiered on September 26, 2018; the series was renewed for an eleventh and final season on February 5, 2019. Modern Family was acclaimed by critics throughout its first few seasons, although reception became more mixed as the series progressed; the show won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series in each of its first five years and the Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series four times, twice each for Eric Stonestreet and Ty Burrell, as well as the Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series twice for Julie Bowen.
It won a total of 22 Emmy awards from 75 nominations. It won the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy in 2011. Being on air for 10 years, it is ABC's longest-running comedy series; the broadcast syndication rights to the series were sold to USA Network, the stations of Fox Television Stations, various other local stations in other markets for a fall 2013 premiere. The success of the series led to it being the tenth-highest revenue-generating show for 2012, earning $2.13 million an episode. It is produced by 20th Century Fox Television, which came under common ownership with ABC following The Walt Disney Company's acquisition of 21st Century Fox in 2019, making Modern Family an in-house production. Modern Family revolves around three different types of families living in the Los Angeles area, who are interrelated through Jay Pritchett and his children, Claire Dunphy and Mitchell Pritchett. Patriarch Jay is remarried to a much younger woman, Gloria Delgado Pritchett, a passionate woman with whom he has a young son, Fulgencio Joseph "Joe" Pritchett, a son from Gloria's previous marriage, Manuel “Manny” Delgado.
Jay's daughter Claire has returned to the business world. She is now the chief executive of Pritchett's Closets and Blinds, she is married to Phil Dunphy, a realtor and a self-professed "cool dad". They have three children: a stereotypical ditzy teenage girl. Jay's lawyer son Mitchell and his husband Cameron Tucker have one adopted daughter, Lily Tucker-Pritchett; as the name suggests, this family represents a modern-day family, episodes are comically based on situations which many families encounter in real life. Ed O'Neill as Jay Pritchett Sofía Vergara as Gloria Delgado, Jay’s 2nd wife Julie Bowen as Claire Dunphy, Jay’s daughter and Gloria’s stepdaughter Ty Burrell as Phil Dunphy, Claire’s husband Jesse Tyler Ferguson as Mitchell Pritchett, Jay’s son and Gloria’s stepson Eric Stonestreet as Cameron Tucker, Mitchell’s husband Sarah Hyland as Haley Dunphy, Claire & Phil‘s daughter Ariel Winter as Alex Dunphy, Claire & Phil’s daughter Nolan Gould as Luke Dunphy, Claire & Phil’s son Rico Rodriguez as Manny Delgado, Gloria’s son and Jay’s stepson Aubrey Anderson-Emmons as Lily Tucker-Pritchett, Mitchell & Cameron’s adoptive daughter Jeremy Maguire as Fulgencio "Joe" Pritchett-Delgado, Jay & Gloria’s son and Claire, Mitchell & Manny’s half-brother The characters in green have regular roles on the show.
Dotted lines indicate a parental relationship through adoption or marriage, dashed lines indicate a divorce between characters. The series has had many recurring characters. Reid Ewing appeared in several episodes as Haley's boyfriend Dylan. Fred Willard has guest. Shelley Long appeared in the first two seasons and thereafter as DeDe Pritchett, Jay's ex-wife and Claire and Mitchell's mother. Nathan Lane appears as Mitchell's flamboyant friend Pepper Saltzman. Adam DeVine appeared as Andy Bailey and Gloria's "manny", Phil's assistant and Haley's boyfriend; as creators Christopher Lloyd and Steven Levitan retold stories about their families, they realized that the stories could be the basis for a show. They started working on the idea of a family being observed in a mockumentary-style show, they decided that it could be a show about three families and their experiences. It was called My American Family, the camera crew was supposed to have been run by a fictitious Dutch filmmaker named Geert Floortje who had lived with Jay's family as a teenage exchange student and developed a crush on Claire.
The producers felt that this component was unnecessary, it was scrapped. Lloyd now prefers to look at the show as "a family show done documentary-style". Lloyd and Levitan pitched the series to CBS, NBC, ABC (they did not pitch it to Fox because of issues they had with the network over a previous comedy series, Back to You, that Lloyd and Levi
Samuel Pepys was an administrator of the navy of England and Member of Parliament, most famous for the diary he kept for a decade while still a young man. Pepys had no maritime experience, but he rose to be the Chief Secretary to the Admiralty under both King Charles II and King James II through patronage, hard work, his talent for administration, his influence and reforms at the Admiralty were important in the early professionalisation of the Royal Navy. The detailed private diary that Pepys kept from 1660 until 1669 was first published in the 19th century and is one of the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, it provides a combination of personal revelation and eyewitness accounts of great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch War, the Great Fire of London. Pepys was born in Salisbury Court, Fleet Street, London on 23 February 1633, the son of John Pepys, a tailor, Margaret Pepys, daughter of a Whitechapel butcher, his great uncle Talbot Pepys was Recorder and Member of Parliament for Cambridge in 1625.
