Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Bernard Rudolf "Ben" Bot is a Dutch diplomat of the Christian Democratic Appeal. He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 3 December 2003 until 22 February 2007 in the Cabinets Balkenende II and III. A career diplomat, he succeeded then-Minister of Foreign Affairs Jaap de Hoop Scheffer who resigned to become Secretary General of NATO in 2003. Bot was born in Dutch East Indies; the son of Theo Bot who served as Minister of Education and Science and Minister for Development Cooperation. He studied at the Leiden University where he earned an L. L. M. and a Ph. D. degree in Law, attended subsequently the Hague Academy of International Law and Harvard Law School where he received a second L. L. M. degree from the latter. He served in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1963 to 2002, including postings at the Permanent Representation of the Netherlands to the European Community from 1964 to 1970, the Netherlands embassy in Buenos Aires to 1973, at the embassy in former East-Berlin in the DDR. In the period 1976-1982 he worked in the Netherlands for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in The Hague, after which he was Deputy Permanent Representative of the Netherlands to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation in Brussels.
From 1986-1989, Bot was Ambassador of the Netherlands to Turkey. He served as Secretary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in The Hague until 1992, when he was appointed as Permanent Representative of the Netherlands to the European Union in Brussels, he held that post for an unusually long period of 10 years. On 3 December 2003, Bot succeeded former NATO Secretary-General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer as Minister of Foreign Affairs in the second Balkenende cabinet. Bot is a member of the Christen Democratisch Appèl party. In February 2007 He was succeeded as foreign minister by Maxime Verhagen in the fourth Balkenende cabinet. Bot is a partner of the Praaning Meines Consultancy Group and holds various public posts including President of the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy and Chairman of the Board of the Clingendael Institute in The Hague. Bot was interviewed by the NRC Handelsblad newspaper in December 2007, where he reiterated his 2005 position that the 2003 invasion of Iraq was a mistake, that he had to "redress" his comment in 2005 after heavy pressure from prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende.
In response, Balkenende said that he would have asked Bot to step down if he did not revise his position at the time. Official Dr. B. R. Bot Parlement & Politiek
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The Fernsehturm is a television tower in central Berlin, Germany. Close to Alexanderplatz in Berlin-Mitte, the tower was constructed between 1965–69 by the government of the German Democratic Republic, it was intended to be both a symbol of Communist power and of Berlin. It remains the latter today, as it is visible throughout the central and some suburban districts of Berlin. With its height of 368 metres it is the tallest structure in Germany, the third-tallest structure in the European Union. Of the four tallest structures in Europe, it is 2 m shorter than the Torreta de Guardamar, 0.5 m shorter than the Riga Radio and TV Tower, 8 m taller than the Trbovlje Power Station in 2017. The structure is more than 220 metres higher than the old Berlin Radio Tower in the western part of the city, built in the 1920s. In addition to its main function as the location of several radio and television broadcasting stations, the building – internally known as "Fernmeldeturm 32" – serves as a viewing tower with observation deck including a bar at a height of 203 metres, as well as a rotating restaurant.
The Berlin TV Tower can be booked as a venue for events. The distinctive city landmark has undergone a radical, symbolic transformation: After German reunification, it changed from a politically charged, national symbol of the GDR into a citywide symbol of a reunited Berlin. Due to its universal and timeless design, it has been used as a trademark and is identified worldwide with Berlin and Germany. In 1979, the Berlin TV Tower received monument status by the GDR, a status, perpetuated after the German reunification; the tower has become one of the most prominent symbols of the country and is in the establishing shot of films set in Berlin, alongside monuments such as the Brandenburg Gate, the Berlin Victory Column and the Reichstag building. It is one of the ten most popular attractions in Germany with more than 1,000,000 visitors every year. Due to its location near Alexanderplatz, it is called Alex Tower; the original total height of the tower was 365 metres, but it rose to 368 metres after the installation of a new antenna in 1997.
The Fernsehturm is the fourth tallest freestanding structure in Europe, after Moscow's Ostankino Tower, the Kiev TV Tower and the Riga Radio and TV Tower. The sphere is a revolving restaurant in the middle of the sphere; the visitor platform called panoramic floor, is at a height of about 203 metres above the ground and visibility can reach 42 kilometres on a clear day. The restaurant Telecafé, which rotates once every 30 minutes, is a few metres above the visitors platform at 207 metres; when first constructed, it turned once per hour. Two lifts transports visitors to the sphere of the tower within 40 seconds. A stairway with 986 steps provides access, however it is not accessible by wheelchair. To mark the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, for which the final match was played in the Berlin Olympic Stadium, the sphere was decorated as a football with magenta-coloured pentagons, reflecting the corporate colour of World Cup sponsor and owner of the Fernsehturm, Deutsche Telekom; the Berlin TV Tower is located southwest of the Alexanderplatz station and northeast of the Marx-Engels Forum.
The structure is erroneously described as being part of the Alexanderplatz that lies to the northeast. Because of its proximity to the famous square, the TV Tower is sometimes referred to as the Alex Tower. In addition to the Berlin U-Bahn and S-Bahn lines, several tram and bus lines stop at Alexanderplatz station, from which the middle exit leads to the entrance building of the TV Tower; the Interhotel Stadt Berlin on Alexanderplatz, planned at the same time as the TV Tower and completed in 1970, is 125 metres high and is now operated as a Park Inn by Radisson Berlin Alexanderplatz. Between 1967 and 1972, the Rathauspassagen shopping arcade was built next to the Red Town Hall, directly south of the TV Tower. At the European Broadcasting Conference in Stockholm in 1952, responsible for the coordination of frequency waves in Europe, the GDR – not recognised politically by most countries at the time – was only allocated two frequency channels. Under these circumstances, it was impossible to cover Berlin's urban area by multiple small broadcasting stations without interference and thus disturbances or gaps in the broadcasting signals.
For comprehensive and continuous coverage, a powerful large broadcasting facility at the highest possible location was required. In the 1950s, this task was fulfilled in Berlin by the weak makeshift stations of Deutscher Fernsehfunk; as early as 1952, GDR's Deutsche Post began planning a TV tower for Berlin. The plans involved a location in the southeast of Berlin. However, the project was interrupted after construction had started, when it transpired that the site was only eight kilometres away from the Berlin Schönefeld Airport and the tower threatened to jeopardise flight operations due to its height and location at the edge of an airport corridor. After various compromise solutions failed, the construction project was discontinued in 1956. In the following years, alternatives were sought and several sites were discussed, including in Berlin Friedrichshain, but these plans fell victim to austerity measures triggered by the high costs of building the Berlin Wall. In the next few years, the search for a new location was continued.
Alongside its actual purpose of providing the best possible broadcasting services, the role of the tower as a new landmark of Berlin was gaining significance. For this
Mitte is the first and most central borough of Berlin. The borough consists of six sub-entities: Mitte proper, Hansaviertel, Moabit and Wedding, it is one of the two boroughs. Mitte encompasses Berlin's historic core and includes some of the most important tourist sites of Berlin like Museum Island, the TV tower, Checkpoint Charlie, Brandenburg Gate, Unter den Linden, Potsdamer Platz, the Reichstag and Berlin Hauptbahnhof, most of which were in former East Berlin; when Berliners refer to Mitte they mean the smaller locality rather than the larger borough. Mitte is located in the central part of Berlin along the Spree River, it borders on Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf in the west, Reinickendorf in the north, Pankow in the east, Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg in the southeast, Tempelhof-Schöneberg in the southwest. In the middle of the Spree lies Museum Island with its museums and Berlin Cathedral; the central square in Mitte is Alexanderplatz with the prominent Fernsehturm, Germany's highest building, the large railway station with connections to many subway, city trains and buses.
There are some important streets which connect Mitte with the other boroughs, e.g. the boulevard Unter den Linden which connects Alexanderplatz to the west with Brandenburg Gate and runs further as Straße des 17. Juni to the Victory Column and the centre of former West Berlin in Charlottenburg, or Karl-Marx-Allee from Alexanderplatz to Friedrichshain and the eastern suburbs; the former Mitte district had been established by the 1920 Greater Berlin Act and comprised large parts of the historic city around Alt-Berlin and Cölln. Brandenburg Gate was the western exit at the Berlin city boundary until 1861. Between 1961 and 1990, Mitte was the central part of East Berlin, however at the same time it was surrounded by the Berlin Wall at its north and west. There were some border control points, the most famous of, Checkpoint Charlie between Kreuzberg and Mitte, operated by the United States Army and its allies and was open to foreigners and diplomats. Two other checkpoints were at Heinrich-Heine-Straße/Prinzenstraße east of Checkpoint Charlie, open to citizens of West Germany and West Berlin and on Invalidenstraße in the north on the border with the West Berlin Tiergarten district.
The government district is located in the locality of Tiergarten around the Reichstag Building. Most institutions of the German government have their seat at the Regierungsviertel Bundestag, the German parliament in the old Reichstag Building Bellevue Palace, seat of the Federal President German Chancellery Offices of the Abgeordneten, members of the parliament, in the Paul-Löbe-Haus and the Marie-Elisabeth-Lüders-Haus Federal Ministry of the Interior Many embassies and the Federal Ministry of Defence in the historic embassy quarter in the south of the Tiergarten Park. Großer Tiergarten is the name of the biggest urban park in Mitte, located in the same-named locality; the Tiergarten Park was established as a hunting ground in the 16th century by the Prussian kings. Today its enclosed by densely built-up areas by Hansaviertel and Moabit in the north, the Government District in the east and the City West and the Embassy Quarter in the southwest. Many cultural monuments and memorials are located in the Tiergarten Park, like the Siegessäule, the Soviet War Memorial and a historic rose garden.
The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the biggest victim group of the Nazi-Diktatorship, is located on the east side of the park, near the Brandenburg Gate and the place where once Hitler's New Reich Chancellery was. The Kulturforum was built in the 1950s and 1960s at the edge of West Berlin, after most of the once unified city's cultural assets had been lost behind the Berlin Wall; the Kulturforum is characterized by its innovative modernist architecture. Among the cultural institutions housed in and around the Kulturforum are: Neue Nationalgalerie Gemäldegalerie Museum of Decorative Arts Musical Instrument Museum Kupferstichkabinett Art Library Berliner Philharmonie Chamber Music Hall Berlin State Library Ibero-American Institute Wissenschaftszentrum St. Matthäus-Kirche Berlin Alexanderplatz, a 1929 novel by Alfred Döblin Mitte 1, a 2013 novel by Albrecht Behmel Berlin Mitte, Norman Ohler Unter diesem Einfluss, Henning Kober The present-day borough of Mitte consists of six localities: As of 2010, the district had a population of 322,919, of whom 144.000 had a migration background.
In the former West Berlin areas of Wedding and Moabit, foreigners and Germans of foreign origin compose nearly 70% of the population, while in Mitte proper the share of migrants is low. The immigrant community is quite diverse, Turks, Eastern Europeans and East Asians form the largest groups. At the 2016 elections for the parliament of the borough the following parties were elected: SPD 14 Alliance'90/The Greens 14 The Left 10 CDU 7 Alternative for Germany 5 Free Democratic Party 3 Pirate Party 2 Higashiōsaka, Japan since 1959 Holon, Israel since 1970 Bottrop, Germany since 1983 Schwalm-Eder-Kreis since 1992 Shinjuku, Japan since 1994 Tsuwano, Japan since 1995 Tourcoing, France since 1995 VI. kerület, Hungary since 2005 Central Administrative Okrug, Russia since 2006 Berlin Mitte Official homepage Official homepage of Berlin
A chargé d'affaires shortened to chargé and sometimes to charge-D, is a diplomat who heads an embassy in the absence of the ambassador. The term is French for "charged with matters". A female diplomat may be designated a chargée d'affaires, following French declension. A chargé enjoys the same immunities as a regular ambassador. However, chargés d'affaires are outranked by ambassadors and have lower precedence at formal diplomatic events. In most cases, a diplomat would only serve as a chargé d'affaires on a temporary basis in the absence of the ambassador. In unusual situations, a chargé d'affaires may be appointed for an indefinite period, in cases where disputes between the two countries make it impossible or undesirable to send agents of a higher diplomatic rank. Chargés d'affaires ad interim are those who temporarily head a diplomatic mission in the absence of the accredited head of that mission, it is usual to appoint a counsellor or secretary of delegation to be chargé d'affaires ad interim, he is presented to the foreign minister of the receiving state by the former head of mission before he leaves his post.
Chargés d'affaires ad interim are not themselves deemed to be formally accredited, as they do not possess diplomatic credentials. Chargés d'affaires en pied are appointed to be permanent heads of mission, in cases where the two countries lack ambassadorial-level relations, they are appointed by letters of credence from the foreign minister of the sending state to the foreign minister of the receiving state. Chargés d'affaires en pied have precedence over chargés d'affaires ad interim, but are outranked by ambassadors, they are sometimes referred en titre. In certain cases, a chargé d'affaires may be appointed for long periods, such as when a mission is headed by a non-resident ambassador, accredited to multiple countries. In addition, a mission may be downgraded from an ambassadorial to a chargé d'affaires level to show displeasure, yet avoid taking the serious step of breaking diplomatic relations. For example, Saudi Arabia and Thailand have not exchanged ambassadors since 1989, due to the still-unresolved Blue Diamond Affair.
When diplomatic recognition is extended to a new government, a chargé will be sent to establish diplomatic representation. However, if a timely exchange of ambassadors does not take place, this may result in a prolonged period of chargé-level relations. For example, the United Kingdom recognized the People's Republic of China in 1950 and posted a chargé d'affaires in the new capital of Beijing. However, China was unwilling to exchange ambassadors until the United Kingdom withdrew its consulate from Taipei. Sino-British relations were not upgraded to the ambassadorial level until 1972. Since a chargé d'affaires presents his or her credentials to the foreign minister rather than the head of state, the appointment of a chargé may avoid a politically sensitive meeting that would imply approval or recognition of that head of state or government; the receiving country may decline to receive an ambassador, but still maintain diplomatic relations by accepting a chargé. For example, the Republic of Cyprus appoints a number of chargés d'affaires en pied to its embassies abroad.
In modern use, chargés d'affaires do not differ from ambassadors, envoys or ministers resident. They represent their nation, apart from rank and precedence, enjoy the same privileges and immunities as other diplomatic agents. However, there have been rare historical circumstances in which a diplomatic post, formally ranking as chargé d'affaires, was in fact employed in a more significant colonial role, as held by a resident. Thus, in Annam-Tonkin, the first French chargé d'affaires at Huế, the local ruler's capital, since 1875. In French usage, chargé d'affaires may be used outside diplomacy either as a specific position, or in general terms to indicate an individual with some more or less temporary responsibility for a specific area of activity. Chargé d'affaires follows French usage: chargé d'affaires is singular, chargés d'affaires for plural; the "d'affaires" is always in the plural form, should be lowercase if Chargé is capitalized. Following the French declension, chargée d'affaires may be seen.
For temporary chargés, ad interim may or may not be added depending on the context, but is always lower case. Ambassador Attaché Head of mission
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer is a German politician of the Alliance'90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and as Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005. Fischer has been a leading figure in the West German Greens since the 1970s, according to opinion polls, he was the most popular politician in Germany for most of the government's duration. Following the September 2005 election, in which the Schröder government was defeated, he left office on 22 November 2005. In September 2010 he supported the creation of the Spinelli Group, a europarliamentarian initiative founded with a view to reinvigorate efforts to federalise the European Union. Fischer was born in Gerabronn in Baden-Württemberg, the third child of a butcher, whose family had lived in Budakeszi, for several generations. Fischer's family had to leave Hungary in 1946 after it was occupied by the Soviet Union, ethnic Germans were persecuted and expelled by the authorities, his nickname Joschka is derived from diminutive of Joseph.
He was brought up Catholic and served in his childhood as an altar boy in his parish in Oeffingen. Fischer dropped out of high school in 1965, started an apprenticeship as a photographer, which he quit in 1966; because Fischer never gained a school-leaving certificate, he never attended a university or a college. He neither did compulsory military service nor the alternative civilian service for conscientious objectors, because he failed his physical examination due to poor eyesight. In 1967, he became active in the German student movement and left-wing movement 1968, first in Stuttgart and after 1968 in Frankfurt am Main. For his regular income, Fischer took several low-wage jobs, such as working in a left-wing bookstore in Frankfurt. During this period, he began attending university events, including lectures organized by left-wing revolutionary students by Theodor W. Adorno, Jürgen Habermas and Oskar Negt, he studied the works of Marx and Hegel and became a member of the militant group, Revolutionärer Kampf.
Fischer was a leader in several street battles involving the radical Putzgruppe, which attacked a number of police officers. Photos of one such brawl in March 1973, which were to haunt Fischer, show him clubbing policeman Rainer Marx, to whom he publicly apologized. Fischer is a close friend of Daniel Cohn-Bendit. In 1971, he began working for the car manufacturer Opel and attempted to organise his fellow workers for the coming communist revolution; this resulted in his dismissal from the company after six months. Fischer continued making a living with unskilled work while continuing his activism, he worked as a taxi driver from 1976 to 1981 and in a bookstore in Frankfurt. In the Deutscher Herbst of 1977, Germany was rattled by a series of left-wing terrorist attacks by the Red Army Faction and Revolutionary Cells. According to Fischer's own account, witnessing these events the kidnapping and murder of Hanns-Martin Schleyer and the Entebbe hijacking, made him renounce violence as a means for political change.
Instead, he became involved in the new social movements and in the newly founded Green Party in the state of Hesse. In May 1981, the Hessian Secretary of Commerce Heinz-Herbert Karry was murdered with a firearm that in 1973 had been transported in Fischer's car, along with other weapons stolen from an American army base. Fischer maintained he had given the car to the terrorist Hans-Joachim Klein for the purpose of having Klein fit it with a new engine. Only had Fischer learned that his car had been used to transport stolen weapons; as Foreign Minister, Fischer apologised for the violence of his Putzgruppe days, without disassociating himself from the radical movement. Some critics continue to charge that Fischer was the leading figure of a 1976 discussion that led to the use of Molotov cocktails in an upcoming demonstration in support of RAF member Ulrike Meinhof. Fischer was arrested on 14 May 1976 as a suspect in the Molotov cocktail attacks on police, but was released after two days. Fischer stated.
The firebombing of policeman Jürgen Weber's police car left Weber with burns over 60% of his body. From 1983 to 1985, Fischer was a member of the Bundestag for the Green party, his stint in federal parliament saw him engage in a frank and confrontational debating style, exemplified by an incident on 18 October 1984, when he addressed Richard Stücklen vice president of the parliament, with the words: "If I may say so, Mr. President, you are an asshole". In 1985, Fischer became Minister for the Environment in the Landtag of Hesse in the first governmental Red-Green coalition between the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Greens. Fischer caused a stir; these sneakers are now part of the shoe collection at the German Leather and Shoe Museum in Offenbach, Hesse. Fischer expressed his thoughts frankly in the periodical of the Hessian Green party "Stichwort Grün". In the edition of October 1989—one month before the fall of the Berlin Wall—he penned an article with the heading: "Der Wiedervereinigung die Schnau