Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Șerban Vodă cemetery is the largest and most famous cemetery in Bucharest, Romania. It is located on a plot of land donated to the local administration by Baron Barbu Bellu, it has been in use since 1858. It has 54 acres and it is one of the most authentic cultural attractions in Bucharest. Everyday 8 30 AM - 08 PM. On public holidays the visiting hours may differ. Theodor Aman and illustrator Ana Aslan and physician George Bacovia, writer Eugen Barbu, pamphleteer, publicist, novelist and politician Ion Barbu and mathematician Carol Benesch, architect Ion Besoiu, actor Andrei Blaier and scenarist Eusebiu Camilar and translator Șerban Cantacuzino, actor Ion Luca Caragiale, novelist, theater director, political commentator and journalist Toma Caragiu, actor Jules Cazaban, actor Anda Călugăreanu and singer Constantin Cândea, chemist Liviu Ciulei, actor, scenographer and professor Henri Coandă, physicist and aviation pioneer N. D. Cocea, writer, journalist and politician Corneliu Coposu and founder of the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party George Coșbuc, literary critic and translator Hariclea Darclée, soprano Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, President of the State Council Anghel Demetriescu and writer Ovid Densusianu, linguist, literary historian and poet Ion Diaconescu and anticommunist activist Gheorghe Dinică, actor Ion Dolănescu, singer Mihai Eminescu, poet and journalist Paul Everac, playwright Eugen Filotti, diplomat and writer Mihai Fotino, actor Emil Gârleanu, director and journalist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, statistician and economist Evlogi and Hristo Georgiev Dimitrie Gusti, philosopher and esthetician Spiru Haret, mathematician and teacher Iulia Hasdeu, poet Ignacio Hidalgo de Cisneros, Spanish military aviator Emil Hossu, actor Iuliu Hossu, political prisoner and cardinal Nae Ionescu, logician and journalist Șerban Ionescu, actor Iorgu Iordan, linguist and communist politician Nicolae Iorga, literary critic, playwright, encyclopedist and Prime Minister of Romania Ștefan Octavian Iosif and translator Petre Ispirescu, folklorist, storyteller and typographer Panait Istrati, writer Nicolae Labiș, poet Constantin Lecca and drawing teacher Ștefan Luchian, painter Alexandru Macedonski, writer and publicist Titu Maiorescu, writer, founder of Junimea and Prime Minister of Romania Lia Manoliu, Olympic athlete Ioan Luchian Mihalea, composer and television host Matei Millo, actor Ion Minulescu and writer Angela Moldovan, singer Ovidiu Iuliu Moldovan, actor Tudor Mușatescu, writer and humorist Mircea Nedelciu, writer Alexandru Odobescu, writer and politician Dimitrie Paciurea, sculptor Theodor Pallady, painter Hortensia Papadat-Bengescu and novelist Anca Parghel, jazz singer and teacher Adrian Păunescu, literary critic, poet, publicist and politician Amza Pellea, actor Camil Petrescu, playwright and poet Cezar Petrescu, novelist and journalist Gică Petrescu and composer Adrian Pintea, actor Florian Pittiș, director and folk singer Marin Preda, novelist and communist deputy in the Great National Assembly Ioana Radu, singer Dem Rădulescu and professor Constantin Rădulescu-Motru, psychologist, politician and theater director Liviu Rebreanu and playwright C. A. Rosetti, politician and leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848 Mihail Sadoveanu, storyteller, novelist and politician Dan Spătaru, singer Cristina Stamate, actress Zaharia Stancu, poet, theater director and publicist Nichita Stănescu, writer, essayist Tatiana Stepa, folk singer Valeriu Sterian, musician and composer Laura Stoica, singer and actress Constantin Tănase, actor Maria Tănase, singer Ionel Teodoreanu and lawyer Mircea Trifu and epigramist Mihaela Ursuleasa, pianist Radu Vasile and Prime Minister of Romania Radu Beligan, actor Grigore Vasiliu Birlic, actor Iancu Văcărescu, poet Tudor Vianu, literary critic and historian, essayist and translator Aurel Vlaicu, engineer and aviation pioneer Alexandru Vlahuță, writer Traian Vuia and aviation pioneer A. D. Xenopol, historian, economist, teacher and writer
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
A Bomb Was Stolen
A Bomb Was Stolen is a 1961 Romanian dialogue-free spy film directed by Ion Popescu-Gopo. It was entered into the 1962 Cannes Film Festival; the international press praised this film. In the English press, A Bomb Was Stolen received the label “an exuberant comedy”, “a subtle and hilarious satire”, “a satirical fantasy”; the Soviet journalist I. Surkova, writing for Sovetkaya Kulture, considered the film “full of witty jokes.” Eugenia Balaure Haralambie Boroș Horia Căciulescu Puiu Călinescu Iurie Darie Cella Dima Florin Piersic Tudorel Popa Geo Saizescu Ovid Teodorescu Liliana Tomescu Jean Dănescu Ștefan Niculescu-Cadet Lak Popescu Draga Olteanu-Matei Ion Bondor Ion Atanasiu Atlas Emil Botta as Somerhot Nelly Sterian Dumitru Hitru Nicolae Motoc In May 1962, the film participated at the International Film Festival in Cannes, being nominated for the official Palme d'Or Award. It got several awards: Merit Diploma at the New Europe Film Festival in Edinburgh Third Prize at the International Film Festival in Thessaloniki The Special Prize of the Jury “Silver Olive” at the International Festival of the Comic and Humorous Comedy, Palazzo del Parco, Bordighera Honorary diploma at the Vienna Film Festival A Bomb Was Stolen on IMDb
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website