The Campeonato Nacional de Liga de Primera División known as La Liga, is the men's top professional football division of the Spanish football league system. Administered by the Liga Nacional de Fútbol Profesional known as the Liga de Fútbol Profesional, La Liga is contested by 20 teams, with the three lowest-placed teams at the end of each season relegated to the Segunda División and replaced by the top three teams in that division. A total of 62 teams have competed in La Liga since its inception. Nine teams have been crowned champions, with Real Madrid winning the title a record 33 times and Barcelona 25 times. Barcelona won the inaugural La Liga in 1929 with Athletic Bilbao claiming several titles in the league's early years. Barcelona and Real Madrid dominated the championship in the 1950s, winning four La Liga titles each throughout the decade. Real Madrid dominated La Liga from the 1960s through the 1980s, when Barcelona, Athletic Bilbao, Real Sociedad won the league twice in those years.
From the 1990s onward, Barcelona has dominated winning 15 titles. Although Real Madrid has been prominent, winning 8 titles, La Liga has seen other champions, including Atlético Madrid and Deportivo de La Coruña. In the 2010s, Atlético Madrid has become an strong team, forming a trio alongside Real Madrid and Barcelona. According to UEFA's league coefficient, La Liga has been the top league in Europe over the last five years and has led Europe for more years than any other country, it has produced the continent's top-rated club more times than any other league, more than double that of second-placed Serie A. Its clubs have won the most UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UEFA Super Cup, FIFA Club World Cup titles, its players have accumulated the highest number of Ballon d'Or awards, The Best FIFA Men's Player including FIFA World Player of the Year and UEFA Men's Player of the Year including UEFA Club Footballer of the Year. La Liga is one of the most popular professional sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 26,983 for league matches in the 2017–18 season.
This is the sixth-highest of any domestic professional sports league in the world and the third-highest of any professional association football league in the world, behind the Bundesliga and the Premier League. The competition format follows the usual double round-robin format. During the course of a season, which lasts from August to May, each club plays every other club twice, once at home and once away, for 38 matchdays. Teams receive three points for a win, one point for a draw, no points for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, with the highest-ranked club at the end of the season crowned champion. A system of promotion and relegation exists between the Segunda División; the three lowest placed teams in La Liga are relegated to the Segunda División, the top two teams from the Segunda División promoted to La Liga, with an additional club promoted after a series of play-offs involving the third, fourth and sixth placed clubs. Below is a complete record of; these are: yellow card, 1 point doubled yellow card/ejection, 2 points direct red card, 3 points suspension or disqualification of coach, executive or other club personnel, 5 points misconduct of the supporters: mild 5 points, serious 6 points serious 7 points stadium closure, 10 points if the Competition Committee removes a penalty, the points are removed If the tie is still not broken, it will be resolved with a tie-break match in a neutral stadium.
The top 4 teams in La Liga qualify for the subsequent season's UEFA Champions League Group Stage. The winners of the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League qualify for the subsequent season's UEFA Champions League Group Stage. If this means 6 La Liga teams qualify the 4th place team in La Liga instead plays in the UEFA Europa League, as any single nation is limited to a maximum of 5 teams; the 5th place team in La Liga qualifies for the subsequent season's UEFA Europa League Group Stage. The winner of the Copa del Rey qualifies for the subsequent season's UEFA Europa League Group Stage, but if the winner finished in the top 5 places in La Liga this place reverts to the team that finished 6th in La Liga. Furthermore the 6th place team qualifies for the subsequent season's UEFA Europa League 2nd Qualifying Round; the number of places allocated to Spanish clubs in UEFA competitions is dependent upon the position a country holds in the UEFA country coefficients, which are calculated based upon the performance of teams in UEFA competitions in the previous 5 years.
The ranking of Spain is 1st. In April 1927, José María Acha, a director at Arenas Club de Getxo, first proposed the idea of a national leagu
Tropic of Capricorn
The Tropic of Capricorn is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude, its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five major circles of latitude; as of 13 April 2019, its latitude is 23°26′12.4″ south of the Equator, but it is gradually moving northward at the rate of 0.47 arcseconds, or 15 metres, per year. When this line of latitude was named in the last centuries BC, the Sun was in the constellation Capricornus at the December solstice, the time each year that the Sun reaches its zenith at this latitude. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, this is no longer the case; the word "tropic" itself comes from the Greek "trope", meaning to turn or change direction, referring to the fact that the Sun appears to "turn back" at the solstices. The Tropic of Capricorn is the dividing line between the Southern Temperate Zone to the south and the tropics to the north; the Northern Hemisphere equivalent of the Tropic of Capricorn is the Tropic of Cancer.
The Tropic of Capricorn's position is not fixed, but changes because of a slight wobble in the Earth's longitudinal alignment relative to its orbit around the Sun. Earth's axial tilt varies over a 41,000 year period from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees and resides at about 23.4 degrees. This wobble means that the Tropic of Capricorn is drifting northward at a rate of half an arcsecond of latitude, or 15 metres, per year. See under circles of latitude for information. There are 13 hours, 35 minutes of daylight during the summer solstice. During the winter solstice, there are 41 minutes of daylight. In southern Africa, where rainfall is reliable, farming is possible, though yields are low with fertilisers. In Australia, areas on the Tropic have some of the most variable rainfall in the world and thus the wetter areas cannot be farmed, since irrigation sources invariably dry up in drought years. In South America, whilst in the continental cratons soils are as old as in Australia and Southern Africa, the presence of the geologically young and evolving Andes means that this region is on the western side of the subtropical anticyclones and thus receives warm and humid air from the Atlantic Ocean.
As a result, areas in Brazil adjacent to the Tropic are important agricultural regions, producing large quantities of crops such as sugarcane, the natural rainforest vegetation has been entirely cleared, except for a few remaining patches of Atlantic Forest. Further south in Argentina, the temperate grasslands of the Pampas region is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world, producing of wheat, soybeans and beef, making the country one of the largest worldwide agricultural exporters, similar to the role played by the Prairies region in Canada. West of the Andes, the Humboldt Current makes conditions arid, creating the Atacama Desert, one of the driest in the world, so that no glaciers exist between Volcán Sajama at 18˚30'S and Cerro Tres Cruces at 27˚S. Vegetation here is non-existent, though on the eastern slopes of the Andes rainfall is adequate for rainfed agriculture. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Tropic of Capricorn passes through 10 countries: The following cities and landmarks are either located near the Tropic of Capricorn, or the tropic passes through them.
As the major portion of earth's land is located in the Northern Hemisphere there are only four countries south of the Tropic of Capricorn: Lesotho New Zealand Eswatini Uruguay Length of the Tropic on 11 June 2015, at 23°26′14″S is 36,788 kilometres. Temporal Epoch Calculations Useful constants" See: Obliquity of the ecliptic Montana State University: Milankovitch Cycles & Glaciation Circle of latitude Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator 23rd parallel south 24th parallel south Antarctic Circle Axial tilt Milankovitch cycles Capricornus
Central Highlands Region
Central Highlands Region is a local government area in Queensland, Australia. The Central Highlands Region was created in March 2008 as a result of the report of the Local Government Reform Commission released in July 2007; the new local government area, located in Central Queensland, contains the entire areas of four previous local government areas: the Shire of Bauhinia. Legislation introduced into the Queensland Parliament gave the name of the new region as Central Highlands; the report recommended that the new local government area should not be divided into wards and elect eight councillors and a mayor. The Central Highlands Region has an area of 53,677 square kilometres, contains an estimated resident population in 2006 of 26,824 and has an estimated operating budget of A$66 million; the Central Highlands Region includes the following settlements: The Central Highlands Region operates public libraries at Bauhinia, Capella, Duaringa, Rubyvale, Rolleston and Tieri. 2008 - 2016: Peter John Eric Maguire 2016 -: Kerry Hayes Central Highlands Regional Council Central Highlands Regional Council - Local Transition Committee University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Central Highlands Regional Council Springsure Library
Levante Unión Deportiva, S. A. D. is a Spanish football club in the namesake autonomous community. Founded on 9 September 1909, it plays in La Liga, holding home games at Ciutat de Valencia Stadium. Levante UD was registered as Levante Football Club on 9 September 1909. Levante Union Deportiva has the eastern region of the Iberian Peninsula as its namesake. Levante is the coast where the sun always rises. Levante UD's name is attributed to the Levant wind that comes from the east and reminiscent of the Levante beach in La Malvarrosa, where Levante Football Club clashed some of its earliest fixtures. Backed, Levante Union Deportiva is the most senior football club in Valencia. Local rival team Valencia CF was not formed until 1919. Levante's earliest games were played at La Platjeta, near the docks on a plot of land owned by a perfume entrepreneur, its next ground was near the port area, the club began to become associated with the working class. In 1919, the side played Valencia CF for the first time, losing 0–1.
In 1928, Levante FC won the Valencian Championship. 1909 saw the birth of Gimnástico Football Club, which played at Patronato de la Juventud Obrera, being named Gimnástico-Patronato. In 1919, Gimnástico became the champion of the Campeonato de Valencia, beating CD Castellón in two leg finals. In 1931, with the emergence of the Second Spanish Republic, the club dropped the Real from its name. In 1934–35, both Levante and Gimnástico debuted in the second division, when the league was expanded from 10 teams to 24. In 1935, Levante won the Campeonato Levante-Sur, a competition that featured teams from Valencia and Andalusia, subsequently reached the semi-finals of the Spanish Cup, consecutively beating Valencia and Barcelona before losing to eventual runners-up Sabadell. During the Spanish Civil War and Gimnástico played in the Mediterranean League, finishing fifth and sixth – teams from this league competed in the Copa de la España Libre, it was intended that the top four teams from the league would enter the cup, but Barcelona opted to tour Mexico and the United States, as a result, Levante took its place.
The first round of the competition was a mini-league with the top two teams and Valencia, qualifying for the final. On 18 July 1937, Levante defeated. During the Civil War, Levante's ground was destroyed. In contrast, Gimnástico had lost most of their players; as a result, in 1939 Levante FC and Gimnástico FC merged into Levante Unión Deportiva. Levante UD thus having origin from at least 1909 from both Levante FC and Gimnástico FC. At first being named Unión Deportiva Levante-Gimnástico changing it a few years to Levante Unión Deportiva, with current club colours dating from this era. Moreover, Levante UD not only inherited their colors from Gimnástico FC but their nickname, "Granota", the Frogs. Levante had to wait until the 1960s to make its La Liga debut. In 1963, the club finished runner-up in Group II of the second division, defeating Deportivo de La Coruña 4–2 on aggregate in the promotion play-offs. During the first top flight season, it managed to win both games against Valencia, managing a 5–1 home win against Barcelona in the 1964–65 campaign but being relegated nonetheless after losing in the playoffs against Málaga.
It spent most of the following two decades in the third divisions. In the early 1980s, Dutch superstar Johan Cruyff played half a season for the club, retiring three years later. After winning 2003–04's second division, Levante returned to the top level but survived only one season. Finishing third in 2005–06, it returned for two additional campaigns, the decisive match in the 2006–07 season being a 4–2 home win against Valencia courtesy of Riga Mustapha and Laurent Courtois. Levante's financial status worsened and there were reports that the players had only received one-fifth of their contractual payments. News reports stated that the club had incurred a debt of over €18 million in payments due to its players; the team plummeted down the standings, it was confirmed that the club would be playing in the second division in 2008–09, with several matches to go. The players protested at their lack of payments at one point, refusing to move for several seconds after the opening whistle against Deportivo and announcing that they would issue a job action during the season-ending game at Real Madrid.
The action was resolved when league officials announced that a benefit game would be played between Levante team members, a team made up of players from the first division, with all benefits going to pay the wages due to the players. On 13 June 2010, Levante returned to La Liga after a 3–1 home win against relegated Castellón, it lost in the final round 0–4 at Real Betis, but its opponents only managed to
Longreach is a town in Central West Queensland, Australia 700 km from the coast, west of Rockhampton. The town is named after the "long reach" of the Thomson River; the town was gazetted in 1887, the railway reached the town in 1892, causing the population to grow. It is the administrative centre of the Longreach Regional Council, established in 2008 as a merger of the former Longreach and Isisford shires; the town is on the Tropic of Capricorn. The main industries of the area are cattle, and, more tourism. A number of Queensland towns have their streets named to a theme. In Longreach, the streets are named after species of birds, with the streets running east-west named after water birds and those running north-south after land birds; the main business street is called Eagle Street. Other streets honour Hudson Fysh, an Australian aviation pioneer, Sir James Walker, a farmer and long-serving mayor of the former Longreach Shire Council. Notable Australians to have been born or lived in Longreach include former Australian Governor-General Quentin Bryce, iconic Purple Hearts and Coloured Balls guitarist Lobby Loyde, comedian Carl Barron and rugby league footballer Matthew Scott.
Longreach is the home of the Australian Stockman's Hall of Fame, opened in 1988 by Queen Elizabeth II. The purpose of the centre is to showcase the culture of life in rural Australia. Since its opening, over 1 million people have passed through its doors. Longreach was one of the founding centres for Qantas, the Australian domestic and international airline, the third oldest airline in the world. One of the airline's original hangars remains in use at the Longreach Airport and is listed on the Australian National Heritage List; the town is now the home of the Qantas Founders Outback Museum, which includes amongst its displays a decommissioned Qantas Boeing 747-200 aircraft, registration VH-EBQ, The City of Bunbury, Qantas's first jet aircraft VH-XBA, a Boeing 707, The City of Canberra. In recognition of the town's place in company history, as well as a play on the airliner's extended range, all of Qantas's Boeing 747-400s have "Longreach" printed on both sides of the first jetway entry/exit doors.
The town is home to the Australian Agricultural College's Longreach Campus, which prepares students for work in the agricultural and pastoral industries. It was known as the Longreach Pastoral College; the campus was opened in 1967. Adjacent to the college is the Longreach School of Distance Education, which provides lessons to remote students by HF radio but now using telephone lines. Longreach lay on the traditional tribal lands of the Iningai. Longreach Post Office opened on 1 October 1891. A Longreach Rail Post Office opened by April 1940 and closed in 1962. Longreach State School opened on 22 May 1893 with an enrolment of 102 students. Longreach State High School opened on 24 January 1966. Longreach School of Distance Education opened on 27 January 1987. In early April 2010, Longreach experienced a significant locust plague described by local residents as the worst in three decades. At the 2011 Australian Census Longreach recorded a population of 3,137. Longreach has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Capricorn Highway: Longreach railway station 111 Ibis Street: Longreach Ambulance Centre Landsborough Highway: Qantas Hangar 12 Swan Street: former Longreach Powerhouse Longreach has a visitor information centre, swimming pool, Powerhouse Museum and parks.
Shopping facilities in the town include Foodworks and Prices Plus. Longreach Regional Council operates the Longreach Library at Longreach; the Longreach branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association has its rooms in Duck Street. The Longreach Leader newspaper is issued weekly; the Longreach area is served by several locally based radio stations including ABC Western Queensland, commercial stations 4LG and West FM. Bruce Saunders, politician Media related to Longreach, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Queensland Country Women's Association
The Queensland Country Women's Association is the Queensland chapter of the Country Women's Association in Australia. The association seeks to serve the interests of women and children in rural areas in Australia through a network of local branches. Established in 1922, local branches provide friendship and mutual support to their members while contributing to the betterment of life in their local communities. Over time, many branches have evolved to include support for wider issues such as domestic violence campaigns and fund-raising for international initiatives such as orphanages. On 8-11 August 1922, the Brisbane Women's Club held an open conference for countrywomen in Brisbane's Albert Hall during the Exhibition; the conference was opened by Lady Forster, wife of Australian Governor-General and the Queensland Governor Matthew Nathan attended. On 11 August 1922, the outcome of the conference was to establish the Queensland Country Women's Association. Ruth Beatrice Fairfax was elected the first President.
The first meeting of the Toowoomba branch was held at the Toowoomba Town Hall on 12 September 1922. Ruth Fairfax spoke about the objectives of the organisation; the meeting resolved to hold a conference as soon as there were sufficient representatives to attend. The objectives of the association were broad but included some specific items:1. To improve welfare and conditions of women and children in the country2. To draw together all women and children in Country Districts.3. To bring opportunities for recreation and enjoyment within reach of all Members.4. To encourage the active study of Local and State affairs and to promote a wise and kindly spirit.5. To improve educational facilities in the Country.6. To secure better provision for the safeguarding of Public Health of children, the securing of more adequate Medical and Hospital facilities for Country Districts."There was a call for a design for a badge and the winner was Mrs Mabel Chandler of Burra Burri who proposed the letters CWA within a large letter "Q".
It was decided that the royal blue should be adopted as the colours for the organisation. Many QCWA buildings are painted white to approximate the chosen colours; the Queensland chapter was inducted into the Queensland Business Leaders Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2017 the QWCA created its own perfume,' 1922', it was developed by Damask Perfumery in Brisbane. The artwork and branding of the bottle was supplied by Brisbane watercolour artist Michelle Grayson; as at December 2018, the QWCA has over 240 branches throughout Queensland. The following list includes all branches active in December 2018, some of the former branches. On 9 June 2003 in the Queen's Birthday Honours List, Mrs Jean Eva Anderson of Ballater Station at Stamford was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for her "service to the community of Hughenden through the Country Womens Association", she had given 52 years of service to the Hughenden branch. Her award was presented to her by the Governor of Queensland, Quentin Bryce. Pagliano, Muriel.
Country women: history of the first seventy five years: the Queensland Country Women's Association. Merino Lithographics.—full text available online. The Queensland Country Women's Association, fifty years 1922-1972. Queensland Country Women's Association. 1972. Media related to Queensland Country Women's Association at Wikimedia Commons
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli