Gallatin National Forest
Founded in 1899, Gallatin National Forest is located in south central Montana, United States. The forest comprises 1,819,515 acres and has portions of both the Absaroka-Beartooth and Lee Metcalf Wilderness areas within its boundaries. Gallatin National Forest borders Yellowstone National Park on the north and northwest and is part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region which encompasses 20,000,000 acres; the forest is named after Albert Gallatin, U. S. Secretary of the Treasury and scholar of Native American languages and cultures. In descending order of land area the forest is located in parts of Park, Sweet Grass, Madison and Meagher counties. Since 2014, the Gallatin and Custer National Forests are managed together as the Custer–Gallatin National Forest with headquarters in Bozeman, Montana. There are local ranger district offices located in West Yellowstone and Gardiner in Montana for Gallatin, Ashland and Red Lodge in Montana, in Camp Crook in South Dakota for Custer. There are six separate mountain ranges within the forest including the Gallatin, Bridger, Crazy and Beartooth Ranges.
The Beartooth's are home to Granite Peak, which at 12,799 ft, is the highest point in Montana and in the forest. Quake Lake on the Madison River is the site of the 1959 earthquake and landslide which formed the lake. A separate section of the forest north of Livingston, Montana is located in the Crazy Mountains which rise over 7,000 ft above the great plains to the east; the forest includes the Absaroka -- Beartooth and the Lee Metcalf. While the lower elevations are covered in grasses and sagebrush, higher altitudes support Douglas fir, with several species of spruce and aspen being the dominant tree species. Of the 4,000 mi of streams and rivers there are major tributaries of the Yellowstone River, which bisects the western and eastern sections of the forest running through Paradise Valley; the Gallatin and Madison Rivers, major tributaries of the Missouri River are found in the forest. The habitat supports over 300 wildlife species, including the grizzly bear, bald eagle, peregrine falcon.
Many western North American species are represented in this climax ecosystem including elk, mule deer, moose, bighorn sheep, cougar, wolf packs and black bear. Various subspecies of trout are plentiful in the streams and they contribute to the forest being one of the preeminent fly fishing regions in the United States. Over 2,290 mi of hiking trails are located in the forest providing access into wilderness areas and interlinking with trails in Yellowstone National Park. There are 40 vehicle accessible campgrounds scattered throughout the forest, numerous picnic areas and cabins that can be rented for a nominal fee through the forest's district offices. West Yellowstone, Montana provides access both into the forest and to Yellowstone National Park and is a popular snowmobile center during the winter. Nighttime temperatures can be below freezing any time of the year and mosquitos in the late spring and early summer pose problems. Summertime high temperatures average in the 70s Fahrenheit and the wintertime lows can drop below −40 degrees.
Most of the precipitation falls in the form of snow with some places averaging over 33 ft annually. Access the forest off Interstate 90 south on U. S. Highway 89 from Livingston, Montana to Gardiner, Montana or south on U. S. 191 from Montana to West Yellowstone. The forest headquarters is located in Bozeman. List of Forests in Montana Custer-Gallatin National Forest - official site Gallatin County Emergency Management Gallatin National Forest FAQ, Facts and Deep Cuts
The wolf known as the grey/gray wolf or timber wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43 -- females 36 -- 38.5 kg. It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features on the ears and muzzle, its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white and brown to black occur. Mammal Species of the World, a standard reference work in zoology, recognises 38 subspecies of C. lupus. The gray wolf is the second most specialized member of the genus Canis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature, its advanced expressive behavior, it is nonetheless related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote, golden jackal, to produce fertile hybrids. It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both Eurasia and North America, originated in Eurasia during the Pleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separate occasions during the Rancholabrean.
It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. The gray wolf is an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it, it feeds on large ungulates, though it eats smaller animals, livestock and garbage. A seven-year-old wolf is considered to be old, the maximum lifespan is about 16 years; the global gray wolf population is estimated to be 300,000. The gray wolf is one of the world's best-known and most-researched animals, with more books written about it than any other wildlife species, it has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies. Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people children, but this is rare, as wolves are few, live away from people, have developed a fear of humans from hunters and shepherds.
The English'wolf' stems from the Old English wulf, itself thought to be derived from the Proto-Germanic *wulfaz. The Latin lupus is a Sabine loanword. Both derive from the Proto-Indo-European root * lukwos; the species Canis lupus was first recorded by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758, with the Latin classification translating into the English words "dog wolf". The 37 subspecies of Canis lupus are listed under the designated common name of "wolf" in Mammal Species of the World, published in 2005; the nominate subspecies is the Eurasian wolf known as the common wolf. The subspecies includes the domestic dog, eastern wolf and red wolf, but lists C. l. italicus as a synonym of C. l. lupus. However, the classification of several as either species or subspecies has been challenged; the evolution of the wolf occurred over a geologic time scale of at least 300,000 years. The gray wolf Canis lupus is a adaptable species, able to exist in a range of environments and which possesses a wide distribution across the Holarctic.
Studies of modern gray wolves have identified distinct sub-populations that live in close proximity to each other. This variation in sub-populations is linked to differences in habitat – precipitation, temperature and prey specialization – which affect cranio-dental plasticity; the archaeological and paleontological records show gray wolf continuous presence for at least the last 300,000 years. This continuous presence contrasts with genomic analyses, which suggest that all modern wolves and dogs descend from a common ancestral wolf population that existed as as 20,000 years ago; these analyses indicate a population bottleneck, followed by a rapid radiation from an ancestral population at a time during, or just after, the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the geographic origin of this radiation is not known. In 2018, whole genome sequencing was used to compare members of the genus Canis, along with the dhole and the African hunting dog. There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, gray wolves.
One African golden wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed high admixture with the Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs, highlighting the role of the land bridge between the African and Eurasian continents in canid evolution. There was evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, least with North American wolves; the study proposes that the golden jackal ancestry found in North American wolves may have occurred before the divergence of the Eurasian and North American gray wolves. The study indicates that the common ancestor of the coyote and gray wolf has genetically admixed with a ghost population of an extinct unidentified canid; the canid is genetically close to the dhole and has evolved after the divergence of the African hunting dog from the other canid species. The basal position of the coyote compared to the wolf is proposed to be due to the coyote retaining more of the mitochondrial genome of this unknown canid.
In 2013, a genetic study found that the wolf population in Europe was divided along a north-south axis and formed five major clusters. Three clusters were identified occupying southern and
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
A River Runs Through It (film)
A River Runs Through It is a 1992 American period coming-of-age drama film directed by Robert Redford and starring Craig Sheffer, Brad Pitt, Tom Skerritt, Brenda Blethyn, Emily Lloyd. It is a based on the 1976 semi-autobiographical novel A River Runs Through It by Norman Maclean, adapted for the screen by Richard Friedenberg. Set in and around Missoula, the story follows two sons of a Presbyterian minister, one studious and the other rebellious, as they grow up and come of age in the Rocky Mountain region during a span of time from World War I to the early days of the Great Depression, including part of the Prohibition era; the film won an Academy Award for Best Cinematography in 1993 and was nominated for two other Oscars, for Best Music, Original Score and Best Adapted Screenplay. The film grossed $43 million in US domestic returns; the Maclean brothers and Paul, grow up in Missoula, Montana with their father, Presbyterian minister John, from whom they learn a love of fly fishing for trout in the Blackfoot River.
They learn to cast using a ticking metronome. The boys become accomplished fishermen as a result. Norman and Paul are home taught and must adhere to the strict moral and educational code of their father; as they grow older, it becomes clear that Norman is more disciplined and studious, while Paul is fun-loving and the more talented fisherman. Norman attends a July 4th dance with his friends after returning home from six years away at Dartmouth, where he meets Jessie Burns. Paul has become a reporter at a newspaper in Helena, he has angered many of the locals by falling behind in a big poker game in Lolo Montana where a bar is a front for gambling and prostitution. He is dating an Indian woman, deemed inferior by the community. Paul is arrested after fighting a man who has insulted her, Norman is awakened in the middle of the night by a phone call from the police to come and bail Paul out of jail. After Norman and Jessie go on several dates, she asks that Norman make an effort to get along with her brother Neal, visiting from California.
Norman and Paul do not at Jessie's insistence they invite him to go fishing. Neal shows up drunk with Rawhide, a woman. Norman and Paul decide to fish anyway and return to their car hours to find that Neal and the woman have drunk all the beer and passed out naked in the sun. Norman returns a painfully sunburned Neal home, she is angry. Norman asks Jessie to drive him home, as he had brought Neal back in Neal's car, he tells her that he is falling for her, she drives away angry but a week asks Norman to come to the train station to see Neal off. After the train departs, Norman shows Jessie a letter from the University of Chicago: a job offer for an English Literature teaching position. Norman asks Jessie to marry him; when Norman tells Paul about the job offer and marriage proposal, he urges Paul to come with him and Jessie to Chicago. Paul says. Just before leaving for Chicago, Norman and their father go fly fishing one last time. Paul catches a huge rainbow trout that drags him down the river through a set of rapids before he lands it.
John proudly tells him what a wonderful fisherman he has become, how he is an artist in the craft, much to Paul's delight. They pose for pictures with the huge fish. Soon after the fishing excursion, Norman is called by the police, who tell him that Paul has been found beaten to death in an alley. Norman tells his parents the news. Years Mrs. Maclean, Norman and their two children listen to a sermon being given by John, who dies soon after; the closing scene is of the elderly Norman, once again fishing on the same river, with director Robert Redford narrating the final lines from the original novella. But when I'm alone in the half light of the canyon, all existence seems to fade to a being with my soul and memories, the sounds of the big blackfoot river, the four-count rhythm, the hope that a fish will rise. All things merge into one, the river runs through it; the river was cut by the world's great flood, runs over rocks from the basement of time. On some of the rocks are timeless raindrops. I am haunted by waters.
Although both the book and movie are set in Missoula and on the Blackfoot River, it was filmed in late June, early July 1991 in south central Montana in Livingston and Bozeman, on the nearby upper Yellowstone and Boulder Rivers. The waterfall shown is Granite Falls in Wyoming. Filming was completed in early September 1991. An article published in the Helena Independent Record in July 2000, based on recollections of people who knew both brothers, noted a number of specifics about the Macleans — notably various chronological and educational details about Paul Maclean's adult life — that differ somewhat from their portrayal in the film and novella. Mark Isham, who would go on to compose the scores to most Robert Redford-directed films, composed the musical score for the film. Elmer Bernstein was hired to score the film. However, after Redford and Bernstein disagreed over the tone of the music, Bernstein was replaced by Isham. Rushed for time, Isham completed the score within four weeks at Schnee Studio of Signet Sound Studios in Hollywood, CA.
Upon release, the music was met with positive reviews earning the film both nominations for Grammy and Academy awards. The A River Runs Through It was released on October 27, 1992. In so
The American badger is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European badger, although not related. It is found in the western and central United States, northern Mexico, south-central Canada to certain areas of southwestern British Columbia; the American badger's habitat is typified by open grasslands with available prey. The species prefers areas such as prairie regions with sandy loam soils where it can dig more for its prey; the American badger is a member of the Mustelidae, a diverse family of carnivorous mammals that includes weasels, otters and the wolverine. The American badger belongs to the Taxidiinae, one of four subfamilies of mustelid badgers – the other three being the Melinae, the Helictidinae and the Mellivorinae; the American badger's closest relative is the prehistoric Chamitataxus. Among extant mustelids, the American badger is the most basal species. Recognized subspecies include: the nominate subspecies T. t. taxus, found in central Canada and central US.
Ranges of subspecies overlap with intermediate forms occurring in the areas of overlap. In Mexico, this animal is sometimes called tlalcoyote; the Spanish word for badger is tejón, but in Mexico this word is used to describe the coati. This can lead to confusion, as both badgers are found in Mexico; the American badger has most of the general characteristics common to badgers. Measuring between 60 and 75 cm in length, males of the species are larger than females, they may attain an average weight of 6.3 to 7.2 kg for females and up to 8.6 kg for males. Northern subspecies such as T. t. jeffersonii are heavier than the southern subspecies. In the fall, when food is plentiful, adult male badgers can reach up to 11.5 to 15 kg. In some northern populations, females can average 9.5 kg. Except for the head, the American badger is covered with a grizzled, brown and white coat of coarse hair or fur, giving a mixed brown-tan appearance; the coat aids in camouflage in grassland habitat. Its triangular face shows a distinctive black and white pattern, with brown or blackish "badges" marking the cheeks and a white stripe extending from the nose to the base of the head.
In the subspecies T. t. berlandieri, the white head stripe extends the full length of the body, to the base of the tail. The American badger is a fossorial carnivore, it preys predominantly on pocket gophers, ground squirrels, marmots, prairie dogs, woodrats, kangaroo rats, deer mice, voles digging to pursue prey into their dens, sometimes plugging tunnel entrances with objects. The American badger is a significant predator of snakes including rattlesnakes, is considered the most important predator of rattlesnakes in South Dakota, they prey on ground-nesting birds, such as the bank swallow or sand martin and burrowing owl, lizards, carrion, skunks, including bees and honeycomb, some plant foods such as corn, green beans and other fungi, sunflower seeds. American badgers are nocturnal. Seasonally, a badger observed during daylight hours in the Spring months of late March to early May represents a female foraging during daylight and spending nights with her young. Badgers may become less active in winter.
A badger may spend much of the winter in cycles of torpor. They do emerge from their burrows. An abandoned badger burrow may be occupied by mammals of similar size, such as foxes and skunks, as well as animals as diverse as the burrowing owl, California Tiger Salamander and California Red-Legged Frog; the American Badger has been seen working with a coyote in tandem while hunting. This pairing is one badger to one coyote, one study found about 9% of sightings included two coyotes to one badger, while 1% had one badger to three coyotes. Researchers have found that the coyote benefits by an increased catch rate of about 33%, while it is difficult to see how the badger benefits, the badger has been noted to spend more time underground and active. Badgers are thought to expend less energy while hunting in burrows. According to research, this partnership works due to the different hunting styles of the predators and how they prey reacts to them. A ground squirrel, upon spotting a coyote, will crawl into its hole to escape.
Hunting in tandem raises the prey vulnerability and both predators win. Badgers are solitary animals, but are thought to expand their territories in the breeding season to seek out mates
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol