SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Embolism

An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel. The embolus may be a bubble of air or other gas, or foreign material. An embolism can cause total blockage of blood flow in the affected vessel; such a blockage may affect a part of the body distant from the origin of the embolus. An embolism in which the embolus is a piece of thrombus is called a thromboembolism. An embolism is a pathological event, i.e. accompanying illness or injury. Sometimes it is created intentionally for a therapeutic reason, such as to stop bleeding or to kill a cancerous tumor by stopping its blood supply; such therapy is called embolization. There are different types of embolism. Embolism can be classified based on where it enters the circulation, either in veins. Arterial embolism are those that follow and, if not dissolved on the way, lodge in a more distal part of the systemic circulation. Sometimes, multiple classifications apply. However, pulmonary embolism is classified as a form of venous embolism, because the embolus forms in veins, e.g. deep vein thrombosis.

Arterial embolism can cause occlusion in any part of the body. It is a major cause of infarction. An embolus lodging in the brain from either the heart or a carotid artery will most be the cause of a stroke due to ischemia. An arterial embolus might originate in the heart. Emboli of cardiac origin are encountered in clinical practice. Thrombus formation within the atrium occurs in patients with mitral valve disease, in those with mitral valve stenosis, with atrial fibrillation. In the absence of AF, pure mitral regurgitation has a low incidence of thromboembolism; the risk of emboli forming in AF depends on other risk factors such as age, diabetes, recent heart failure, or previous stroke. Thrombus formation can take place within the ventricles, it occurs in 30% of anterior-wall myocardial infarctions, compared with only 5% of inferior ones; some other risk factors are poor ejection fraction, size of infarct, the presence of AF. In the first three months after infarction, left-ventricle aneurysms have a 10% risk of emboli forming.

Patients with prosthetic valves carry a significant increase in risk of thromboembolism. Risk varies, based on the valve type. Emboli have more serious consequences when they occur in the so-called "end circulation": areas of the body that have no redundant blood supply, such as the brain and heart. Assuming a normal circulation, an embolus formed in a systemic vein will always impact in the lungs, after passing through the right side of the heart; this will form a pulmonary embolism that will result in a blockage of the main artery of the lung and can be a complication of deep-vein thrombosis. The most common sites of origin of pulmonary emboli are the femoral veins; the deep veins of the calf are the most common sites of actual thrombi. In paradoxical embolism known as crossed embolism, an embolus from the veins crosses to the arterial blood system; this is found only with heart problems such as septal defects between the atria or ventricles. The most common such abnormality is patent foramen ovale, occurring in about 25% of the adult population, but here the defect functions as a valve, closed, because pressure is higher in the left side of the heart.

Sometimes, for example if a patient coughs just when an embolus is passing, it might cross to the arterial system. The direction of the embolus can be one of two types: Anterograde RetrogradeIn anterograde embolism, the movement of emboli is in the direction of blood flow. In retrograde embolism, the emboli move in opposition to the blood flow direction; the word embolism comes from the Greek ἐμβολισμός, meaning "interposition". Embolectomy MR of Fat Embolism Brain Injury from Fat Embolism

Dartmouth Academy

Dartmouth Academy is a non-selective, co-educational school within the English Academy programme, in Dartmouth, Devon, in the south-west of England. The academy was opened in September 2010 following the merger of two schools, Dartmouth Community College and Dartmouth Primary School, it is an all-through school. Since becoming an academy, it is open to students aged 3 to 18; the School is now in Good as of their 2017 Ofsted report. The Academy received its most recent Ofsted report in mid 2017, where it scored a'good'. Dartmouth Academy has two specialist subjects: Visual Arts – specializing in Art and Design, Textiles and Drama, Photography. Mathematics – early entry to GCSE/A Level examinations and attendance at university master classes will be features for older learners who are gifted and talented in this area; the school states. There are plans to develop partnerships with other schools, academies and higher education institutions, businesses; the academy is sponsored by Kingsbridge Community College.

It is affiliated with local partner Britannia Royal Naval College, a center for the training of Royal Navy Officers who, along with Kingsbridge, support the academy. In 2014 it was announced that the school will be put under a different sponsor than E-ACT, where Kingsbridge Community college took over from 1 September 2014; the academy aims to work extensively with Devon County Council and to form close working relationships with local primary and secondary schools. Dartmouth Academy

Military Hospital, Vračar

Military Hospital at Vračar is located in Belgrade, in the territory of the city municipality of Savski Venac, built in the period from 1904 to 1909. It represents an immovable cultural property as a cultural monument. Dr Roman Sondermajer came to Serbia from Poland in 1889, in his autobiography he wrote that "the hospital and opportunities I found there made a terrible impression". In the same year, 1889, Dr Sondermajer initiated the construction of a new hospital, the works started in 1903; the Belgrade municipality offered land at "Western Vračar" to the military in exchange for the land on which Palilula barrack stood. In its original form, the newly built hospital survived despite the bombing in World War I, with no major damage reported. During the second half of the 1920s, new equipment was received from Germany in the name of war reparations, so that the reconstruction and extension of the existing hospital pavilion seemed necessary; the reconstruction of the complex was completed in 1930 and the "Military Hospital" was opened for the second time.

The first reconstruction did not damage its appearance. Another extensive and stylistically incoherent complex reconstruction was done in the postwar period in the early 1960s; some pavilions were refurbished, some were upgraded. Among the buildings which were not damaged in the war destruction and the additions are the central building of the administration together with the ensemble of the main entrance; the Administration Building is a single-storey building and a multi-storey building, with a central two-storey tower. The former central entrance was walled up, the internal arrangement of space in this central part was renovated, so that the building is entered through wing tracts. Urban development of the Clinical Center of Serbia started in the mid-19th century on land, framed on the west and the south side by a green belt and on the east side by free space, where the clinics of the Medical School were after the First world war. Within the hospital grounds, a significant part of the area was covered by a park.

The construction of the complex of the Military Hospital in an area of about 8 hectares, was entrusted to the architect Danilo Vladisavljević, in the service in the Ministry of Military at the time. It was an example of a modern architectural concept of the hospital of pavilion type and the first continentally-achieved spatial composition based on double symmetrical buildings and architecturally-solved main entrance, set in the axis of Svetozar Marković Street; this caused change in the regulation plan of Belgrade: abolition of the extension of Resavska Street, Svetozar Marković, Kralj Milutin and Višegrad Street and the creation of five new blocks in the area of the hospital. The position of the Administration Building of the Military Hospital marked and gave a remarkable silhouette to Western Vračar; the complex includes 12 buildings, and, as a unique ensemble, is an example of a successful architectural achievement, both from the aspect of the utilitarian and architectural aesthetics, with a special place in the history of urban planning of Belgrade.

Under the influence of the German school, Vladisavljević applied Romanesque style, typical for this type of building in Germany. In addition, the application of reduced decoration elements is noted. Compared with similar institutions in the world, the Military Hospital, at the time when it was built, was representative of the most modern stylistic expression; the functionality of the interior space maximally satisfied the most demanding requirements of the medical service at the beginning of the last century, well designed solutions and compliance of architecture with the purpose have still not been overcome until today. In the period of its construction, this complex received high recognition by domestic and foreign experts and was considered the most modern hospital in the Balkans. All buildings the administration building of the hospital, were designed stylishly unique, following the methods of neo-Romanticism; the historical significance of this complex is multifaceted, as a representative achievement of its time and society to its importance in the Balkan and the First World War.

As a medical center, not only military, but of importance for the development of the medical corps of Serbia and Belgrade, the Military Hospital trained the best staff, as an educational center, it was the nucleus from which the Меdical Faculty of the University of Belgrade developed. Portal Serbia Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments – Belgrade List of cultural monuments Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments-Belgrade/Immovable cultural property base