Spartina, commonly known as cordgrass or cord-grass, is a genus of plants in the grass family, frequently found in coastal salt marshes. The genus name is derived from σπαρτίνη, the Greek word for a made from Spanish broom. The highest species diversity is on the east coasts of North and South America and they form large, often dense colonies, particularly on coastal salt marshes, and grow quickly. The species vary in size from 0. 3–2 m tall, many of the species will produce hybrids if they come into contact. – smooth cordgrass - Atlantic coasts of North + South America, – common cordgrass - Great Britain, introduced scattered other places Spartina arundinacea Carmich - Tristan da Cunha, Amsterdam Island in Indian Ocean Spartina bakeri Merr. – sand cordgrass - southeastern USA Spartina × caespitosa A. A. Eaton – short cordgrass - eastern USA + Canada Spartina ciliata Brongn, - Brazil, Uruguay Spartina cynosuroides Roth – big cordgrass - eastern USA, Chihuahua, Bahamas Spartina densiflora Brongn.
– denseflower cordgrass - Venezuela, Argentina, Uruguay, – California cordgrass - California, Baja California, Baja California Sur Spartina gracilis Trin. – alkali cordgrass - western Canada, western + central USA, Jalisco, – Gulf cordgrass - Atlantic coast of North America from Florida to Argentina, incl Caribbean + Gulf of Mexico Spartina × townsendii H. Groves & J. Various members of the genus have spread outside of their native boundaries, big cordgrass is used in the construction of bulls eye targets for sports archery. A properly constructed Spartina target can stop an arrow safely without damage to the arrowhead as it lodges in the target, Spartina species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Aarons skipper and engrailed. Three of the Spartina species have become invasive plants in some countries, sand Bay - an area in the UK where Spartina grass planted to support a river bank has spread
Pacific Park Plaza
Pacific Park Plaza is a 30-story residential building located in Emeryville, California. Standing at 96.9 m tall, Pacific Park Plaza is the tallest building in Emeryville, Pacific Park Plaza was completed in 1984. The apartments are a mix of one-bed and two-beds and homeowners can join the Pacific Park Plaza Homeowners Association
The Emeryville Shellmound, in Emeryville, California, is a sacred burial site of the Ohlone people, a once-massive archaeological shell midden deposit. It was one of a complex of five or six mounds along the mouth of the perennial Temescal Creek and it was the largest of the over 425 shellmounds that surrounded San Francisco Bay. Groups of Native Americans called the Ohlone or Costanoans lived at this spot by the Bay, the Bay Area region was divided into several dialect-speaking groups, the most advanced society among them called the Chochenyans who resided in the Alameda county region. Emeryville was believed to have been their capital and its peak likely provided sweeping views of the Bay and the Golden Gate. The shells they threw aside from their catches of shellfish eventually covered some hundreds of thousands of square feet, evidence indicates that the site was a large village, occupied from at least 2800 years ago to 400 years ago. It was used by Native Americans as a resting-place for their dead, a large amusement park operated on the site from the 1870s through 1924.
The park contained a racetrack, two halls, bars, a carousel, bowling alley, and a world class shooting range where national competitions were regularly held. In the early 1900s, the racetrack was the site of demonstrations of lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air flying machines. One of the pavilions was actually located atop the shellmound. At the time, Shellmound Park was quite an attraction, and was a destination for many people from all over the San Francisco Bay Area. With the passage of prohibition in the 1920s, the number of visitors fell off dramatically, the site of the shellmound contained a large industrial plant site from 1924 through 1999, which was demolished by the City of Emeryville Redevelopment Agency in 1999. Despite protest, construction continued, and the artifacts and remains were covered once again. Photos of the leveling of the Emeryville Shellmound in 1924 certainly suggest this destruction, in fact, the disturbance of underlying soils was far less extensive and complete than might have been expected.
In 1999, during the removal of the plant, archaeologists were called to the site. The site is occupied by the Bay Street Shopping Center along with a small park in memorial to the shellmound. The site of the Shellmound is now a California Historical Landmark, beginning in the mid-to-late 19th century, fill material was deposited over and in the vicinity of the Emeryville Shellmound. The purpose of this deposition was to facilitate development of this locale. By the early-to-middle 20th century substantial heavy industry was in place principally in the form of the Judson Steel company manufacturing facility, some of the wastes included waste paints, numerous heavy metals and certain petroleum hydrocarbons
Garin Regional Park
Garin Regional Park is a regional park located in Hayward, that is part of the East Bay Regional Parks system. It shares a border with sister park Dry Creek Pioneer Regional Park. The park is the site of the former Garin Ranch, sold by Andrew J. Garin to the district in 1966, Ukraina Honcharenko, the former homestead of Ukrainian political émigré Agapius Honcharenko and a California Historical Landmark, is located in the park. The park is situated behind the California State University, East Bay campus, summits in the park reach as high as 1,500 feet. Among the maintained trails, Garin Regional Park features several fenced off abandoned trails, the park is used by the Hayward Area Athletic League as a high-school cross-country course. It is considered the course of Moreau Catholic High School. Due to the nature of the course race times are generally slower on this course than comparable distances elsewhere. The 2 and 3 mile trails that are used climb the hills at the front of the park, the entire San Francisco Bay can be viewed from the hills.
The park contains a small apple orchard with heirloom varieties. The park hosts the Garin Apple Festival in late Summer, with apples available for tasting, Ukraina was the former home, and final resting place of Agapius Honcharenko and his wife, Albina. The site, located within Garin Regional Park and dedicated on May 15,1999, is listed on the California Historical Landmarks list, Honcharenko lived on the property, totaling 40 acres, for 43 years during the 19th and 20th century. In 1902, the property emerged as a commune when a group of Ukrainian Canadians moved to the area, the commune eventually dissolved due to management disagreements. Honcharenko went on to live on, work on, and own the property until his death in 1916, the property was owned, until 1991, by the Meillke family. In 1991, the East Bay Regional Park District acquired the property and it took approximately 30 years for the property to be dedicated a historical landmark. This was primarily due to disagreements between the Russian American and Ukrainian American communities as to whom Honcharenko belonged to, eventually it was settled in the Ukrainian favor and the place was named Ukraina, by the Ukrainian American Honcharenko Committee.
Today, the property consists of the gravesite of the Honcharenkos, the foundation of a coop. The grotto consists of a cave, six feet by three feet, that was cut out of a sandstone cliff. Wall paintings exist in the grotto, Honcharenkos house stood on site until the 1950s, when it was demolished by the Meillke family due to vandalism
Redwood Regional Park
Redwood Regional Park is a park of the East Bay Regional Parks District in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is located in the hills east of Oakland, the park contains the largest remaining natural stand of coast redwood found in the East Bay. The park is part of a belt of coast redwood extending south to Leona Canyon Regional Open Space Preserve. Redwood forests are commonly found closer to the coast where the air is cool. In the Bay Area, such forests are found in the Santa Cruz Mountains, the unique geographical circumstances of the redwood forest in Redwood Regional Park create coastal conditions. Winds funneled through the Golden Gate flow directly across the Bay and are channeled into the valley in which the Montclair District of Oakland is situated. This valley is well-watered all year round and is protected from extremes of temperature, up to the middle of the 19th century, the bulk of the redwood forest lay in the Redwood Creek valley, with extensions to the surrounding ridges. In 1826 British navy captain Frederick William Beechey used the Navigation Trees, logging from 1845 to 1860 wiped out the original trees, leaving only their stumps.
A second logging occurred after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, in this instance the second growth redwoods as well as the stumps from the first generation trees were logged, the site of which is registered as California Historical Landmark #962. The redwoods contained in todays park are third-growth trees, many of which are over 100 years old. Redwood Regional Park official web page Redwood Regional full trail map
Wildcat Canyon Regional Park
Wildcat Canyon Regional Park is a 2, 429-acre East Bay Regional Parks District park located within the city limits of Richmond in Contra Costa County in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. It includes a portion of Wildcat Canyon as well as a portion of the adjoining San Pablo Ridge, the Spanish settled the general area and by 1840 had parceled the land for missions and cattle raising coming into conflict with the historical communal practices of the Native Americans. Juan Jose and Victor Castro were given rights to all vacant land in the area and they kept some valuable lands and gave much of the land over to municipal authorities for water usage. EBRPD announced on February 17,2014 that it had acquired 362 acres of woodland on the east side of Wildcat Canyon Regional Park, Wildcat has an abundance of wildlife both flora and fauna. There are Coast Live Oak, California Bay Laurel, Big leaf maple, alder, Dogwood, there are humid chaparrals made up of coyote brush, poison oak, snowberry, bracken fern, and blackberry brambles.
There are some grasses, but non-native species like rye, barley. With regards to life there are coyotes, raccoons, opossums, deer. Reptilian life includes gopher snakes, king snakes, western racers, garter snakes, rubber boas, in the skies red-tailed hawks, American kestrels, sharp shinned hawks, coopers hawks and turkey vultures fly and great horned owls and many songbirds. Wildcat Creek Trail - Runs along Wildcat Creek from the Alvarado Park staging area in Richmond into Tilden Parks Nature Area, the Wildcat Park section measures 3.5 miles to the park border and continues for 1 mile to the Tilden Nature Area parking lot. The trail is wide and does not involve major elevation changes, the trails midpoint can be accessed via Rifle Range Road Trail accessed via Rifle Range Road in El Cerrito, California. Nimitz Way - Starting at Tilden Parks Inspiration Point, Nimitz Way is a paved trail that connects to Wildcat Canyon Park after 1.5 miles. The Wildcat section is 2.51 miles long and connects to San Pablo Ridge Trail, Nimitz Way is a popular, relatively easy trail with views of the San Francisco Bay to the west and EBMUD’s San Pablo & Briones Reservoirs and Mt.
Diablo. Belgum Trail - Accessed from Wildcat Creek Trail about 0.5 miles from the Alvarado Park staging area, the trail provides excellent views of San Francisco Bay. The trail connects at its Southern terminus with Nimitz Way, alavarado Park, a National Historic Place is the northernmost portion of Wildcat Canyon. The two-mile section in Wildcat Canyon Regional Park was a Nike missile base which was decommissioned in the 1970s, today there are few signs of the missile silos and military housing that used to populate these hills. Wildcat Canyon Regional Park hosts cattle who graze the hills of the park under a program managed by the East Bay Regional Parks District. The park can be accessed via the entry points, The main entrance. The Clark Road entrance in the northernmost area of the park is accessed off of San Pablo Dam Road
Emeryville is a small city located in northwest Alameda County, California, in the United States. It is located in a corridor between the cities of Berkeley and Oakland, extending to the shore of San Francisco Bay and its proximity to San Francisco, the Bay Bridge, the University of California and Silicon Valley has been a catalyst for recent economic growth. It is home to Pixar Animation Studios, Peets Coffee & Tea, Jamba Juice, The Center for Investigative Reporting, before the colonization of the area by Spain in 1776, this area was the site of extensive Ohlone Native American settlements. During the Spanish and Mexican eras, Emeryville was the site of a wharf near the mouth of Temescal Creek adjacent to the shellmound. The cattle processed here were raised in nearby ranches and farms, the odors emanating from this district were notorious and often mentioned in local newspapers of the 19th and early 20th century. Emeryvilles first post office opened in 1884, the Town of Emeryville was incorporated December 2,1896.
It was named after Joseph Stickney Emery, who came during the Gold Rush, in 1884, Emery was president of a narrow-gauge railroad called the California and Nevada Railroad. The railroad was intended to extend from Oakland, through Emerys and east across the Sierra Nevada to the gold mining town of Bodie. From Bodie the railroad would extend east through Nevada to a connection with the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, despite its grandiose intentions, the railroad was built only from Oakland to Orinda, and its right-of-way was sold to the Santa Fe Railway. The Santa Fe constructed a yard and passenger depot below San Pablo between 41st Street and Yerba Buena Avenue. Although located in Emeryville, the depot, which opened in 1902, was called Oakland, the Key System established its main rail yard adjacent to the yard of the Santa Fe in a large tract west of San Pablo Avenue in the vicinity of Yerba Buena Avenue. The Key Systems main power plant, used to energize its streetcars, the immense smokestack was a local landmark for decades, surviving right through the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989.
It was demolished for safety reasons shortly thereafter, the old Key System mainline to the pier, and later, to the Bay Bridge, ran in a subway below Beach Street and the Southern Pacific mainline near the power plant. That subway survives and is used as a private entrance to the main sewage treatment plant of East Bay Municipal Utility District. In the late 19th century, a park was built around the shellmound. The park included two dance pavilions, one of which stood atop the shellmound, a trotting park was built nearby at the junction of the Berkeley Branch line with the mainline of the Southern Pacific. On February 22,1920 the first dog race track to employ an imitation rabbit opened in Emeryville, during the Depression, Emeryville was jammed with speakeasies and brothels and became known as a somewhat lawless center for entertainment. The popular local restaurant The Townhouse is one such trace, a location that once was a speakeasy during Prohibition, this tradition is carried on to a degree by the Oaks Room Card Club, a legal gambling establishment on San Pablo Avenue
Temescal Regional Recreational Area
Temescal Regional Park, formerly Lake Temescal Regional Park, is a regional park in the Berkeley Hills, in northeastern Oakland, California. Lake Temescal is the attraction in the park. It has trails, picnic areas, forest habitats, the park is part of the East Bay Regional Park District—EBRPD
A marine reserve is a type of marine protected area that has legal protection against fishing or development. As of 2007 less than 1% of the oceans had been set aside in marine reserves. Benefits include increases in the diversity, biomass, body size and reproductive potential of fishery, as of 2010, scientists had studied more than 150 marine reserves in at least 61 countries and monitored biological changes inside the reserves. The number of species in each study ranged from 1 to 250, in 2014, the World Parks Association adopted a target of establishing no-take zones for 30% of each habitat globally. A review of studies of 34 families of coral reef fishes demonstrates that the design of a reserve has important implications for its ability to protect habitat. Effective reserves included habitats that support the history of focal species. Movement patterns vary among and within species, and are influenced by such as size, behaviour, habitat characteristics, tide. For example, damselfishes and angelfishes travel <0. 1–0.5 km, while some sharks, larval dispersal distances tend to be <5–15 km, and self-recruitment to new habitat is common.
The review indicated that effective marine reserves are more than twice the size of the range of focal/target species. The presence of marine management outside the reserve may allow smaller reserves. Reserve size recommendations apply to the habitats of focal species. For example, coral reef species require coral reef habitats rather than open ocean or seagrass beds, Marine reserve whose boundaries are extensively fished benefit from compact shapes. Including whole ecological units can reduce exports where that is desired, minimum sustainable population sizes have not been determined for most marine populations. Instead, fisheries ecologists use the fraction of unfished stock levels as a proxy, higher fractions of habitat protection may protect areas vulnerable to disturbances such as typhoons or climate change. 20–30% protection can achieve fisheries objectives in areas with controlled fishing pressure and is the level of habitat protection recommended by IUCN-WCPA. Many fish species congregate to facilitate spawning, such congregations are spatially and temporally predictable and increase the species vulnerability to overfishing.
Species such as groupers and rabbitfishes travel long distances to congregate for days or weeks, such gatherings are their only opportunities to reproduce and are crucial to population maintenance. Species such as snappers and parrotfishes congregate in feeding or resting areas, juveniles may congregate in nursery areas without adults
California State Route 123
State Route 123 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California in the San Francisco Bay Area. Named San Pablo Avenue for virtually its entire length, SR123 is a major state highway along the flats of the urban East Bay in the U. S. state of California. Route 123 runs a relatively short 7.39 miles between Interstate 580 in the south and Interstate 80 in the north, San Pablo Avenue itself, a portion of Historic US40, continues well past these termini but without the Route 123 designation. Route 123 is a boulevard with a median strip for its entire length. Its southern terminus is at the underpass of Interstate 580 in Oakland, going north, it passes through the cities of Emeryville, Albany, El Cerrito. It briefly turns on Cutting Boulevard before entering Richmond at its terminus under Interstate 80. San Pablo Avenue is sometimes used as a route to the Eastshore Freeway when that freeway becomes very congested. Major intersections along this route include 40th Street, Ashby Avenue, University Avenue, Gilman Street, Marin Avenue, Central Avenue, continuing on San Pablo Avenue past Route 123s southern terminus eventually leads to downtown Oakland and Oakland City Hall where San Pablo Avenue ends.
Continuing on San Pablo Avenue before Route 123s northern terminus leads to the cities of San Pablo, Hercules, Rodeo, an AC Transit Rapid Bus runs along San Pablo Ave. from Downtown Oakland to Contra Costa College in San Pablo. The BART system runs its Richmond leg parallel to the route up to the El Cerrito Del Norte station, the Alvarado Adobe is located by the San Pablo City Hall on the corner of San Pablo Avenue and Church Lane. Independent of its signage as State Route 123, San Pablo Avenue is a high-traffic inter-county artery, linking cities in Alameda. In Oakland, San Pablo Avenue begins at the intersection of 14th Street and Broadway, in the centre of downtown, as a pedestrian path through Frank H. Ogawa Plaza. Shortly before 16th Street, the path becomes a road, the first building given a San Pablo Avenue address is number 1601, assigned to I. B. s Hoagies and Cheesesteaks. San Pablo Avenue continues as a major artery through the border of Oakland, after 67th Street. Given typical American style, the west side of the street is assigned odd numbers, the cities of Berkeley and Albany operate on a separate street grid from Oakland.
The lowest number in Berkeley is 1155, the lowest in Albany,398, codornices Creek marks the border between Albany and El Cerrito, the Rancho San Pablo and Rancho San Antonio, and thus and Contra Costa Counties. Numbering begins at 9800, and ends at 16550, at First Baptist Church of Pinole, State Route 123 turns left from San Pablo Avenue at Cutting Boulevard and terminates at a T-intersection with Interstate 80. San Pablo Avenue north of Cutting is still used as an artery in its own right
Interstate 580 (California)
Interstate 580 is an 80-mile east–west Interstate Highway in Northern California. The heavily traveled spur route of Interstate 80 runs from San Rafael in the San Francisco Bay Area to Interstate 5 near Tracy in the Central Valley. It provides a connection from the Bay Area to the southern San Joaquin Valley and Southern California via Interstate 5, a portion of I-580 is called the MacArthur Freeway, after General Douglas MacArthur. Other portions are named the John T. Knox Freeway, the Eastshore Freeway, the Arthur H. Breed Jr. Freeway, the William Elton Brownie Brown Freeway, daniel Sakai Memorial Highway, and the John P. Miller Memorial Highway. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System and is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, the western terminus of I-580 is roughly 10 miles north of San Francisco in the city of San Rafael, at the junction with U. S. Route 101. The interchange with US101 is incomplete, only allowing continuous travel from southbound US101 to eastbound I-580, I-580 enters the city of Richmond in Contra Costa County mid-span, continues through Richmond to join Interstate 80 in Albany at the Hoffman Split.
After joining I-80, I-580 runs directly south for several miles along the shore of San Francisco Bay in the segment known as the Eastshore Freeway. The segment between the Hoffman Split and the MacArthur Maze is a concurrency, meaning I-580 east is signed as I-80 west. From the MacArthur Maze, I-580 is known as the MacArthur Freeway, about halfway to Castro Valley from the Maze, is an interchange with the Warren Freeway. Between this interchange and Castro Valley, I-580 runs near or along the trace of the Hayward Fault, in Castro Valley, I-580 turns eastward toward Dublin Canyon before descending into Dublin and Pleasanton. After passing through Livermore, the freeway enters the Altamont Pass, I-580 provides Interstate Highway access between San Francisco and Los Angeles since I-5 runs east of the Bay Area. However, the control city listed on freeway signs along eastbound I-580 between I-80 and I-205 is instead Stockton, a vestige of when this segment used to be part of US50. Trucks over 4.5 tons are prohibited through Oakland between Grand Avenue and the San Leandro border, eastbound trucks cannot travel beyond Grand Avenue/Lakeshore Avenue, and those going westbound must get off at MacArthur Boulevard/Foothill Boulevard.
They are instead instructed to take I-238 in Castro Valley and I-880 through Oakland as an alternative route, the truck prohibition has been in effect since the freeway was built in 1963 as part of US50. Since then, the restriction was grandfathered in when the freeway was renumbered and added to the Interstate Highway System. As a result, it is the segment of Interstate Highway in California that is not part of the National Truck Network. With trucks normally rerouted onto I-880 instead of I-580 through Oakland, for decades, the trucking industry lobbied to have the ban removed, but was unsuccessful due to local opposition. In 2000, the California State Legislature passed Assembly Bill 500, the ban is temporarily lifted by the California Highway Patrol for short periods to reduce traffic congestion when major accidents occur on I-880 or I-238
Anthony Chabot Regional Park
Anthony Chabot Regional Park is a regional park in Oakland, California in the United States. It covers 5,067 acres in the San Leandro Hills adjacent to Oakland and it is part of the East Bay Regional Park District system. The terrain of the park is steep, consisting of grasslands, chaparral. The park is adjacent to Lake Chabot Regional Park, Redwood Regional Park, Dunsmuir Ridge Open Space, there are trails for hiking, horseback riding, and cycling that connect to other regional parks. Trailheads are located along Redwood Road and Skyline Boulevard in Oakland, the park houses two equestrian centers for private horse boarding and lessons, Chabot Equestrian Center and Skyline Ranch Equestrian Center. A marksmanship range was operated within the park by the non-profit Chabot Gun Club, the range closed in 2016, after operating 53 years, due to pollution problems caused by shell casings. Redwood Canyon Public Golf Course, a marina with rental boats, camping is a major activity in the park with a 75 campsite family campground and seven group camps.
Anthony Chabot Family Campground is open year-round and features 53 drive-to tent campsites,10 walk-to tent campsites, some campsites offer views overlooking Lake Chabot. The parks seven group campsites are for groups ranging in size from 11 to 300 campers, Bort Meadow Group Camp, with a capacity of 300, allows equestrian camping. Anthony Chabot Regional Park opened in 1952 as Grass Valley Regional Park, originally named for the dominant geographic feature of the part of the park. In 1965 the park was renamed in honor of Anthony Chabot, the lands that make up the park were originally ancestral land of the Jalquin, an Ohlone and Bay Miwok speaking tribe. The lands were divided by the Mexican land grants in the 1840s, the portion of the park to Rancho San Lorenzo. In the 1860s American settlers ranched the area including the 525-acre Grass Valley Ranch located in the area that is today Bort Meadow, cattle grazing continues in Grass Valley in modern times. Extensive coast redwood logging occurred in Anthony Chabot Regional Park and neighboring Redwood Regional Park from the late 1800s to early 1900s, while all the coast redwoods in Anthony Chabot Regional Park were logged, many regrowth trees are over 100 years old.
Various water companies, predecessors to the East Bay Municipal Utility District, beginning around 1910, the water companies were responsible for planting the large eucalyptus plantations that are still a dominant feature in the park. Some water company land was leased to ranchers in the 1900s, including the family of Manuel Maciel, the Maciel family, ranched the land in the area that is now the Anthony Chabot Family Campground and marksmanship range. The main access road to these facilities is named Marciel Road in the familys honor, in the area of Big Bear Staging Area along Redwood Road was the Big Bear Tavern. While no traces remain, this was the site began the traditional jazz revival