His father's first cousin Sir Richard Pepys was elected MP for Sudbury in 1640, appointed Baron of the Exchequer on 30 May 1654, appointed Lord Chief Justice of Ireland on 25 September 1655. Pepys was the fifth of eleven children, but child mortality was high and he was soon the oldest survivor, he was baptised at St Bride's Church on 3 March 1633. Pepys did not spend all of his infancy in London. In about 1644, Pepys attended Huntingdon Grammar School before being educated at St Paul's School, London, c. 1646–1650. He attended the execution of Charles I in 1649. In 1650, he went to the University of Cambridge, having received two exhibitions from St Paul's School and a grant from the Mercers' Company. In October, he was admitted as a sizar to Magdalene College. In 1654 or early in 1655, he entered the household of another of his father's cousins, Sir Edward Montagu, created the 1st Earl of Sandwich. Pepys married fourteen-year-old Elisabeth de St Michel, a descendant of French Huguenot immigrants, first in a religious ceremony on 10 October 1655 and in a civil ceremony on 1 December 1655 at St Margaret's, Westminster.
From a young age, Pepys suffered from bladder stones in his urinary tract—a condition from which his mother and brother John later suffered. He was never without pain, as well as other symptoms, including "blood in the urine". By the time of his marriage, the condition was severe. In 1657 Pepys decided to undergo surgery. Pepys consulted surgeon Thomas Hollier and, on 26 March 1658, the operation took place in a bedroom in the house of Pepys' cousin Jane Turner. Pepys' stone was removed and he resolved to hold a celebration on every anniversary of the operation, which he did for several years. However, there were long-term effects from the operation; the incision on his bladder broke open again late in his life. The procedure may have left him sterile, though there is no direct evidence for this, as he was childless before the operation. In mid-1658 Pepys moved near the modern Downing Street, he worked as a teller in the Exchequer under George Downing. On 1 January 1660, Pepys began to keep a diary.
He recorded his daily life for ten years. This record of a decade of Pepys' life is more than a million words long and is regarded as Britain’s most celebrated diary. Pepys has been called the greatest diarist of all time due to his frankness in writing concerning his own weaknesses and the accuracy with which he records events of daily British life and major events in the 17th century. Pepys wrote about the contemporary court and theatre, his household, major political and social occurrences. Historians have been using his diary to gain greater insight and understanding of life in London in the 17th century. Pepys wrote on subjects such as personal finances, the time he got up in the morning, the weather, what he ate, he talked at length about his new watch which he was proud of, a country visitor who did not enjoy his time in London because he felt that it was too crowded, his cat waking him up at one in the morning. Pepys's diary is one of a few sources which provides such length in details of everyday life of an upper-middle-class man during the seventeenth century.
Aside from day-to-day activities, Pepys commented on the significant and turbulent events of his nation. England was in disarray. Oliver Cromwell had died just a few years before, creating a period of civil unrest and a large power vacuum to be filled. Pepys had been a strong supporter of Cromwell, but he converted to the Royalist cause upon the Protector’s death, he was on the ship. He gave a firsthand account of events, such as the coronation of King Charles II and the Restoration of the British Monarchy to the throne, the Anglo-Dutch war, the Great Plague, the Great Fire of London. Pepys did not plan on his contemporaries seeing his diary, evident from the fact that he wrote in shorthand and sometimes in a "code" of various Spanish and Italian words (especially whe
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Bernardo Davanzati was an Italian agronomist and translator. Davanzati was major translator of Tacitus, he attempted the concision of Tacitus in his own Italian prose, taking a motto Strictius Arctius reflecting his ambition. He wrote on economics as a metallist, his works included Lezione delle monete. His Scisma d'Inghilterra was first published in 1602 in Rome, it was a concise version of a work of Girolamo Pollini, on the English Reformation, which itself was dependent on a Latin work of 1585 written by Nicholas Sander and Edward Rishton. John Milton used its imprimaturs as an illustration on his Areopagitica. Treccani.it, Bernardo