American Bar Association
The American Bar Association, founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, the formulation of model ethical codes related to the legal profession; the ABA has 410,000 members. Its national headquarters are in Illinois. C; the ABA was founded on August 21, 1878, in Saratoga Springs, New York, by 75 lawyers from 20 states and the District of Columbia. According to the ABA website, The legal profession as we know it today existed at that time. Lawyers were sole practitioners who trained under a system of apprenticeship. There was no national code of ethics; the purpose of the original organization, as set forth in its first constitution, was "the advancement of the science of jurisprudence, the promotion of the administration of justice and a uniformity of legislation throughout the country...."In 1918 the first women were admitted to the ABA – Judge Mary Belle Grossman of Cleveland and Mary Florence Lathrop of Denver.
The ABA did not allow African-Americans to join until 1943. This discrimination by the ABA led in 1937, of the National Lawyers Guild. Roberta Cooper Ramo was the first female President of the ABA from 1995–1996. In 2016 ABA introduced a new ethics rule prohibiting attorneys from using sexist and condescending terms; the ABA adopts "policy" on certain legislative and national issues, as voted on by its elected, 589-member House of Delegates. Its Board of Governors, with 44 members, has the authority to act for the ABA, consistent with previous action of the House of Delegates, when the House is not in session; the ABA president, elected to a one-year term, is chief executive officer of the association, while the appointed, longer-serving executive director works as chief operating officer. The conclusion of the ABA Annual Meeting, in August, is when a new president takes office, as well as when the main sessions of the House of Delegates take place; the Annual Meeting gives the general membership the opportunity to participate in educational programs and hear speakers address many issues.
In 2010, Jack L. Rives TJAG, was appointed Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer. One function of the ABA is its maintenance of a code of ethical standards for lawyers; the Model Code of Professional Responsibility and/or the newer Model Rules of Professional Conduct have been adopted in 49 states, the District of Columbia and the United States Virgin Islands. The exception is the State Bar of California. According to the ABA, it "provides law school accreditation, continuing legal education, information about the law, programs to assist lawyers and judges in their work, initiatives to improve the legal system for the public; the Mission of the American Bar Association is to be the national representative of the legal profession, serving the public and the profession by promoting justice, professional excellence and respect for the law." Since 1923, law schools which meet ABA standards are listed as "approved". ABA accreditation is important not only because it affects the recognition of the law schools involved, but it affects a graduate's ability to practice law in a particular state.
In most U. S. jurisdictions, graduation from an ABA-accredited law school is prerequisite towards being allowed to sit for that state's bar exam, for existing lawyers to be admitted to the bar of another state upon motion. States which recognize unaccredited schools within their borders will not recognize such schools from other jurisdictions for purposes of bar admission. For law students attending ABA-accredited schools, memberships are available for free. Students attending non-ABA accredited law schools are permitted to join the ABA as associate members. In June 2009, the ABA Journal reported that the ABA had been working "for months" to change its accreditation standard, where accreditation will be the result of what kind of lawyer an ABA law school produces as opposed to "input" measures such as faculty size and physical plant. In 2012 a non-profit organization called Law School Transparency called upon the ABA to provide meaningful statistics regarding the employment prospects and salary information of graduates of ABA accredited institutions.
On October 17, 2011, the ABA announced it was considering penalties, including loss of accreditation for schools that misreported their graduates employment data. Starting with the Class of 2011, ABA-accredited law schools were required to file Standard 509 Information Reports that included a host of data, ranging from LSAT scores of law students to bar passage rates of graduates. Employment information was filed separately to the Section. On December 12, 2011, despite the ongoing controversy surrounding law school accreditation standards and inability of law school graduates to service their educational debt, the ABA approved another law school. In 1995 the United States Department of Justice accused the ABA of violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act in its law school accreditation proceedings; the case was resolved with a consent decree. In 2006, the ABA acknowledged that it paid DOJ a $185,000 fine; the American Bar Association Center for Continuing Legal Education serves as the ce
Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device is authorized for wear on the medal; when the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces. Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with "V" Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a badly wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang, in 1965.
Another civilian recipient was writer Ernest Hemingway. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944; the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight— while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star; the acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph. Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater; the Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Banks & Biddle. The medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved; the star hangs from its ribbon by a rectangular metal loop with rounded corners. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch white 67101; the Bronze Star Medal with the "V" device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor. Although a service member may be cited for heroism in combat and be awarded more than one Bronze Star authorizing the "V" device, only one "V" may be worn on each suspension and service ribbon of the medal; the following ribbon devices must be authorized in the award citation in order to be worn on the Bronze Star Medal, the criteria for and wear of the devices vary between the services: Oak leaf cluster – In the Army and Air Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards.
