Thinking outside the box
Thinking outside the box is a metaphor that means to think differently, unconventionally, or from a new perspective. This phrase refers to novel or creative thinking; the term is thought to derive from management consultants in the 1970s and 1980s challenging their clients to solve the "nine dots" puzzle, whose solution requires some lateral thinking. This phrase can be found in dance, as encouragement to move creatively, beyond simple, geometric box steps and their basic variations, to step outside the box into more complex patterns of expression; the catchphrase, or cliché, has become used in business environments by management consultants and executive coaches, has been referenced in a number of advertising slogans. To think outside the box is to look further and to try not thinking of the obvious things, but to try thinking of the things beyond them. A simplified definition for paradigm is a habit of a conceptual framework. A simplified analogy is "the box" in the used phrase "thinking outside the box".
What is encompassed by the words "inside the box" is analogous with the current, unnoticed, assumptions about a situation. Creative thinking rejects the accepted paradigm to come up with new ideas; the notion of something outside a perceived "box" is related to a traditional topographical puzzle called the nine dots puzzle. The origins of the phrase "thinking outside the box" are obscure. Management consultant Mike Vance has claimed that the use of the nine-dot puzzle in consultancy circles stems from the corporate culture of the Walt Disney Company, where the puzzle was used in-house; the nine dots puzzle is much older than the slogan. It appears in Sam Loyd's 1914 Cyclopedia of Puzzles. In the 1951 compilation The Puzzle-Mine: Puzzles Collected from the Works of the Late Henry Ernest Dudeney, the puzzle is attributed to Dudeney himself. Sam Loyd's original formulation of the puzzle entitled it as "Christopher Columbus's egg puzzle." This was an allusion to the story of Egg of Columbus. The puzzle proposed an intellectual challenge—to connect the dots by drawing four straight, continuous lines that pass through each of the nine dots, never lifting the pencil from the paper.
The conundrum is resolved, but only by drawing the lines outside the confines of the square area defined by the nine dots themselves. The phrase "thinking outside the box" is a restatement of the solution strategy; the puzzle only seems difficult because people imagine a boundary around the edge of the dot array. The heart of the matter is the unspecified barrier that people perceive. Telling people to "think outside the box" does not help them think outside the box, at least not with the 9-dot problem; this is due to the distinction between procedural declarative knowledge. For example, a non-verbal cue such as drawing a square outside the 9 dots does allow people to solve the 9-dot problem better than average; the nine-dot problem is a well-defined problem. It has a stated goal, all necessary information to solve the problem is included. Furthermore, well-defined problems have a clear ending. Although the solution is "outside the box" and not easy to see at first, once it has been found, it seems obvious.
Other examples of well-defined problems are the Rubik's Cube. In contrast, characteristics of ill-defined problems are: not clear what the question is not clear how to arrive at a solution no idea what the solution looks likeAn example of an ill-defined problem is "what is the essence of happiness?" The skills needed to solve this type of problem are the ability to reason and draw inferences and epistemic monitoring. Another well-defined problem for the nine dots starting point is to connect the dots with a single straight line; the solution involves looking outside the two-dimensional sheet of paper on which the nine dots are drawn and coning the paper three-dimensionally aligning the dots along a spiral, thus a single line can be drawn connecting all nine dots - which would appear as three lines in parallel on the paper, when flattened out. If solving the four line solution is called lateral thinking solving the one line solution could well be called orthogonal thinking, as it requires two distinct phases: drawing the line and assembling the line.
The Nine Dots Prize is a competition-based prize for "creative thinking that tackles contemporary societal issues." It is sponsored by the Kadas Prize Foundation and supported by the Cambridge University Press and the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities at the University of Cambridge. It was named in reference to the nine-dot problem; this flexible English phrase is a rhetorical trope with a range of variant applications. The metaphorical "box" in the phrase "outside the box" may be married with something real and measurable — for example, perceived budgetary or organizational constraints in a Hollywood development project. Speculating beyond its restrictive confines the box can be both: positive— fostering creative leaps as in generating wild ideas. James Bandrowski states that this could result in a frank and insightful re-appraisal of a situation, the organization, etc. On the other hand, Bandrowski argues that the process of thinking "ins
United States civil defense
United States civil defense refers to the use of civil defense in the history of the United States, the organized non-military effort to prepare Americans for military attack. Late in the 20th century, the term and practice of civil defense fell into disuse. Emergency management and homeland security replaced them. There is little history of civil defense in the United States before the twentieth century. Since ancient times, cities built walls and moats to protect from invasion and commissioned patrols and watches to keep an eye out for danger, but such activities have not traditionally been encompassed by the term "civil defense." The U. S. has a particular lack of early civil defense efforts because the American homeland was threatened with a significant attack. Despite these considerations, there are still examples of what would today be considered civil defense. For example, as early as 1692, the village of Bedford, New York kept a paid drummer on staff, charged with sounding the town drum in the event of a Native American attack—a early precursor to the wailing sirens of the Cold War.
Civil defense began to come of age, both worldwide and in the United States, during the first World War—although it was referred to as civilian defense. This was the first major total war, which required the involvement and support of the general population. Strategic bombing during World War I brought bombing raids by dirigibles and airplanes, with thousands of injuries and deaths. Attacks on non-combat ships, like the Lusitania, presented another threat to non combatants; the British responded with an organized effort, soon copied in the US. This was formalized with the creation of the Council of National Defense on August 29, 1916. Civil defense responsibilities at the federal level were vested in this council, with subsidiary councils at the state and local levels providing additional support—a multi-level structure, to remain throughout the history of United States civil defense; as the United States had little threat of a direct attack on its shores, the organization instead "maintained anti-saboteur vigilance, encouraged men to join the armed forces, facilitated the implementation of the draft, participated in Liberty Bond drives, helped to maintain the morale of the soldiers."
This freedom to focus beyond air raid attacks gave United States civil defense a much broader scope than elsewhere. With the end of military conflict, the activities of the Council of National Defense were suspended. Thus, World War I marked the first time that organized civil defense was practised on a large scale in the United States. Although civil defense had not yet reached the scale and significance it soon would, many of the basic features were set in place. World War II, which the United States entered after the Attack on Pearl Harbor, was characterized by a greater use of civil defense. Before the attack, the Council of National Defense was reactivated by President Roosevelt and created the Division of State and Local Cooperation to further assist the Council's efforts. Thus, the civil defense of World War II began much as a continuation of that of World War I. Soon, the idea of local and state councils bearing a significant burden became viewed as untenable and more responsibility was vested at the federal level with the creation of the Office of Civilian Defense within the Office of Emergency Planning in the Executive Office of the President on May 20, 1941.
The OCD was headed by New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and was charged with promoting protective measures and elevating national morale. These organizations and others worked together to mobilize the civilian population in response to the threat; the Civil Air Patrol, created just days before the attack on Pearl Harbor, commissioned civilian pilots to patrol the coast and borders and engage in search and rescue missions as needed. The Civil Defense Corps, run by the OCD, organized 10 million volunteers who trained to fight fires, decontaminate after chemical weapon attacks, provide first aid, other duties. A Ground Observer Corps watched for enemy aircraft; these efforts did not replace the kinds of civil defense that took place during World War I. Indeed, World War II saw an greater use of rationing and anti-saboteur vigilance than was seen in World War I; as the threat of air raids or invasions in the United States seemed less during the war, the focus on the Civil Defense Corps, air raid drills, patrols of the border declined but the other efforts continued.
Unlike the end of World War I, the US did not dismiss all its civil defense efforts as soon as World War II ended. Instead, they continued after the end of the war and served as the foundation of civil defense in the Cold War; the new dimensions of nuclear war terrified the American people. The sheer power of nuclear weapons and the perceived likelihood of such an attack on the United States precipitated a greater response than had yet been required of civil defense. Civil defense, something considered an important and common-sense step became divisive and controversial in the charged atmosphere of the Cold War. In 1950, the National Security Resources Board created a 162-page document outlining a model civil defense structure for the US. Called the "Blue Book" by civil defense professionals in reference to its solid blue cover, it was the template for legislation and organization that occurred over the next 40 years. Despite a general agreement on the importance of civil defense, Congress never came close to meeting the budget requests of federal civil defense agencies.
Throughout the Cold War, civil defense was characterized by fits and start
Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects including disasters; the World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster. Thus, emergency management is crucial to avoid the disruption transforming into a disaster, harder to recover from. Emergency management should not be equated to disaster management. Emergency planning, a discipline of urban planning and design, first aims to prevent emergencies from occurring, failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies; as time goes on, more data become available through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as business continuity and security risk management, as set out below: Recognition or identification of risks Ranking or evaluation of risks Responding to significant risks Tolerating Treating Transferring Terminating Resourcing controls and planning Reaction planning Reporting and monitoring risk performance Reviewing the risk management frameworkThere are a number of guidelines and publications regarding emergency planning, published by professional organizations such as ASIS, National Fire Protection Association, the International Association of Emergency Managers.
There are few emergency management specific standards, emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards. In order to avoid or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure business continuity of critical operations after the incident, it is essential for an organization to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated. An emergency plan must be maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, to ensure it is up-to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers follow a common process to anticipate, prevent, prepare and recover from an incident. Cleanup during disaster recovery involves many occupational hazards; these hazards are exacerbated by the conditions of the local environment as a result of the natural disaster.
While individual workers should be aware of these potential hazards, employers are responsible for minimizing exposure to these hazards and protecting workers, when possible. This includes identification and thorough assessment of potential hazards, application of appropriate personal protective equipment, the distribution of other relevant information in order to enable safe performance of the work. Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for these workers ensures that the effectiveness of the disaster recovery is unaffected. Flood-associated injuries: Flooding disasters expose workers to trauma from sharp and blunt objects hidden under murky waters causing lacerations, as well as open and closed fractures; these injuries are further exacerbated with exposure to the contaminated waters, leading to increased risk for infection. When working around water, there is always the risk of drowning. In addition, the risk of hypothermia increases with prolonged exposure to water temperatures less than 75 degrees Fahrenheit.
Non-infectious skin conditions may occur including miliaria, immersion foot syndrome, contact dermatitis. Earthquake-associated injuries: The predominant injuries are related to building structural components, including falling debris with possible crush injury, trapped under rubble and electric shock. Chemicals can pose a risk to human health. After a natural disaster, certain chemicals can be more prominent in the environment; these hazardous materials can be released indirectly. Chemical hazards directly released after a natural disaster occur concurrent with the event so little to no mitigation actions can take place for mitigation. For example, airborne magnesium, chloride and ammonia can be generated by droughts. Dioxins can be produced by forest fires, silica can be emitted by forest fires. Indirect release of hazardous chemicals can be unintentionally released. An example of intentional release is insecticides used after a flood or chlorine treatment of water after a flood. Unintentional release is.
The chemical released is toxic and serves beneficial purpose when released to the environment. These chemicals can be controlled through engineering to minimize their release when a natural disaster strikes. An example of this is agrochemicals from inundated storehouses or manufacturing facilities poisoning the floodwaters or asbestos fibers released from a building collapse during a hurricane; the flowchart to the right has been adopted from research performed by Stacy Young, et al. and can be found here. Exposure limits Below are TLV-TWA, PEL, IDLH values for common chemicals workers are exposed to after a natural disaster. Direct release Magnesium Phosphorus Ammonia SilicaIntentional release Insecticides Chlorine dioxideUnintentional release Crude oil components Benzene, N-hexane, hydrogen sulfi