An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Strange Hobby is an uncredited cover album by Arjen Anthony Lucassen, released in 1996. The album and the booklet contain no information about Lucassen and don't explain, responsible for the recordings, to make the album more "strange"; the album features covers of songs that have influenced Lucassen's musical development from the 1960s. As he did in his solo album Pools of Sorrow, Waves of Joy, Lucassen makes all the vocals and all the instruments, arranged all the songs himself; the album was re-released on July 8, 2016 with four unreleased bonus tracks. The album was a commercial loss because Lucassen wasn't well known yet. Years Arjen stated "it may not be smart from a commercial point of view, but it was fun"
A War of Our Own
A War of Our Own is the fourth and final studio album by the Dutch progressive metal band Stream of Passion. Stream of Passion produced the album after leaving Napalm Records, financing it through crowdfunding website Indiegogo, was their only album with the same line-up than its predecessor. Having signed to Napalm Records in 2008, Stream of Passion parted with the record label in 2012. Speaking about the split, lead vocalist Marcela Bovio said: "I would rather not get specific but let's say that we didn't think that we had the same ideas, we didn't think that they'got' us that well". Soon after, the band decided to fund their planned fourth album by way of fan donations, announcing a campaign through the crowdfunding website Indiegogo on July 16, 2013. Regarding the decision to fund the album this way, bass player Johan van Stratum commented: "Times are changing, so is the production of music and the way it is consumed. By taking things in their own hands, bands have more freedom and fans are enabled to support their favorites directly."
Donations to the campaign remained open for 3 months, with a target of raising €25,000 to produce the new album. The campaign generated twice the target goal, finishing at €43,881; as a reward for their fans after surpassing their secondary goal of €40,000, the band recorded an acoustic set of songs from the upcoming album for those who had contributed to the album's funding. A lyric video for the song "The Curse" was released on March 7, 2014 and an official music video for "A War of Our Own" was released on April 16, 2014. All tracks written by Johan van Stratum and Joost van den Broek except where noted. Sources: Marcela Bovio – lead vocals, violin Eric Hazebroek – guitar Stephan Schultz – guitar Johan van Stratum – bass Jeffrey Revet – keyboards, synths Martijn Peters – drums Ben Mathot – violin David Faber – cello Joost van den Broek – production, mixing Alexandra V Bach – cover art Tim Tronckoe – photography
Marcela Alejandra Bovio García is a Mexican singer, violinist and vocal teacher, a member of the Dutch symphonic death metal band MaYaN. In 1995 she joined Hydra, a Mexican metal band and playing violin. In 1999 they released an EP called "Bosquejo". After leaving them, Bovio co-founded the Mexican experimental rock band Elfonía in 2001, active until 2006. In 2003, she responded to a "casting call" by Dutch musician Arjen Anthony Lucassen for unknown singers, who chose her to play the character of Wife in the Ayreon album The Human Equation. In 2005, he picked her for his new project, the progressive metal band Stream of Passion; the band released their debut album Embrace the Storm the same year, with Bovio acting as sole lyricist. Lucassen left the band to continue on its own in 2007. Stream of Passion amicably disbanded in December 2016. In September 2016, Bovio independently released her first solo album, Unprecedented, a classical album consisting of original songs she wrote, she joined MaYaN as a full-time member in 2017, after regular collaborations with the band since 2013.
She acts as backing vocalist for other bands, notably Epica and The Gentle Storm, was one of the founding members of VUUR in 2016. Bovio started music around the age of 5 alongside her sister Diana. At age 17, she formed a cover band with her friends in which she was bass guitarist, but the band decided that she would perform better as lead vocalist. Early in their careers and her then-boyfriend Alejandro Millán were members of a band called Hydra. After leaving Hydra and Millán formed the experimental/progressive rock band Elfonía in 2001 as a duo, they subsequently extended into a quintet for their self-titled debut album in 2003. Two years they released their second studio album, This Sonic Landscape, which they described as a fusion of many music genres, including progressive rock, ambient music, gothic rock; the band split up in December 2006. In 2003, Bovio responded to a "casting call" by Dutch musician Arjen Anthony Lucassen for unknown singers to be featured on one of his albums. Lucassen chose her to play the character of Wife in his Ayreon album The Human Equation, released in 2004, which became Lucassen's best-selling album at the time.
She was featured on a new version of "Waracle" on the 2005 Special Edition release of The Final Experiment. Between September 18 and 20, 2015, most of the cast of The Human Equation, including Bovio, reprised their roles in a production titled The Theater Equation, released the following year under the same name, she performed at the first official Ayreon concerts in September 2017, titled Ayreon Universe. One of the performances will be released as a live album in 2018, titled Ayreon Universe – The Best of Ayreon Live. While recording Bovio, Lucassen realized; the band released their debut album Embrace the Storm in 2005, with Lucassen acting as composer and Bovio as lyricist. After several years of touring and the release of the live album Live in the Real World, several members of Stream of Passion chose to leave the band, including Millán, who had broken up with Bovio, Lucassen, who had decided to leave to band to continue on its own; as the result, Bovio was left as band leader. A War of Our Own was produced and released independently, funded via the crowdfunding site Indiegogo.
In April 2016, the band announced via Facebook that they would be separating at the end of the year, stating "Over the past eleven years we've had the time of our lives playing in stages all over the world and sharing moments of joy on stage. But all good things come to an end, we feel it's time to move on and search for new musical challenges. We're proud of everything we've achieved, with your help, we want to end the band history on a high note instead of losing focus and drive. Before parting ways as a band we will perform a few goodbye shows. Once again, we'd like to express our eternal gratitude for the support you've given us all these years. All of us will continue to make one way or the other. Thank you for being part of the wonderful adventure, Stream of Passion!"The band released a live album entitled Memento that year, performed their final show on December 28, 2016. In 2013, Bovio collaborated with Dutch symphonic death metal MaYaN, led by Mark Jansen of Epica, another band she would work with.
She performed choir parts on their second album Antagonise, released in January 2014, performed lead vocals on three tracks: "Bloodline Forfeit", "Devil in Disguise", "Human Sacrifice". After performing at MaYan live shows since 2014, Bovio joined the band as a f
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Fate of a Dreamer
Fate of a Dreamer is an album by Arjen Anthony Lucassen under the name Ambeon, released in 2001 by Dutch music label Transmission Records. All of the ten tracks feature arrangements of Ayreon's songs, as noted below; the album was out of print for years, due to the closing of Transmission. The album was re-released in December 2011 with bonus tracks, an accompanying acoustic CD covering various Ambeon and Ayreon tracks. All tracks written by Astrid van der Veen. "Cold Metal" is the only single from this album. It has samples of Ayreon's "Into the Black Hole", from the album Universal Migrator Part 2: Flight of the Migrator. "Cold Metal" "Merry-Go-Round" "High" "Cold Metal" Astrid van der Veen – vocals, background vocals Arjen Lucassen – acoustic and electric guitar, samples Stephen van Haestregt – acoustic and electronic drums, percussions Walter Latupeirissa – bass, fretless bass John McManus – alto flute, uilleann pipes Pat McManus – viola Erik Norlander – synthesizers Lana Lane – reversed background vocals "Estranged": "Ye Courtyard Minstrel Boy" "Ashes": "Back on Planet Earth" "High": "The Shooting Company of Captain Frans B.
Cocq" "Cold Metal": "Into the Black Hole" "Fate": "Welcome to the New Dimension" and "Forever of the Stars" "Sick Ceremony": "Magic Ride" "Lost Message": "The Charm of the Seer" and "Carried by the Wind" "Surreal": "And the Druids Turn to Stone" and "Carried By The Wind" "Sweet Little Brother": "2084" "Dreamer": "Computer Eyes" "Merry-Go-Round": "The Dawn of Man"
Arjen Anthony Lucassen
Arjen Anthony Lucassen is a Dutch singer, multi-instrumentalist musician and record producer best known for his long-running progressive metal/rock opera project Ayreon. Lucassen started his career in 1980 as the guitarist and backing vocalist of Dutch band Bodine as Iron Anthony, before joining Vengeance in 1984. After eight years he left the band, wanting to go into a more progressive direction, released two years an unsuccessful solo album entitled Pools of Sorrow, Waves of Joy under the nickname Anthony. In 1995, Lucassen released an album uncredited to any artist called Ayreon: The Final Experiment, in which he sang, wrote every song and played most of the instruments; the album conducted to the creation of Ayreon. Following Ayreon's success, Lucassen has been involved in many other projects: he is the creator and current guitarist/keyboardist of Star One, Guilt Machine, The Gentle Storm, the creator and former guitarist of Ambeon and Stream of Passion, he composes and writes most of his songs, but leaves the lyrics to his musical partners in some of his projects.
Lucassen plays a wide variety of instruments: his main instruments are guitar and keyboards, however he plays bass and many others. Overall, in his career and including all his bands and projects, Lucassen has released twenty-six studio albums, four live albums, two EPs and seventeen singles, he has made many minor participations alongside various artists including Shadow Gallery, After Forever, Within Temptation and Avantasia, appears in over 50 albums. Since the creation of Ayreon, Lucassen progressively made a name for himself under rock and metal reviewers, with many critics calling him a "genius", praising his composition abilities and originality. In his review of 01011001 Allmusic reviewer stated "Music this over the top defies criticism. Reviewing it is like reviewing the world's tallest building, it doesn't care. Lucassen's love of music was sparked in the 60s, he decided to learn guitar. One of his first bands was called Mover, which he joined around the age of 18. In 1980, Lucassen joined Bodine via their drummer Gerrard Haitsma, the drum teacher of Mover's drummer.
Under the nickname Iron Anthony, he was featured on their second album, Bold as Brass, their third and final album, Three Times Running. Lucassen recalled about his years with Bodine: "on one side they were good musicians good musicians, the best drummer in Holland, an incredible guitar player and a steddy bass player, and I learned how to play there, how to play tight, how to play in tune, you know, to play solo not just fast but to play one note and do it good. But on the other hand, they were kind of boring guys, they were all 10 years older than me, they didn't like partying and stuff, and in those days I was young, I was 20, after the girls and after the party, you know. So it was a bit boring, and another problem in that band was that they didn't like melody, they were in love with AC/DC and stuff like that. And I always liked melodic music in those days I was into prog music. So I didn't like to be there, I wrote songs but they were just a little part of me."In 1984, Lucassen left Bodine to join Vengeance.
In 1984, the newly created band Vengeance played as supporting act for Bodine. When Lucassen, impressed by their performance, was contacted by the band to ask if he knew any potential replacement for their guitarist who had just left, he proposed himself and joined the band, leaving Bodine. Regarding their original self-titled album released in 1984, Lucassen stated in a 2002 interview that the album was "horrible", adding "The songs were finished when I joined the band. I think I wrote just two songs for that album and it was recorded cheap, the sound is bad and the songs are not that good. So it's not a strong album although you can hear the potential"; the band established themselves as one of the most successful bands of the Netherlands at the time. He recalled a concert in Germany cancelled at the last moment because "after the first night Vengeance wrecked the hotel, it was like $10,000 damage. We were not allowed to leave Germany, they took our equipment... so, sex and rock'n'roll!"In 1989, the band was forced to fire their lead vocalist Leon Goewie, who was, according to Lucassen, "really crazy on stage.
The only problem was that he was crazy offstage. But he liked to have a stiff drink now and if you know what I mean". Vengeance found little success with their new vocalist Ian Parry, disbanded in 1992 after a successful farewell tour. While Lucassen pursued his solo career, Vengeance's label released The Last of the Fallen Heroes, promoted as a new studio album but a compilation of unfinished demos, in 1994. Goewie, struggling as a musician after being fired from the band contacted Lucassen, asking him to write him songs. Lucassen wrote two songs, which were featured on a new Vengeance album, Back from Flight 19, in 1997, he stated about Back from Flight 19 "I'm not so proud of that album. There's a couple of good songs but it's not Vengeance." After