Rex Wayne Tillerson is an American energy executive who served as the 69th United States Secretary of State from February 1, 2017 to March 31, 2018, under President Donald Trump. Prior to joining the Trump administration, Tillerson was chairman and chief executive officer of ExxonMobil, holding that position from 2006 until 2017. Tillerson began his career as a civil engineer with Exxon in 1975 after graduating with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. By 1989 he had become general manager of the Exxon USA central production division. In 1995 he became president of Production Khorat Inc.. In 2006 Tillerson was elected chair and chief executive of Exxon, the world's sixth largest company by revenue. Tillerson retired from Exxon effective January 1, 2017, he is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Tillerson is a long-time volunteer with the Boy Scouts of America and earned the rank of Eagle Scout. From 2010 to 2012 he was the national president of the Boy Scouts, its highest non-executive position.
He is a long-time contributor to Republican campaigns, but did not donate to Donald Trump's presidential campaign. In 2014, who had made business deals on behalf of Exxon with President Vladimir Putin of Russia, opposed the sanctions against Russia, he has been the director of the joint United States-Russia oil company Exxon Neftegas. Tillerson became Secretary of State on February 1, 2017. An unconventional choice for the role, Tillerson's tenure was characterized by a lack of visibility in comparison to his predecessors in the traditionally high-profile position of Secretary of State. During Tillerson's tenure, new applications to work for the Foreign Service fell by 50% and 60% of high-ranking career diplomats in the State Department resigned. After their relationship deteriorated, Trump dismissed Tillerson in March 2018, making his tenure one of the shortest in recent history. Tillerson was replaced by CIA Director Mike Pompeo. Tillerson was born on March 23, 1952, in Wichita Falls, the son of Patty Sue and Bobby Joe Tillerson, named after Rex Allen and John Wayne, two Hollywood actors famous for playing cowboys.
He was raised in Texas. He has two sisters, Rae Ann Hamilton, a physician who resides in Abilene, Jo Lynn Peters, a high school educator. Tillerson's father was an executive of the Boy Scouts of America organization, this led to his family's move to Huntsville, Texas. Tillerson himself has been active in the Boy Scouts for most of his life, in his youth he earned the rank of Eagle Scout. At age 14, he began to work as a bus boy in the student union building at Oklahoma State University. Two years in 1968 he became a janitor working in one of the engineering buildings at the university. On weekends, he worked picking cotton. Tillerson graduated from Huntsville High School in 1970, he was a section leader for the percussion section of his high school band, in which he played the kettle drums and snare drum, he earned spots in the all-district and all-region bands during his senior year. Tillerson received a college scholarship from the University of Texas Longhorn Band, he received a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin in 1975.
During his time at UT Austin, he was involved with the Tejas Club, the marching band. Tillerson joined Exxon Company USA in 1975 as a production engineer. In 1989, Tillerson became general manager of the central production division of Exxon USA. In 1995, he became President of Production Khorat Inc.. In 1998, he became a vice president of Exxon Ventures and president of Exxon Neftegas Limited with responsibility for Exxon's holdings in Russia and the Caspian Sea, he entered Exxon into the Sakhalin-I consortium with Rosneft. In 1999, with the merger of Exxon and Mobil, he was named executive vice president of ExxonMobil Development Company. In 2004, he became director of ExxonMobil. Upon this appointment Tillerson's replacement of Lee Raymond as CEO of Exxon Mobil was implied, his major competitor was another Exxon executive. On January 1, 2006, Tillerson was elected chairman and chief executive officer, following the retirement of Lee Raymond. At the time, Exxon had 80,000 employees, did business in nearly 200 countries, had an annual revenue of nearly $400 billion.
Under Tillerson's leadership, ExxonMobil cooperated with Saudi Arabia, the world's largest oil exporter and a longtime U. S. ally. From 2003 to 2005, a European subsidiary of ExxonMobil, operated in the Middle East providing sales to Iran and Syria. ExxonMobil stated that they followed all legal framework and that such sales were minuscule compared to their annual revenue of $371 billion at the time. In 2009, ExxonMobil acquired a major natural gas producer, for $31 billion in stock. Michael Corkery of the Wall Street Journal wrote that "Tillerson's legacy rides on the XTO Deal." Tillerson approved Exxon negotiating a multibillion-dollar deal with the government of Iraqi Kurdistan, despite opposition from President Barack Obama and Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, both of whom argued it would increase regional instability. Tillerson lobbied against Rule 1504 of the Dodd–Frank reform and protections, which would have required Exxon to disclose payments to foreign governments. In 2017, Congress voted to overturn Rule 1504 one hour before Tillerson was confirmed as Secretary of State.
On January 4, 2017, The Financial Times reported that Tillerson would cut his ExxonMobil ties if he became Secretary of State. Walter Shaub, the director of the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Russia–United States relations
Russia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the United States and Russia since 1991. The United States and Russia maintain diplomatic and trade relations; the relationship was warm under the Russian President Boris Yeltsin until the NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, has since deteriorated significantly. In 2014, relations strained due to the crisis in Ukraine, Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014, differences regarding Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War, from the end of 2016 over Russia's alleged interference in the 2016 U. S. elections. Mutual sanctions imposed in 2014 remain in place. Leaders of Russia and the United States from 1992 Official contacts between the Russian Empire and the new United States of America began in 1776. Russia, while formally neutral during the American Revolution, favored the U. S. Fully-fledged diplomatic ties were established in 1809. During the American Civil War, Russia supported the Union against the Confederacy which deterred the British from intervening.
Russia sold its territory in North America, Alaska, to the United States in 1867. The Treaty of Portsmouth, brokered by President Theodore Roosevelt ended the Russo-Japanese War. From 1820 until 1917, about 3.3 million immigrants arrived in the U. S. from the Russian Empire. Most were Poles; the U. S. participated in the allied military intervention against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War since August 1918, operating in the Russian Far East. Following the Bolsheviks′ victory in the Civil War and the establishment of the Soviet Union at the end of 1922, the U. S. while developing trade and economic ties, was the last major world power that continued to refuse to formally recognize the Soviet government. The United States and the USSR established diplomatic relations in November 1933; the United States and the Soviet Union were among the four major Allies against the Axis powers during World War II. Following the onset of the Cold War in 1947, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed by the U.
S. Canada, several Western European nations, in Washington, D. C. on 4 April 1949, a treaty that established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization designed to provide collective security against the Soviet Union. The first bilateral treaty between the U. S. and USSR was a consular convention signed in Moscow in June 1964. In 1975, the Helsinki Final Act was signed by a multitude of countries, including the USSR and the US, while not having a binding legal power of a treaty, it signified the U. S.-led West's recognition of the Soviet Union's dominance in Eastern Europe and acceptance of the Soviet annexation of Estonia and Lithuania, effected in 1940. The Act came to play a role in subsequently ending the Cold War. In the 1970s—1980s the USSR and the U. S. signed a series of arms control treaties such as the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, two Strategic Arms Limitation treaties, the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. In the late 1980s, Eastern European nations took advantage of the relaxation of Soviet control under Mikhail Gorbachev and began to break away from communist rule.
The relationship improved in the final years of the USSR. On 3 December 1989, Gorbachev and the U. S. President George H. W. Bush declared the Cold War over at the Malta Summit. On 25 December 1991, the Soviet Union dissolved, the Commonwealth of Independent States, a loose association of the former USSR's constituent republics, was formed; the USSR's Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became an independent state that inherited the USSR's UN Security Council permanent membership and declared itself the successor state to the USSR. Communism collapsed in Russia and Gorbachev was out. Boris Yeltsin sought American aid in making urgent reforms; when Bill Clinton became President in January 1993, major priorities included stabilizing Russia and expanding NATO into former Eastern Bloc. Clinton believed. NATO had been created as a bloc in opposition to the Soviet Union, many Russian leaders felt threatened by the expansion of the military alliance. Clinton's NATO expansion faced domestic resistance from those who feared alienating Russia.
Upon taking office, Clinton cultivated a close relationship with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, he had convinced Yeltsin to play a role in enforcing the Dayton Agreement in Bosnia. In 1997, Clinton won Yeltsin's reluctant assent to the expansion of NATO, clearing the way for the accession of Hungary and the Czech Republic into NATO. Yeltsin pressed for a commitment not to expand NATO into the Baltic states, but Clinton was not willing to bind his successors to such a promise; the French pushed for the addition of Romania and Slovenia to NATO, but Clinton opposed this move, as he believed that too quick of an expansion into Eastern Europe would dilute the strength of NATO. The collapse of the USSR involved many new issues in Eastern Europe. Clinton tried to help Yeltsin reform the Russian economy, he heped Yeltin win reelection in 1996, beat back the resurgence of communism in Russia. He helped Russia gain acceptance into the Group of Eight. Relations between Russia and the U. S. remained warm under Russia's president Boris Yeltsin and the U.
S. George H. W. Bush′s and Bill Clinton's administrations in the 1990s. In 1993, the sides signed the START II arms control treaty, designed to ban the use of multiple independently targetable re
Jon Huntsman Jr.
Jon Meade Huntsman Jr. is an American businessman, diplomat and the current Ambassador of the United States to Russia, serving since October 2017. Huntsman was the U. S. Ambassador to Singapore from 1992 to 1993, the Governor of Utah from 2005 to 2009, the U. S. Ambassador to China from 2009 to 2011, he has served in the administrations of five Presidents and was a candidate for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination. In January 2014, Huntsman was named Chair of the Washington-based foreign policy think-tank the Atlantic Council. Huntsman has served in every presidential administration since the presidency of Ronald Reagan, he began his career as a White House staff assistant for Ronald Reagan, was appointed Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce and United States Ambassador to Singapore by George H. W. Bush; as Deputy U. S. Trade Representative under George W. Bush, he launched global trade negotiations in Doha in 2001 and guided the accession of China into the World Trade Organization, he served as CEO of his family-owned Huntsman Corporation and chair of the Huntsman Cancer Foundation.
In 2009, he was appointed United States Ambassador to China by Barack Obama. While Governor of Utah, Huntsman was named Chair of the Western Governors Association and joined the Executive Committee of the National Governors Association. Under his leadership, Utah was named the best-managed state in America by the Pew Center on the States. During his tenure, Huntsman was one of the most popular governors in the country, won reelection in a landslide in 2008, winning every single county, he left office with approval ratings over 80 percent and was succeeded by Lieutenant Governor Gary Herbert. Huntsman was born March 1960, in Redwood City, California, his mother is Karen Huntsman, daughter of LDS Church apostle David B. Haight, his father was billionaire businessman and philanthropist Jon Huntsman Sr. of the Huntsman Corporation. Through his father, Huntsman Jr. is the great-great-great-grandson of early LDS Church leader Parley P. Pratt. At age 15 in 1975, Huntsman earned the rank of Eagle Scout, the highest rank of the Boy Scouts of America.
Huntsman attended Highland High School in Salt Lake City but dropped out before graduating to pursue his passion as a keyboard player in a rock band called Wizard. Huntsman obtained a G. E. D. and enrolled at the University of Utah, where he became, like his father, a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. Huntsman served as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints in Taiwan for two years and transferred to the University of Pennsylvania, where he received a Bachelor of Arts in international politics in 1987. While visiting the White House in 1971 during his father's service as special assistant to the president, Henry Kissinger confided in the 11-year-old Huntsman that he was secretly traveling to China, he worked as a White House staff assistant in President Ronald Reagan's administration in 1983. From 1987 to 1988, Huntsman and his family worked in Taipei, Taiwan. During the 1988 presidential election, he was a state delegate at the 1988 Republican National Convention. Under President George H. W. Bush, Huntsman was deputy assistant secretary in the International Trade Administration from 1989 to 1990.
He subsequently served as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for trade development and commerce for East Asian and Pacific Affairs, serving from 1990 to 1991. In June 1992, Bush appointed Huntsman to become U. S. ambassador to Singapore, which he was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate in August. When questioned by U. S. Sen. Paul Sarbanes, he said that he had been the chairman of Utah's presidential fundraising committee and had donated $2,000 to the Bush campaign, an amount that Sarbanes described as "not a large amount really". At 32 years old, he became the youngest U. S. Ambassador to serve in over 100 years. In January 2001, after George W. Bush took office as president, The Washington Post reported there was a strong possibility Huntsman would be appointed to be the new United States Ambassador to China. In March, he turned down the nomination to be the U. S. Ambassador to Indonesia. On March 28, Bush appointed Huntsman to be one of two Deputy United States trade representatives in his administration.
In March 2003, Huntsman resigned his post in the Bush administration. In mid-August, three-term incumbent Gov. Mike Leavitt, whom Huntsman supported, decided not to run for re-election in order to become the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the Bush administration. Shortly thereafter, Huntsman filed papers to run for Governor of Utah. In the June 2004 Republican primary, Huntsman defeated State Rep. Nolan Karras 66–34%. In November 2004, Huntsman was elected governor with 58% of the vote, defeating Democratic Party nominee Scott Matheson Jr. In 2008, Huntsman won re-election with 77.7% of the vote, defeating Democratic nominee Bob Springmeyer. Huntsman maintained high approval ratings as governor of Utah, he left office with his approval ratings over 80%. Utah was named the best managed state by the Pew Center on the States. Following his term as governor, Utah was named a top-three state to do business in; the 2006 Cato Institute evaluation gave Huntsman an overall fiscal policy grade of "B".
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey, Utah was ranked number one in the nation in job growth during Huntsman's tenure, a rate of 5.9% between 2005 and 2009. However, according to the Bureau's Current Employment Statistics survey, Utah ranked number four in the country in job creation, with 4.8% growth. Utah trailed Te
Novinskiy Boulevard is a street in Presnenskiy and Arbat districts of Moscow
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter. Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 100 GHz. In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations; the prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. Rather, it indicates that microwaves are "small", compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology; the boundaries between far infrared, terahertz radiation and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are arbitrary and are used variously between different fields of study. Microwaves travel by line-of-sight. At the high end of the band they are absorbed by gases in the atmosphere, limiting practical communication distances to around a kilometer.
Microwaves are used in modern technology, for example in point-to-point communication links, wireless networks, microwave radio relay networks, radar and spacecraft communication, medical diathermy and cancer treatment, remote sensing, radio astronomy, particle accelerators, industrial heating, collision avoidance systems, garage door openers and keyless entry systems, for cooking food in microwave ovens. Microwaves occupy a place in the electromagnetic spectrum with frequency above ordinary radio waves, below infrared light: In descriptions of the electromagnetic spectrum, some sources classify microwaves as radio waves, a subset of the radio wave band; this is an arbitrary distinction. Microwaves travel by line-of-sight paths. Although at the low end of the band they can pass through building walls enough for useful reception rights of way cleared to the first Fresnel zone are required. Therefore, on the surface of the Earth, microwave communication links are limited by the visual horizon to about 30–40 miles.
Microwaves are absorbed by moisture in the atmosphere, the attenuation increases with frequency, becoming a significant factor at the high end of the band. Beginning at about 40 GHz, atmospheric gases begin to absorb microwaves, so above this frequency microwave transmission is limited to a few kilometers. A spectral band structure causes absorption peaks at specific frequencies. Above 100 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's atmosphere is so great that it is in effect opaque, until the atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called infrared and optical window frequency ranges. In a microwave beam directed at an angle into the sky, a small amount of the power will be randomly scattered as the beam passes through the troposphere. A sensitive receiver beyond the horizon with a high gain antenna focused on that area of the troposphere can pick up the signal; this technique has been used at frequencies between 0.45 and 5 GHz in tropospheric scatter communication systems to communicate beyond the horizon, at distances up to 300 km.
The short wavelengths of microwaves allow omnidirectional antennas for portable devices to be made small, from 1 to 20 centimeters long, so microwave frequencies are used for wireless devices such as cell phones, cordless phones, wireless LANs access for laptops, Bluetooth earphones. Antennas used include short whip antennas, rubber ducky antennas, sleeve dipoles, patch antennas, the printed circuit inverted F antenna used in cell phones, their short wavelength allows narrow beams of microwaves to be produced by conveniently small high gain antennas from a half meter to 5 meters in diameter. Therefore, beams of microwaves are used for point-to-point communication links, for radar. An advantage of narrow beams is that they don't interfere with nearby equipment using the same frequency, allowing frequency reuse by nearby transmitters. Parabolic antennas are the most used directive antennas at microwave frequencies, but horn antennas, slot antennas and dielectric lens antennas are used. Flat microstrip antennas are being used in consumer devices.
Another directive antenna practical at microwave frequencies is the phased array, a computer-controlled array of antennas which produces a beam which can be electronically steered in different directions. At microwave frequencies, the transmission lines which are used to carry lower frequency radio waves to and from antennas, such as coaxial cable and parallel wire lines, have excessive power losses, so when low attenuation is required microwaves are carried by metal pipes called waveguides. Due to the high cost and maintenance requirements of waveguide runs, in many microwave antennas the output stage of the transmitter or the RF front end of the receiver is located at the antenna; the term microwave has a more technical meaning in electromagnetics and circuit theory. Apparatus and techniques may