Embassy of the United States, Copenhagen
The Embassy of the United States to Denmark is the diplomatic mission of the United States in Denmark. The building is located on Dag Hammarskjölds Allé, in Indre Østerbro, the post of U. S. Ambassador to Denmark is currently held by Rufus Gifford, the former finance director of President Barack Obamas re-election campaign. The embassy oversees American interests in Greenland, formal relations began between the two countries began in 1801, and the first American legation in Denmark opened in 1827. Since then, the American diplomatic mission has remained opened and functioning in Copenhagen except between 1941 and 1945 during World War II
Place des Vosges
The Place des Vosges, originally Place Royale, is the oldest planned square in Paris and one of the finest in the city. It is located in the Marais district, and it straddles the dividing-line between the 3rd and 4th arrondissements of Paris. It was a fashionable and expensive square to live in during the 17th and 18th centuries, originally known as the Place Royale, the Place des Vosges was built by Henri IV from 1605 to 1612. A true square, it embodied the first European program of city planning. It was built on the site of the Hôtel des Tournelles and its gardens, at a tournament at the Tournelles, catherine de Medicis had the Gothic complex demolished, and she moved to the Louvre Palace. The steeply-pitched blue slate roofs are pierced with discreet small-paned dormers above the dormers that stand upon the cornices. Only the north range was built with the ceilings that the galleries were meant to have. Two pavilions that rise higher than the unified roofline of the center the north and south faces.
The Place des Vosges initiated subsequent developments of Paris that created an urban background for the French aristocracy. The square was often the place for the nobility to chat and this was so until the Revolution. Before the square was completed, Henri IV ordered the Place Dauphine to be laid out, Cardinal Richelieu had an equestrian bronze of Louis XIII erected in the center. In the late 18th century, while most of the nobility moved to the Faubourg Saint-Germain district and it was renamed in 1799 when the département of the Vosges became the first to pay taxes supporting a campaign of the Revolutionary army. The Restoration returned the old name, but the short-lived Second Republic restored the revolutionary one in 1848. Today the square is planted with a bosquet of mature lindens set in grass and gravel, residents of the Place des Vosges No. 1bis Madame de Sevigné was born here No,9, seat of l Académie darchitecture, currently tenanted by Galerie Historisimus No.11 occupied from 1639-1648 by the courtesan Marion Delorme No.14.
Its ceilings painted by Lebrun are reinstalled in the Musée Carnavalet, rabbi David Feuerwerker, Antoinette Feuerwerker and Atara Marmor No.15 Marguerite Louise dOrléans, wife of Cosimo III de Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany. No.17 former residence of Bossuet No.21 Cardinal Richelieu from 1615 to 1627 No.23 post-impressionist painter Georges Dufrénoy No, archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Satellite image from Google Maps http, //www. letthemtalk. com/html/pariswalks/placedesvosges. html Place des Vosges audio tour dans le parc
Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome. Owned by the Italian Republic, it was given to the French government in 1936 for a period of 99 years, and currently serves as the French embassy in Italy. First designed in 1517 for the Farnese family, the expanded in size and conception when Alessandro Farnese became Pope Paul III in 1534. Its building history involved some of the most prominent Italian architects of the 16th century, including Michelangelo, Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola, work was interrupted by the Sack of Rome in 1527. The massive palace block and its facade dominate the Piazza Farnese, when Paul appeared on the balcony, the entire facade became a setting for his person. The courtyard, initially open arcades, is ringed by an exercise in ascending orders. The piano nobile entablature was given a frieze with garlands, added by Michelangelo, while the practicalities of achieving this bridge remain dubious, the idea was a bold and expansive one.
During the 16th century, two large granite basins from the Baths of Caracalla were adapted as fountains in the Piazza Farnese, the palazzo was further modified for the papal nephew Ranuccio Farnese by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. It was completed for the second Cardinal Alessandro Farnese by Giacomo della Portas porticoed facade towards the Tiber which was finished in 1589, following the death of Cardinal Odoardo Farnese in 1626, the palazzo stood virtually uninhabited for twenty years. At the conclusion of the War of Castro with the papacy, Duke Odoardo was able to regain his family properties, the resulting inventory is the oldest surviving complete inventory of Palazzo Farnese. After Odoardos death, Pope Alexander VII allowed Queen Christina of Sweden to lodge in the palace for several months, other rooms have frescoes by Daniele da Volterra and by other artists. For generations, the room with Herculean frescoes accommodated the famous Greco-Roman antique sculpture known as the Farnese Hercules, other works from the family collection of classical sculpture were housed in the palace.
One of the vault and ceiling fresco by Annibale Carracci is Galleria Farnese and this large central scene depicts the triumphal progress of Bacchus and Ariadne. Two smaller paintings are attached to the top and bottom of the central picture, USA, the Chief Secretary’s Building in Sydney and the Royal Palace, Stockholm. In England Charles Barrys great admiration for the building led him to use it as the model for Londons Reform Club, in Puccinis opera Tosca, set in Napoleonic Rome, the heroines confrontation with the malevolent Chief of Police, takes place in Palazzo Farnese. The Palazzo was inherited from the Farnese by the Bourbon kings of Naples, though the government of Benito Mussolini ransomed it in 1936, the French Embassy remains, under a 99-year lease for which they pay the Italian government a symbolic fee of 1 euro per month. The Palazzo Farnese houses the great scholarly library amassed by the Ecole Française de Rome, concentrating especially on the archeology of Italy, the first three volumes are, F. C.
Uginet, Le palais farnèse à travers les documents financiers. Ecole Française de Rome I.1 and I.2, Étude des manuscrits latins et en langue vernaculaire
Embassy of Ukraine, Copenhagen
The Embassy of Ukraine in Copenhagen is the diplomatic mission of Ukraine in the Kingdom of Denmark. Following independence, Ukraine August 24,1991 Denmark recognized Ukraine on December 31,1991, on February 12,1992, diplomatic relations were established between Ukraine and Denmark. From 1993 to 2004, the Ukrainian diplomatic mission in Copenhagen provided ambassadors concurrently, on April 7,2005 the first Ambassador of Ukraine Natalia Zarudna with residence in Copenhagen, presented his credentials to Queen Margrethe II
In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the resident mission, namely the office of a countrys diplomatic representatives in the capital city of another country. As well as being a mission to the country in which it is situated. There are thus resident and non-resident embassies, a permanent diplomatic mission is typically known as an Embassy, and the head of the mission is known as an Ambassador, or High Commissioner. Therefore, the Embassy operates in the Chancery, European Union missions abroad are known as EU delegations. Some countries have more particular naming for their missions and staff, under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, Libyas missions used the name peoples bureau and the head of the mission was a secretary. Missions between Commonwealth countries are known as commissions and their heads are High Commissioners. This is because Ambassadors are exchanged between foreign countries, but since the beginning of the Commonwealth, member countries have maintained that they are not foreign to one another.
An ambassador represents one head of state to another and a letters of credence are addressed by one head of state to another. Until India became a republic on 26 January 1950, all members of the Commonwealth had the head of state. In the past a diplomatic mission headed by an official was known as a legation. Since the ranks of envoy and minister resident are effectively obsolete, a consulate is similar to, but not the same as a diplomatic office, but with focus on dealing with individual persons and businesses, as defined by the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations. A consulate or consulate general is generally a representative of the embassy in locales outside of the capital city. For instance, the United Kingdom has its Embassy of the United Kingdom in Washington, D. C. but maintains seven consulates-general, the person in charge of a consulate or consulate-general is known as a consul or consul-general, respectively. Similar services may be provided at the embassy in what is called a consular section.
In cases of dispute, it is common for a country to recall its head of mission as a sign of its displeasure, a chargé daffaires ad interim heads the mission during the interim between the end of one chief of missions term and the beginning of another. Contrary to popular belief, most diplomatic missions do not enjoy full extraterritorial status, the premises of diplomatic missions usually remain under the jurisdiction of the host state while being afforded special privileges by the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Diplomats themselves still retain full diplomatic immunity, and the host country may not enter the premises of the mission without permission of the represented country, international rules designate an attack on an embassy as an attack on the country it represents. The term extraterritoriality is often applied to missions, but normally only in this broader sense
French Consulate of Cape Town
The Consulate of France in Cape Town is a consular representation of the French Republic in South Africa. The consular district includes the 3 Cape provinces, Prince Edward Islands, three honorary Consuls, in Port Elizabeth, East London and Saint Helena depend on the Consulate of Cape Town. People living in Lesotho or in one in the six other South African provinces depend on the French Consulate of Johannesburg, the Consulate is currently located on 78 Queen Victoria Street. The Consulate provides many services to the French community and those who desire to travel to France, the French Consulate in Cape Town, according to the archives of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is, the oldest in Southern Africa. In 1803, Napoleon Bonaparte nominated a certain Gaillande superintendent of trade relations in Cape Town and his responsibility was to provide supplies to the naval division of Rear-Admiral Linois. Gaillande stayed in this post until January 10,1806, the date when Cape Town was taken over by the English.
A Consular Agency, dependent of the French Consulate General in London, was recreated after the fall of the First Empire in June 1817, the latter began his job in August 3,1818. The Consular Agency was erected as a Consulate in November 1818, reception Monday to Thursday, 9h00 to 17,00. Opening hours to the public, 9h00 to 12h00 from Monday to Friday and in the afternoon, a visa allows a foreigner and non-European Union member, to enter and travel temporarily within French territory. The chancellery provides all of administrative services to French citizens abroad and it is necessary to contact the chancellery as soon as your documents have been lost or stolen, regarding the renewal of passports or to obtain scholarships, grants, or other scholar financial aides. This service establishes itself as an interface between migrants and their nation of origin. The current Consul of France is Xavier dArgœuves, incumbent since 30 August 2013, three honorary Consuls, in Port Elizabeth, East London and Saint Helena depend on the Consulate of Cape Town.
The Consulate collaborates regularly with numerous French associations and organizations abroad, as of December 2013, there are about 7300 French citizens in South Africa and 2804 living in Cape Town
Christian V of Denmark
Christian V was king of Denmark and Norway from 1670 until his death in 1699. As king he wanted to show his power as absolute monarch through architecture and he was the first to use the 1671 Throne Chair of Denmark, partly made for this purpose. His motto was, Pietate et Justitia, Christian was elected successor to his father in June 1650. This was not a choice, but de facto automatic hereditary succession. Escorted by his chamberlain Christoffer Parsberg, Christian went on a trip abroad, to Holland, France. On this trip, he saw absolutism in its most splendid achievement at the young Louis XIVs court and he returned to Denmark in August 1663. From 1664 he was allowed to attend proceedings of the State College, hereditary succession was made official by Royal Law in 1665. ChristIan was hailed as heir in Copenhagen in August 1665, in Odense and Viborg in September, only a short time before he became king, he was taken into the Council of the Realm and the Supreme Court. He became king upon his fathers death on 9 February 1670 and he was the first hereditary king of Denmark, and in honor of this, Denmark acquired costly new crown jewels and a magnificent new ceremonial sword.
The war exhausted Denmarks economic resources without securing any gains, to accommodate non-aristocrats into state service, he created the new noble ranks of count and baron. One of the elevated in this way by the king was Peder Schumacher, named Count Griffenfeld by Christian V in 1670. The results of the war efforts proved politically and financially unremunerative for Denmark, the damage to the Danish economy was extensive. After the Scanian War, his sister, Princess Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark, married the Swedish king Charles XI, Christian V was often considered dependent on his councillors by contemporary sources. The Danish monarch did nothing to dispel this notion, in his memoirs, he listed hunting, love-making and maritime affairs as his main interests in life. Christian V introduced Danske Lov in 1683, the first law code for all of Denmark and it was succeeded by the similar Norske Lov of 1687. He introduced the land register of 1688, which attempted to out the land value of the united monarchy in order to create a more just taxation.
During his reign, science witnessed a golden age due to the work of the astronomer Ole Rømer in spite of the king’s personal lack of scientific knowledge and he died from the after-effects of a hunting accident and was interred in Roskilde Cathedral. Christian V had eight children by his wife and six by his Maîtresse-en-titre, Sophie Amalie Moth, Sophie was the daughter of his former tutor Poul Moth
Niels Juel was a Danish admiral. He was the brother of the diplomat Jens Juel, Niels Juel was born the son of Erik Juel and Sophie Clausdatter Sehested, both were descendant of Danish nobility, who lived in Jutland where the father had a career as a local functionary and judge. The following year, after the occupation had ended, the family was reunited in Jutland and he served his naval apprenticeship under Maarten Tromp and Michiel de Ruyter, taking part in all the chief engagements of the First Anglo-Dutch War between England and the Netherlands. During a long indisposition at Amsterdam in 1655-1656 he acquired a knowledge of shipbuilding. He served with distinction during the Dano-Swedish Wars of 1658-60 and took a prominent part in the defence of Copenhagen against Charles X of Sweden, in 1661 Juel married Margrethe Ulfeldt. On the outbreak of the Scanian War he served at first under Adeler, juels operations were considerably hampered at this period by the conduct of his Dutch auxiliary, Philips van Almonde, who accused the Danish admiral of cowardice.
A few days after the battle of Jasmund, Cornelis Tromp son of Maarten with 17 fresh Danish and Dutch ships of the line, Juel took a leading part in Cornelis Tromps great victory off Battle of Öland, which enabled the Danes to invade Scania unopposed. This victory, besides permanently crippling the Swedish navy, gave the Danes the self-confidence to become dependent on their Dutch allies. In the following year Cornelis Tromp was discharged by Christian V, personally Juel was the noblest and most amiable of men, equally beloved and respected by his sailors, simple and unpretentious in all his ways. During his latter years he was known in Copenhagen as the good old knight. He is buried in the Church of Holmen, statue of Niels Juel This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Embassy of France, London
The Embassy of France in London is the diplomatic mission of France to the United Kingdom. Located just off Knightsbridge at Albert Gate, one of the entrances to Hyde Park, at the time of these buildings construction in the 1840s, they were by far the tallest structures in the neighbourhood. The Republic of France owns various premises along the Cromwell Road, South Kensington which house its Consular, Science & Technology and it is has a Trade Mission at 28-29 Haymarket and a Paymaster & Financial Comptroller Section at 30 Queen’s Gate Terrace, South Kensington. List of Ambassadors of France to the United Kingdom Official site
Sophie Amalie Moth
Sophie Amalie Moth, Countess of Samsøe was the officially acknowledged royal mistress of King Christian V of Denmark. Together they had five acknowledged illegitimate children, all of whom bore the surname Gyldenløve, in 1677 she was elevated to be the first Countess of Samsø. The still-existing Danish noble family of Danneskiold-Samsøe is descended from her, Sophie Amalie Moth was the first officially acknowledged royal mistress in Denmark. Sophie Amalie was born on 28 March 1654 as the daughter of Poul Moth, doctor of the royal court, the relationship with the monarch was more or less arranged by her mother, and started in 1671 or 1672. Sophie bore Christian six children, each of whom he acknowledged publicly, consistent with the practice of his father and grandfather, all were given the surname Gyldenløve. In 1677 Sophie Amalie was given the title Countess of Samsø, the relationship was known within the royal court from the start, but it was not official until she was given her title and officially presented at court.
In 1679, her children were acknowledged, in 1685, they were introduced at court. Moth lived quite discreetly and did not have any political influence and her brother Matthias Moth, in particular, used the connection to his advantage. In 1682, she was granted estates in Gottorp, after Niels Juels death in 1697, the king arranged for her to take over his mansion, today known as the Thott Palace after a owner and housing the French Embassy in Copenhagen. Two years Christian died and she lived a life on her estate until her death in 1719. Christian Gyldenløve, their oldest son, took over the mansion after her, Sophie Amalies six acknowledged illegitimate children by Christian V were, Sophie Amalie Moth in Dansk Biografisk Leksikon 1. Ed. Sophie Amalie Moth at Dansk Kvindebiografisk Leksikon