5/16 inch star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. "V" device – In the Army, the "V" is worn to denote "participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy.". Combat "V" – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the "V" is worn to denote combat heroism or to recognize individuals who are "exposed to personal hazard during direct participation in combat operations". Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943. Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, suggested calling the proposed new award the "Ground Medal"; the idea rose through the military bureaucracy and gained supporters. General George C. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated 3
United States congressional delegations from Connecticut
These are tables of congressional delegations from Connecticut to the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. List of members of the United States House of Representatives from Connecticut, their terms in office, district boundaries, the district political ratings according to the CPVI; the delegation has five members. Tables showing membership in the Connecticut federal House delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States. Starting in 1837, Connecticut adopted districts instead. Tables showing membership in the Connecticut federal Senate delegation throughout history of statehood in the United States; as of April 2015, there are three former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of Connecticut who are living at this time, two from Class 1 and one from Class 3. List of United States congressional districts
Alexandra Anna Daddario is an American actress. She is known for playing Annabeth Chase in the Percy Jackson film series, Blake Gaines in San Andreas, Summer Quinn in Baywatch, Avery Martin in When We First Met, she has starred in the films Texas Chainsaw 3D and Hall Pass, has guest starred in television series such as White Collar, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, True Detective, New Girl, American Horror Story: Hotel. Alexandra Anna Daddario was born in New York City on March 16, 1986, the eldest child of Christina, a lawyer, Richard Daddario, a prosecutor and former head of the New York City Police Department counter-terrorism unit under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, she is of Czech, Hungarian and Italian descent. Her brother, Matthew Daddario, is an actor, she has a sister named Catharine, her paternal grandfather was Emilio Q. Daddario, a Democratic member of the U. S. House of Representatives for Connecticut from 1959 to 1971. Daddario was raised on Manhattan's Upper East Side, she attended Brearley School as well as the Professional Children's School.
Daddario said. She attended Marymount Manhattan College, she has studied the Meisner acting technique for years. Daddario made her television debut at the age of 16, when she played victimized teen Laurie Lewis in the ABC daytime soap opera All My Children, her first major role was as Annabeth Chase in the fantasy adventure film Percy Jackson & the Olympians: The Lightning Thief. She had a recurring role as Neal Caffrey's love interest Kate Moreau in the USA Network's procedural drama series White Collar. In 2011, she co-starred in Hall Pass and had a recurring role as Rachel in NBC's comedy-drama series Parenthood. In 2012, Daddario starred in the music video for Imagine Dragons' song "Radioactive", which went on to eclipse 1 billion views on YouTube, she had an episode guest stint in the FX sitcom It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia as Ruby Taft. Her first starring role after Percy Jackson was the slasher film Texas Chainsaw 3D as the lead character Heather Miller. In the latter part of 2013, Daddario reprised her role as Annabeth Chase in the film sequel Percy Jackson: Sea of Monsters.
She appeared in the romantic horror comedy Burying the Ex with Anton Yelchin and Ashley Greene. Burying the Ex was among the chosen films participating but not competing at the Venice Film Festival in 2014. On January 2013, Daddario was cast in the first season of the HBO anthology series True Detective, she appeared in a four-episode arc as Lisa Tragnetti, a court reporter having an extramarital affair with Woody Harrelson's character. The following year, she had a lead role as Blake Gaines in the disaster film San Andreas, alongside Dwayne Johnson. In 2015, Daddario made a cameo appearance in the pilot of the Fox comedy series The Last Man on Earth created by and starring Will Forte, her guest appearance on American Horror Story: Hotel, portraying a fictionalized version of designer Natacha Rambova. In 2016, she had a supporting role in the Nicholas Sparks romantic drama film The Choice, directed by Ross Katz. Daddario subsequently starred as one of the leads in the film adaptation of Baywatch, reuniting with her San Andreas co-star Dwayne Johnson.
She played Summer Quinn, portrayed by Nicole Eggert in the original television series. That same year, Daddario portrayed Kate Jeffries, alongside Kate Upton, in the road trip comedy The Layover, directed by William H. Macy. In 2018, she appeared in the music video "Wait" by Maroon 5 and starred as Avery Martin in the romantic comedy When We First Met, opposite the film's co-writer Adam DeVine. Daddario appeared as a Scuba Diver in Rampage directed by Brad Peyton, but was cut in the final film. Daddario is set to star as Constance Blackwood in We Have Always Lived in the Castle, a Stacie Passon-directed film adaptation of Shirley Jackson's mystery thriller novel of the same name. Daddario has been cast alongside Henry Cavill and Sir Ben Kingsley in the psychological thriller Nomis, is headlining the drama-thriller film Lost Girls and Love Hotels. Daddario will next be starring in and executive producing the romantic comedy Can You Keep a Secret?, based on the novel of the same name by Sophie Kinsella, as well as the film 1 Night in San Diego.
Alexandra Daddario on IMDb Alexandra Daddario at Rotten Tomatoes Alexandra Daddario at AllMovie
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
91st United States Congress
The Ninety-first United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1969, to January 3, 1971, during the first two years of the first administration of U. S. President Richard Nixon; the apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Eighteenth Census of the United States in 1960. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. January 20, 1969: Richard M. Nixon became President of the United States. December 30, 1969: Tax Reform Act of 1969, Pub. L. 91–172 December 30, 1969: Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, Pub. L. 91–173 January 1, 1970: National Environmental Policy Act, Pub. L. 91–190 April 1, 1970: Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, Pub. L. 91–222 April 3, 1970: Environmental Quality Improvement Act, Pub. L. 91–224 May 21, 1970: Airport and Airway Development Act, Pub. L. 91–258, title I August 12, 1970: Postal Reorganization Act, Pub.
L. 91–375 August 15, 1970: Economic Stabilization Act, Title II of Pub. L. 91–379, 84 Stat. 799 September 22, 1970: District of Columbia Delegate Act, Pub. L. 91–405 October 15, 1970: Organized Crime Control Act, Pub. L. 91–452 (including the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act October 15, 1970: Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1970, Pub. L. 91–453 October 26, 1970: Bank Secrecy Act, Pub. L. 91–508 October 27, 1970: Controlled Substances Act, Pub. L. 91–513 October 30, 1970: Rail Passenger Service Act, Pub. L. 91–518 December 24, 1970: Family Planning Services and Population Research Act of 1970, Pub. L. 91–572 December 24, 1970: Plant Variety Protection Act, Pub. L. 91–577 December 29, 1970: Occupational Safety and Health Act, Pub. L. 91–596 December 31, 1970: Clean Air Act Extension, Pub. L. 91–604 December 31, 1970: Housing and Urban Development Act of 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, including title VII, National Urban Policy and New Community Development Act of 1970 January 12, 1971: Foreign Military Sales Act of 1971, Pub.
L. 91–672 January 13, 1971: Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act, Pub. L. 91–695 The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. Democratic: 57 Republican: 43TOTAL members: 100 Democratic: 243 Republican: 192TOTAL members: 435 President: Hubert Humphrey, until January 20, 1969 Spiro Agnew, from January 20, 1969 President pro tempore: Richard Russell Jr. Permanent Acting President pro tempore: Lee Metcalf Majority Leader: Mike Mansfield Majority Whip: Ted Kennedy Caucus Secretary: Robert Byrd Minority Leader: Everett Dirksen, until September 7, 1969 Hugh Scott, from September 24, 1969 Minority Whip: Hugh Scott, until September 24, 1969 Robert P. Griffin, from September 24, 1969 Republican Conference Chairman: Margaret Chase Smith Republican Conference Secretary: Milton Young National Senatorial Committee Chair: John Tower Policy Committee Chairman: Gordon L. Allott Speaker: John W. McCormack Majority Leader: Carl Albert Majority Whip: Hale Boggs Democratic Caucus Chairman: Dan Rostenkowski Caucus Secretary: Leonor Sullivan Democratic Campaign Committee Chairman: Michael A. Feighan Minority Leader: Gerald Ford Minority Whip: Leslie C.
Arends Conference Chair: John B. Anderson Policy Committee Chairman: John Jacob Rhodes House Democratic Caucus Senate Democratic Caucus This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Members of the House are listed by district. Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1970; some members of the House of Representatives were elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, others were elected from districts, as listed here as the districts existed at this time. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress replacements: 3 Democratic: 2 seat net gain Republican: 2 seat net loss deaths: 1 resignations: 2 Total seats with changes: 3 replacements: 14 Democratic: 2 seat net gain Republican: 2 seat net loss deaths: 10 resignations: 8 Total seats with changes: 18 Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link, in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
Aeronautical and Space Sciences Agriculture and Forestry Appropriations Banking and Currency Commerce District of Columbia Equal Educational Opportunity Finance Foreign Relations Government Operations Interior and Insular Affairs Judiciary Labor and Public Welfare Nutrition and Human Needs Post Office and Civil Service Public Works S
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal