Emirate of Afghanistan
The Emirate of Afghanistan was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, now today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed; the history of the Emirate was dominated by'the Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in South Asia; the Emirate of Afghanistan continued the war with the Sikh Empire, which led to the invasion of Afghanistan by British-led Indian forces who did not accomplish their war objectives. However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again fought against the Afghans and this time the British took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War. Escalated a few years after the establishment of the Emirates in 1837, the Russian and British interests were in conflict between Muhammad Shah of Iran and Dost Mohammed Khan, which led to the First Anglo-Afghan War, fought between 1839 and 1842.
During the war, Britain occupied the country, in an effort to prevent Afghanistan from coming under Russian control and curb Russian expansion. The war ended with a temporary victory for the United Kingdom, however, had to withdraw so that Dost Muhammad came to power again. Upon the death of Dost Muhammad in 1863, he was succeeded by Sher Ali Khan. However, three years his older brother Mohammad Afzal Khan overthrew him. In 1868, Mohammad Afzal Khan was himself overthrown and replaced as Emir by Sher Ali, who returned to the Throne. Sher Ali had spent his few short years in exile in Russia, his return as Emir led to new conflicts with Britain. Subsequently, the British marched on 21 November 1878 into Afghanistan and Emir Sher Ali was forced to flee again to Russia, but he died in 1879 in Mazar-i-Sharif, his successor, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, sought solutions for peace with Russia and gave them a greater say in Afghanistan's foreign policy. However, when the British envoy Sir Louis Cavagnari was killed in Kabul on the 3 September 1879, the British offered to accept Abdur Rahman Khan as Emir.
The British concluded a peace treaty with the Afghans in 1880, withdrew again in 1881 from Afghanistan. The British in 1893 forced Afghanistan to consent to the Durand Line, still straight through the settlement area of the Pashtuns runs and about a third of Afghanistan to British India annexing. After the war, Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, who struck down the country reformed and repressed numerous uprisings. After his death in 1901 his son Habibullah Khan succeeded as continued reforms. Habibullah Khan sought reconciliation with the UK, where he graduated in 1905 with a peace treaty with Russia, stretching for defeat in the Russo-Japanese War had to withdraw from Afghanistan. In the First World War, Afghanistan remained, despite Ottoman efforts, neutral. In 1919 Habibullah Khan was assassinated by political opponents. Habibullah Khan's son Amanullah Khan was in 1919 against the rightful heir apparent Nasrullah Khan, the Emir of Afghanistan. Shortly afterwards another war broke; this war was ended with the Treaty of Rawalpindi after which, the Afghans were able to resume the right to conduct their own foreign affairs as a independent state.
Amanullah Khan began the reformation of the country and was crowned 1926 Padshah of Afghanistan and founded the Kingdom of Afghanistan. European influence in Afghanistan List of monarchs of Frank. Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia
Emblem of Kazakhstan
The emblem of Kazakhstan was adopted on June 4, 1992. The authors of the emblem are Shota Walikhanov. About 245 projects and 67 description designs of the future arms took part in the final competition. Like other post-Soviet republics whose symbols do not predate the October Revolution, the current emblem retains some components of the Soviet one, in this case, rising sun rays and star. Prior to 1992, Kazakhstan had a coat of arms similar to all other Soviet Republics; the emblem is an image of shanyrak, the upper dome-like portion of a yurt, against a sky blue background which irradiates uyks set off by wings of mythical horses, inspired by Tulpar which represent bravery. The circle shape of the Emblem is a symbol of a eternity; the shanyrak symbolizes well-being of family and calmness. A design similar to the Kazakh shangyraq is used in the flag of neighboring Kyrgyzstan; the colour version of the national emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan consists of two colours: gold and sky blue. The golden colour corresponds to a light, clear future of Kazakh people, the blue sky colour is a symbol of aspiration to the peace, consent and unity with all people.
The name of the country in Kazakh, QAZAQSTAN, is in the lower part of the coat of arms. The name was in cyrillic script before amendment of the national standard of the Emblem of Kazakhstan since November 1, 2018. Coat of arms of the Kazakh SSR Flag of Kazakhstan
The Shahada is an Islamic creed, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, declaring belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet. The declaration, in its shortest form, reads: لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا ٱلله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ ٱلله lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh muḥammadun rasūlu llāh IPA: There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God. Audio audio In the English translation—"There is no god but God. Muhammad is the messenger of God."—the first, lower-case occurrence of "god" is a translation of the Arabic word ilah, while the capitalized second and third occurrences of "God" are translations of the Arabic word Allah. The noun šahāda, from the verbal root šahida meaning "to observe, testify", translates as "testimony" in both the everyday and the legal senses; the Islamic creed is called, in the dual form, šahādatān. The expression al-šahāda is used in Quran as one of the "titles of God". In Sunni Islam, the Shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first Shahada and the second Shahada.
The first statement of the Shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the Shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God". In the Quran, the first statement of the Shahadah takes the form la ilaha illa'llah twice, allahu la ilaha illa hu much more often, it appears in the shorter form la ilaha illa Hu in many places. It appears in these forms about 30 times in the Quran, never attached with the other parts of the Shahadah in Sunni or Shia Islam or "in conjunction with another name". Islam's monotheistic nature is reflected in the first sentence of the Shahada, which declares belief in the oneness of God and that he is the only entity worthy of worship; the second sentence of the Shahada indicates the means by which God has offered guidance to human beings. The verse reminds Muslims that they accept not only the prophecy of Muhammad but the long line of prophets who preceded him.
While the first part is seen as a cosmic truth, the second is specific to Islam, as it is understood that members of the older Abrahamic religions do not view Muhammad as one of their prophets. The Shahada is a statement of both worship. In a well-known hadith, Muhammad defines Islam as witnessing that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is God's messenger, giving of alms, performing the ritual prayer, fasting during the month of Ramadan, making a pilgrimage to the Kaaba: the Five Pillars of Islam are inherent in this declaration of faith. Recitation of the Shahādah is the most common statement of faith for Muslims. In Sunni Islam, it is counted as the first of the Five Pillars of Islam, while the Shi'i Twelvers and Isma'ilis have the Shahada as among their pillars of faith, it is whispered by the father into the ear of a newborn child, it is whispered into the ear of a dying person. The five canonical daily prayers each include a recitation of the Shahada. Recitation of the Shahada in front of witnesses is the first and only formal step in conversion to Islam.
This occasion attracts more than the two required witnesses and sometimes includes a celebration to welcome the convert into their new faith. In accordance with the central importance played by the notion of intention in Islamic doctrine, the recitation of the Shahada must reflect understanding of its import and heartfelt sincerity. Intention is what differentiates acts of devotion from mundane acts and a simple reading of the Shahada from invoking it as a ritual activity. Though the two statements of the Shahada are both present in the Quran, they are not found there side by side as in the Shahada formula. Versions of both phrases began to appear in coins and monumental architecture in the late seventh century, which suggests that it had not been established as a ritual statement of faith until then. An inscription in the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem reads: "There is no god but God alone. Another variant appears in coins minted after the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Umayyad caliph: "Muhammad is the servant of God and His messenger".
Although it is not clear when the Shahada first came into common use among Muslims, it is clear that the sentiments it expresses were part of the Quran and Islamic doctrine from the earliest period. The Shahada has been traditionally recited in the Sufi ceremony of dhikr, a ritual that resembles mantras found in many other religious traditions. During the ceremony, the Shahada may be repeated thousands of times, sometimes in the shortened form of the first phrase where the word Allah is replaced by huwa; the chanting of the Shahada sometimes provides a rhythmic background for singing. The Shahada appears as an architectural element in Islamic buildings around the world, such as those in Jerusalem and Istanbul. Late-medieval and Renaissance European art displays a fascination with Middle Eastern motifs in general and the Arabic script in particular, as indicated by its use, without concern f
Emblem of Israel
The Emblem of the State of Israel shows a menorah surrounded by an olive branch on each side, the writing "ישראל" below it. Most light blue and white, the coat of arms does appear in different colour combinations depending on the use; the State of Israel adopted the symbol after a design competition held in 1948. The design is based on the winning entry submitted by Gabriel and Maxim Shamir's proposal, with elements taken from other submissions, including entries from Oteh Walisch, W. Struski, Itamar David, Yerachmiel Schechter, Willie Wind, whose entry won the first design competition; the image used on the emblem is based on a depiction of the menorah on the Arch of Titus. The menorah was used in the ancient Temple in Jerusalem and has been a symbol of Judaism since ancient times, it symbolizes universal enlightenment, based on what is written in Isaiah 60: "Nations will come to your light, kings to the brightness of your dawn". The emblem may be based on the vision of the biblical prophet Zechariah, chapter 4, where he describes seeing a menorah flanked by two olive trees, one on each side.
The olive branches symbolize peace. The symbol is used on coinage. National symbols of Israel Arch of Titus Menorah Alec Mishory. "The Flag and the Emblem". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2017-03-28. State of Israel Emblem page in Shamir Brothers works collection web-site - Designers of the emblem in 1949 Media related to Emblem of Israel at Wikimedia Commons
A minbar is a pulpit in the mosque where the imam stands to deliver sermons or in the Hussainia where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation. The word is a derivative of the Arabic root n-b-r. While minbars are akin to pulpits, they have a function and position more similar to that of a church lectern, being used instead by the minister of religion, the imam for a wider range of readings and prayers; the minbar, the decoration of which some believe to be part of the sunnah, is shaped like a small tower with a pointed roof and stairs leading up to it. In contrast, the prophet Muhammed used only a platform with three steps. There may be a seat at the top. In contrast to most Christian pulpits, the steps up to the minbar are in a straight line on the same axis as the seat, as seen in those illustrated here, they take the preacher higher above the congregation than is typical in churches. The minbar is located to the right of the niche that indicates the direction of prayer; the minbar is a symbol of authority.
In some mosques there is a platform opposite the minbar where the assistant of the Imam, the muezzin, stands during prayer. The muezzin recites the answers to the prayers of the Imam where applicable; the oldest Islamic pulpit in the world to be preserved intact is the minbar of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Dating from the 9th century, it is an eleven-step staircase made of sculptured teak wood. Composed of an assembly of over three hundred finely sculpted parts, this minbar is considered to be a jewel of Islamic wooden art. Lynette Singer; the Minbar of Saladin. Reconstructing a Jewel of Islamic Art
Royal arms of Cambodia
The royal coat of arms or royal seal of the Kingdom of Cambodia is the symbol of the Cambodian monarchy. They have existed in some form close to the one depicted since the establishment of the independent Kingdom of Cambodia in 1953, it is the symbol on the Royal Standard of the reigning monarch of Cambodia. A light blue shield with an Unalome Sign, the Khmer Version of the Aum Symbol, on top of the sword is placed on two ceremonial pedestalled plattered bowls and the laurel wreath superimposed on the Royal Order of Cambodia on the bottom; the shield is placed on the white mantle with golden fringes and the golden decorations on the bottom and was surmounted by the Royal Crown with the shining diamond emanating from the rays of light at the top of the crown. The shield is supported by the two royal animals are the Gajasingha to the left and the Rajasingha to the right holding two royal five-tiered umbrellas standing on the blue ribbon with the words: "PREAH CHAU KRONG KAMPUCHEA"; the overall design was based on the The Royal Coat of arms of Siam used during the reign of King Chulalongkorn from 1873 to 1910.
The two royal animals of the gajasingha and the rajasingha holding two royal five-tiered umbrellas representing the King and the Queen. The Khmer language phrase ព្រះចៅ ក្រុង កម្ពុជា on the banner beneath the royal arms translates to: Preah Chau - Krong - Kampuchea: "Ruler of the Kingdom of Cambodia"; the royal arms were discontinued with the overthow of the monarchy in the Republican Era. They were restored for official use in 1993 with the reinstatement of the monarchy under HM Norodom Sihanouk. Other arms were used during succeeding periods: Democratic Kampuchea, the People's Republic of Kampuchea, the State of Cambodia. Flag of Cambodia
Coat of arms of Georgia (country)
The coat of arms of Georgia is one of the national symbols of the republic. It is based on the medieval arms of the Georgian royal house and features Saint George, the traditional patron saint of Georgia. In addition to St. George, the original proposal included additional heraldic elements found on the royal seal, such as the seamless robe of Jesus, but this was deemed excessively religious and was not incorporated into the final version. Gules, with an image of Saint George, riding a horse trampling upon a crawling serpent, whose head is pierced by the saint's spear, all of them Argent, it has two lions rampant as supporters of the shield, surmounted with the royal crown of Georgia, all of them Or. The motto below the shield reads as "Strength is in Unity". 1918–1921 and 1991–2004:This coat of arms was in use by the Democratic Republic of Georgia throughout its existence in 1918-1921. Though the use of Saint George as Georgia's patron saint was by a long tradition, there were some discussions about other possibilities, the major one being Amiran, as the symbol of Georgia's fight for freedom from the Russian Empire.
However, a decision was made in favor of Saint George. Restored in 1991, this coat of arms was replaced by the current one in 2004. 1801–1917:Before 1917, when Georgia was part of the Russian Empire, the Georgian coat of arms appeared on the Greater Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, as part of the coat of arms of Caucasus. It showed as the center inescutcheon, read as follows: Or, with an image of Saint George Martyr the Victorious in complete armour Azur with a cross on his breast, with a flying cloak Gules, riding a horse Sable in full gallop, the latter covered with a horse cloth Gules, fringed Or, trampling upon a crawling serpent Vert, winged Sable and tongued Gules, whose head is pierced by the saint's spear Gules. Before 1801:Coats of arms were those of the Bagrationi, who claimed to have King David among their ancestors, included such elements as King David's lyra and sling, or the Holy Tunic. Coat of arms of the Bagrationi dynasty Pogoń Ruska coat of arms President of Georgia website The Georgian Coat of Arms in: Georgian History by Giorgi Gabeskiria