1956 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1956 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 3 June 1956 at Spa-Francorchamps. It was race 4 of 8 in the 1956 World Championship of Drivers. After the first day of practice on Thursday, Fangio was on pole with a time 5 sec faster than second place Moss; these times would not be touched with windy conditions on Saturday. It was raining when the race began and Fangio made a poor start and settled in fifth with Moss well in the lead, but by lap 3 Fangio would be in second having passed Behra and Castellotti. By the fifth lap he was in the lead and had opened up an 8-second lead on Moss by lap 10 with Collins third on a drying track. Collins took second, he was able to sprint back to the pits and take over Perdisa's car. He resumed in sixth but a lap down to the leaders. Collins took the lead for good when Fangio lost his transmission on lap 24. A tight battle for second between Behra and Frere ended; this allowed Moss to move to third. Moss ended the race on a furious pace but the two leaders were too far ahead to make up the gap.
Notes ^ 1 -- Includes. Last Grand Prix appearance for: Paul Frère. Career Firsts: Peter Collins. Shared Drive: Car #34: Perdisa and Moss. Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included
1956 Indianapolis 500
The 40th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Wednesday, May 30, 1956. The event was part of the 1956 USAC National Championship Trail and was race 3 of 8 in the 1956 World Championship of Drivers; the 1956 race was the first to be governed by the United States Automobile Club. AAA withdrew from auto racing the previous August. Another change would have a more immediate effect on the current race; the track had been paved over with asphalt with only about 600 yards of the main stretch still remaining brick. The 1956 race is known in Indy 500 lore as "Cagle's Miracle." Torrential rains pummeled the Speedway in the days leading up to the race. The track was full of standing water, access tunnels were flooded, the infield was a muddy quagmire; the conditions threatened to outright cancel the race. Speedway superintendent Clarence Cagle supervised a massive cleanup effort, in which hundreds of thousands of gallons of water were pumped out of the tunnels and the infield.
Cagle and his crew worked non-stop for 48 hours straight, some without sleep, had the track ready just in time for race morning. Time trials was scheduled for four days. With the new surface, a new track record was expected. Pat Flaherty did not disappoint with a pole speed of 145.596 mph, over 4.5 mph faster than the 1954 record. 29 drivers qualified opening weekend. The second weekend saw heavy rain that canceled Saturday and left only a small window on Sunday for 4 drivers to fill the field. Nino Farina was one of the drivers left out when he didn't get a chance to qualify his Bardahl-Ferrari. Saturday May 19 – Pole Day time trials Sunday May 20 – Second day time trials Saturday May 26 – Third day time trials Sunday May 27 – Fourth day time trials The early part of the race turned into a three-man duel between Russo, O'Connor, Flaherty. Russo was the first to retire when his car crashed and caught fire. At quarter distance due to yellows and the pit stops, Parsons took. By the 200-mile mark Flaherty took over the lead followed by Freeland and Parsons but Hanks was working his way through the fields after sustaining some damage in the Russo crash taking second.
Flaherty had built up such a lead that he was able to remain in front. He crossed the finish line with Hanks the only other car on the lead lap; the only real change in the top cars toward the end was both O'Connor and Jim Rathmann having to drop back with mechanical problems while both drivers were in the top 5. Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lead lap First alternate: Eddie Sachs Pole position: Pat Flaherty – 4:07.26 Fastest Lead Lap: Paul Russo – 1:02.32 Shared Drive: Car# 10: Ed Elisian 123 laps and Eddie Russo 37 laps Race winner Pat Flaherty was the last driver to win the 500 wearing a t-shirt. All subsequent winners have worn flame retardant uniforms; the race was carried live on the IMS Radio Network. Sid Collins served as chief announcer; the broadcast was carried by over 280 affiliates, as well as Armed Forces Radio. The broadcast came on-air at 10:45 a.m. local time, fifteen minutes prior to the start of the race. This was the final broadcast based out of the old wooden Pagoda, demolished after the race.
This was the final year to have only two turn reporters. Beginning in 1957, the crew would be expanded to have one reporter in each of the four turns. World Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. 1956 USAC Championship Car season Indianapolis 500 History: Race & All-Time Stats – Official Site Van Camp's Pork & Beans Presents: Great Moments From the Indy 500 – Fleetwood Sounds, 1975 1956 Indianapolis 500 at RacingReference.info
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. The company was started in 1903 as Lee Stroyer, but two years following the departure of Stroyer, it was relocated to Paynes Lane and renamed as Coventry-Simplex by H. Pelham Lee, a former Daimler employee, who saw a need for competition in the nascent piston engine market. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915. Just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914. Hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was moved to East Street, Coventry. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s they supplied engines to many companies manufacturing light cars such as Abbey, AJS, Ashton-Evans, Bayliss-Thomas, Crossley, Crouch, GWK, Morgan, Triumph and Standard.
In the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to drive electric generators, giving the company an entry into a new field; the economic problems of the 1930s hit the business hard and Leonard Pelham Lee, who had taken over from his father, diversified into the production of water-pumping equipment and the "Godiva" was born. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and build the Armstrong Whitworth supercharged H30 multifuel engine for military use; this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems. In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from automobile engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps, forklift trucks.
In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck. The ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, with a 9 ft lift height. In 1950, Harry Mundy and Walter Hassan joined Coventry Climax, a new lightweight all-aluminium overhead camshaft engine was developed in response to the government's ambitious requisition outline asking for a portable fire pump, capable of pumping double the amount of water specified in the previous outline, with half the weight; this was designated the FW, for "Feather Weight". The engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its high "horsepower per pound of weight". With strong persuasions at the show including those by Cyril Kieft and a young Colin Chapman, Lee concluded that success in competition could lead to more customers for the company and so the team designed the FWA, a Feather Weight engine for Automobiles; the first Coventry Climax racing engine appeared at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans in the front of one of two Kieft 1100 sports racers, but both cars failed to finish the race due to problems unrelated to the engines.
The FWA became popular in sportscar racing and was followed by the Mark II and by the FWB which had a capacity of nearly 1.5-litres. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1.5-litre engine and it became the engine to have in F2 racing. The following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis; these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed. Stirling Moss scored the company's first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. In general terms, the engines were not powerful enough to compete with the 2.5-litre machinery and it was not until the 2.5-litre version of the FPF arrived in 1959 that Jack Brabham was able to win the world championship in a Cooper-Climax. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite and this enjoyed considerable success in sports car racing, with a series of class wins at the Le Mans events in the early 1960s. In 1961, there was a new 1.5-litre formula and the FPF engine was given a new lease on life, although the company began work on a V8 engine, designated the FWMV, this began winning races in 1962 with Jim Clark.
There were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV. When the new, 3-litre, formula was introduced, Coventry Climax decided not to build engines for the new formula and withdrew from racing after the unsuccessful FWMW project, with the exception of the new 2-Litre version of the FWMV. In the early 1960s, Coventry Climax was approached by Rootes to mass-produce FWMAs for use in a compact family car project called Apex with an all-aluminium alloy over head cam engine combined with a full-syncromesh aluminium transaxle; this combination was considered radical at the time the syncromesh on all forward gears, declared'impossible' by Alec Issigonis of BMC Mini fame. The adoption to mass-production was successful, the project came out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. At Earls Court in 1962 Coventry Climax' chairman Leonard Pelham Lee announced the withdrawal from building Formula 1 e
1961 German Grand Prix
The 1961 German Grand Prix was the 23rd time the German Grand Prix motor race was held. The race held the honorary designation of the 21st European Grand Prix, it was run to Formula One regulations as race 6 of 8 in both the 1961 World Championship of Drivers and the 1961 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers It was held on 6 August 1961 over 15 laps of the giant 14.2 mile Nürburgring Nordschleife circuit for a race distance of 213 miles. The race celebrated the 100th race since the establishment of the World Championship in 1950; the race was won by British driver Stirling Moss, driving a Lotus 18/21 for privateer outfit the Rob Walker Racing Team. Moss lead every lap of the race, it was the first German Grand Prix victory for a rear-engined car since Bernd Rosemeyer's Auto Union Type C took victory in 1936. Moss finished just over 20 seconds ahead of Ferrari 156 drivers Wolfgang von Trips and Phil Hill, breaking a four-race consecutive run of Ferrari victories; the result pushed Moss into third place in the championship points race, becoming the only driver outside Ferrari's trio of von Trips and Richie Ginther still in contention to become the 1961 World Champion with two races left.
Jack Brabham's Cooper took full advantage of the new Coventry-Climax V-8 in qualifying. Brabham qualified second, shot to the lead by the first corner. However, Brabham crashed before the end of the first lap due to a sticking throttle, it was the last home country appearance for points leader von Trips before his death at the Italian Grand Prix five weeks later. His second-place finish saw Ferrari secure the constructors' championship; the remaining championship points. Scottish driver Jim Clark was fourth for Team Lotus. Of the race's 26 starters, 17 finished the race with 16 of them classified finishers. Bernard Collomb did not complete the 75 % race distance. Lap Leaders: Stirling Moss 15 laps. Last win, points & race finish: Stirling Moss Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
Alta Car and Engineering Company
The Alta Car and Engineering Company was a British sports and racing car manufacturer known as Alta. Their cars contested five FIA World Championship races between 1950 and 1952, as well as Grand Prix events prior to this, they supplied engines to a small number of other constructors, most notably the Connaught and HWM teams. The company was founded by engineer Geoffrey Taylor in Surbiton and produced its first automobile in 1929. Alta's first vehicle was a sports car powered by a 1.1L engine, featuring an aluminium block, wet liners, shaft-driven twin overhead camshafts, which Taylor designed himself. It was offered in aspirated or supercharged form giving 49 or 76 bhp. A choice of four speed non-synchromesh or pre-selector gearboxes was available; these were mounted on a low-slung chassis frame with open two- or four-seat bodies. Thirteen were made; this design, its 1.5L and 2L sister cars, sold but in limited numbers, right up to the outbreak of war in 1939. With the highest power option the car was capable of 0 -- 60 mph in 7 seconds.
In 1937 the company introduced front independent suspension to the chassis. They became popular among club racers due to their ability to be converted from 1.5L to 2L or vice versa, allowing drivers on a limited budget to contest more than one class without having to buy a second car. In 1934, Taylor produced the first Alta to be designed for competition; the resulting light-weight, off-set single seat voiturette cars achieved quite a reputation in shorter events such as hill-climbs and time-trials. Once again, Alta's keen pricing, in comparison to the expensive ERA models, resulted in many sales to amateur racers. However, a lack of reliability kept the Alta name out of the long distance Grand Prix events. A revised voiturette design appeared with independent front suspension. George Abecassis had some success with this design, winning a string of events before the Second World War interrupted; as war approached, Taylor was drafting designs for a new straight-8 engine and a third-generation voiturette, this time with independent suspension.
This last prewar car was advanced for its time, was nearly complete in late 1939. However, as soon as war was declared, Alta's production capabilities were given over to the war effort, production of the new designs was halted. Despite Alta's diminutive size, their status as a road car manufacturer, Alta was in fact the first British constructor to produce a new Grand Prix car following the end of World War II. Austerity limitations of raw materials did not stop Taylor beginning production of designs he had been developing throughout the war years, the Alta GP car appeared in 1948, he restarted production of the road-going sports cars, although without further development funding the popularity of these models dwindled. Prior to 1948, the last pre-war Alta was campaigned with varying degrees of success; the Alta GP car was a development of the pre-war design, but was powered by a supercharged 1.5L engine, developing 230bhp, retained the 4-speed pre-selector gearbox of the prewar cars. Taylor developed the independent suspension design further, introducing wishbones and rubber linkage bushings.
The first car was supplied to privateer driver George Abecassis, who campaigned it throughout 1948 and into 1949, but only finished once. Abecassis would go on to use Alta engines to power his HWM team from 1951 to 1955. Modifications were made to the bodywork and gearchange for the subsequent 1949 and 1950 GP2 and GP3 vehicles, GP3 gaining a two-stage supercharger. Once again they were built to order, supplied to Geoffrey Crossley and Joe Kelly respectively. Crossley could only manage seventh place. In 1950 he set a number of speed records over 50 km and 100 km at the Montlhéry circuit. Kelly concentrated on Irish races, his best finish was third in the 1952 Ulster Trophy. Both drivers took their respective chassis to the 1950 British Grand Prix, the first Formula One World Championship race. However, while Kelly finished, he was unclassified. Kelly carried out extensive modification and rebuilding work on GP3, running it as the Irish Racing Automobiles car during 1952 and 1953, his most significant change was to replace the Alta engine with a Bristol unit.
Lacking the funding necessary to develop a Formula One successor to the GP design, Taylor decided to move into the junior Formula Two category. The engine produced was a 1970 cc inline 4-cylinder aspirated unit, developing around 130 bhp. Alta's own chassis design followed the preceding GP car closely, this resulted in an overweight car considering the reduced power available from the unsupercharged motors. Tony Gaze and Gordon Watson took F2/1 and F2/2 on a tour of European races, but good results were hard to come by. Indeed, the F2 chassis was so much like the GP design that the uncompleted GP/4 machine was converted and became F2/3. F2/3 was no more successful than its siblings. F2/4 followed in construction and was sold to Orlando Simpson before Peter Whitehead placed an order for what was to become the last Alta car built: F2/5; this F2 Alta was entered for World Championship Grands Prix events, first driven by himself in the 1952 French Grand Prix, by his half-brother Graham Whitehead at the 1952 British Grand Prix.
Neither run produced a points finish, but this was not to be the last time that the Alta name appeared in Formula One. While the F2 engine
1956 Italian Grand Prix
The 1956 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 2 September 1956 at Monza. It was the final race of the 1956 World Championship of Drivers. Coming into the race, Juan Manuel Fangio had an eight-point lead over Ferrari teammate Peter Collins and Jean Behra, driving for Maserati. Fangio retired with a broken steering arm, while Behra had to pull out. Luigi Musso driving for Ferrari, was told to hand his car over to Fangio to ensure the Argentine's third consecutive title but he refused. Brit Collins, with the opportunity for his first world championship, sportingly handed his car over to Fangio during a routine pit-stop. Fangio finished second, behind Stirling Moss, giving himself and Collins a share of the points for second place and ensuring his fourth title; the race saw the World Championship debuts of Jo Bonnier, Les Leston and Wolfgang von Trips and the final World Championship appearances for Hermano da Silva Ramos, Toulo de Graffenried, Robert Manzon, Piero Taruffi and Luigi Villoresi.
Ron Flockhart scored his first World Championship points and it was the first World Championship race led by Luigi Musso. Notes^1 – Includes 1 point for fastest lap Shared Drives: Car #26: Peter Collins and Juan Manuel Fangio, they shared the 6 points for second place. Car #22: Juan Manuel Fangio and Eugenio Castellotti. Car #46: Umberto Maglioli and Jean Behra. Car #34: Luigi Villoresi and Jo Bonnier. Debut for Jo Bonnier, Les Leston and Wolfgang von Trips Only World Championship podium for a Connaught car. Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
1961 Dutch Grand Prix
The 1961 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 22 May 1961 at Zandvoort. It was race 2 of 8 in both the 1961 World Championship of Drivers and the 1961 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Taking place one week after the Monaco GP, there was not time for Innes Ireland to heal from his injury in the previous race, so he was replaced by Trevor Taylor; the front row was taken up by three Ferraris. Von Trips led every lap. Phil Hill was a solid second but was soon pressured by Jim Clark, who made a great start from the fourth row; the two would trade second place with the Ferrari quicker on the straight and the Lotus faster in the corners. This continued until about 20 laps from the end when Clark's handling allowed the Ferrari to pull away. Fourth place was a hard fought battle. Moss and Ginther, who made a terrible start, battled nose-to-tail until the end with Moss passing Ginther on the final lap; the race was historic as the first of eight races in which every car was classified as a finisher.
In fact, in this race no driver made a pit stop. First win for a German driver For decades, this was the only F1 Grand Prix to finish without any retirements, until 2005. A unique race: no pit stops and no retirements. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings