Magan was an ancient region, referred to in Sumerian cuneiform texts of around 2300 BC and existed to 550 BC as a source of copper and diorite for Mesopotamia. The location of Magan is not known with certainty, but most of the archaeological geological evidence suggests that Magan was part of what is now the United Arab Emirates and Oman. However, some archaeologists place it elsewhere, such as in the region of Yemen known as Ma'in, in the south of Upper Egypt, in Nubia or the Sudan, others as part of today's Iran and Pakistan; the latter location in the neighborhood of coastal Baluchistan, has been suggested on account of the similarity between Baluchistan's historical name, "Makran", "Makkan", a variant of Magan. The first Sumerian mentions of a land of Magan are made during the Umm al-Nar period, as well as references to'the Lords of Magan'. Sumerian sources point to'Tilmun' and Meluhha. Akkadian campaigns against Magan took place in the twenty-third century, again explaining the need for fortifications, both Manishtusu and Naramsin and Manishtusu, in particular, wrote of campaigning against'32 lords of Magan'.
Naramsin gave the Akkadian title Malek to the defeated Ruler of Magan, a title which survives in the Arabic for king, malek. Magan was famed for its maritime capabilities. King Sargon of Agade boasted that his ports were home to boats from Tilmun and Meluhha, his successor, Naram-Sin, not only conquered Magan, but honoured the Magan King Manium by naming the city of Manium-Ki in Mesopotamia after him. Trade between the Indus Valley and Sumer took place through Magan, although that trade appears to have been interrupted, as Ur-Nammu laid claim to having'brought back the ships of Magan'. Archaeological finds dating from this time show trade not only with the Indus Valley and Sumer, but with Iran and Bactria, they have revealed what is thought to be the oldest case on record of poliomyelitis, with the distinctive signs of the disease found in the skeleton of a woman from Tell Abraq, in modern Umm Al Quwain. Trade was common between Ur before the reigns of the Gutian kings over Ur. After they were deposed, Ur-Nammu of Ur restored the roads and trade resumed between the two nations.
Dilmun Archaeology of Oman List of Ancient Settlements in the UAE Al Sufouh Archaeological Site
Ras Al Khaimah
Ras Al Khaimah, to an extent identified with the historical area of Julfar, is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates. The city of Ras Al Khaimah, sometimes abbreviated to RAK City, is the capital of the Emirate, home to most of the Emirate's residents, its name in English means "headland of the tent". The emirate borders Oman's exclave of Musandam, occupies part of the same peninsula, it has 64 km of beach coastline. As of 2015, the emirate had a population of about 345,000. RAK city has two main areas - the Old Town and Nakheel - on either side of a creek, home to mangroves and is framed by the North-Western Hajar Mountains; the emirate consists of several villages and new gated residential developments, such as Al-Hamra Village and Mina Al-Arab. The emirate is served by Ras Al Khaimah International Airport, its geography consists of a northern part and a large southerly inland exclave, a few small islands in the Persian Gulf. Ras Al Khaimah has the most fertile soil in the country, due to a larger share of rainfall and underground water streams from the Hajar.
Ras Al Khaimah has been the site of continuous human habitation for 7,000 years, one of the few places in the country and the world where this is the case, there are many historical and archaeological sites throughout the emirate - local sources cite 1,000 - dating from different time periods, including remnants of the Umm Al Nar Culture. The area of Shimal contains both Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq burials and a number of notable finds, including one grave that contained no fewer than 18 fine bronze arrowheads. Wadi Suq era graves found at Seih Al Harf in the Emirate in October 2012 held up the construction of the northern spur of the arterial E611 road. Ras Al Khaimah is considered to be the historical area of Julfar, according to Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, current ruler of Sharjah Emirate, it was founded by Armenians who escaped Persia during the Mongol invasion. Archaeological evidence has however demonstrated that the settlement known as Julfar shifted location over time as harbour channels silted up.
Excavations of a sizable tell, which revealed remnants of a Sassanid era fortification, indicate that early Julfar was located in the north of the present city of Ras Al Khaimah, not far from other sites of historical and archaeological interest such as'Sheba's Palace'. Hafit abounds in palm trees. Dibba and Julfar, both in the direction of the Hajar, are close to the sea... Like Dibba and the region of Tawam, this region witnessed events relevant to the history of Islam during the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. One of Ras Al Khaimah's most well-known sons, Ibn Majid, was a seaman and navigator, who navigated Vasco da Gama from Malindi to Calicut in 1498. There is considerable debate locally regarding the 18th-century charge of maritime piracy, attracting the British label'The Pirate Coast' to the Eastern Gulf. Local interpretations of the dispute with the British were that the British became aggressive in protecting their trade but this resulted in interference in locals' livelihoods, so they took exception to it.
However, in the early 18th century, the Al Qasimi dynasty established itself in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah on the Arabian Peninsula, growing to become a significant maritime force with holdings on both the Persian and Arabian coasts that came into conflict with British flagged shipping. It was the Al Qasimi links to Persia that drew them to the attention of Ahmed bin Said, the Ruler of Muscat, who had wrested control of the coast and interior of Oman back from the Persian forces who had taken it under Nadir Shah and Mirza Taki Khan, the governor of Shiraz. Ahmed bin Said threw 12,000 men under the command of Kandhala bin Saif Al Suwaidi in an attack on Ras Al Khaimah, met at Buraimi by 14,000 men of the Al Qasimi and Na'im, they were defeated, to surrender. He went on to take Khasab and blockaded Ras Al Khaimah, Jazirat Al Hamra and Sharjah; this led to all but Ras Al Khaimah suing for peace in 1763. The Sheikhs of Ras Al Khaimah submitted in 1771, but in 1775 revolted and re-took the towns on the West and East coast, consolidating their gains under the weak rule of Sultan bin Ahmed bin Saeed.
This longstanding war between the Al Qasimi and Muscat pitted them against Muscat's ally – Britain. In the aftermath of a series of attacks in 1808 off the coast Sindh involving 50 Qasimi raiders and following the 1809 monsoon season, the British authorities in India decided to make a significant show of force against the Al Qasimi, in an effort not only to destroy their larger bases and as many ships as could be found, but to counteract French encouragement of them from their embassies in Persia and Oman; the British mounted the Persian Gulf campaign of 1809, in which the Al Qasimi fleet was destroyed. The British operation continued to Linga on the Persian coast which was, like the Greater and Lesser Tunbs islands, administered by the Al Qasimi. By the morning of 14 November, the military expedition was over and the British forces returned to their ships, having suffered light casualties of five killed and 34 wounded. Arab losses are unknown, but were significant, while the damage done to the Al Qasimi fleets was severe: a significant portion of their vessels had been destroyed.
With the 1809 camp
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
An emirate is a political territory, ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch-styled emir. The term may refer to a kingdom. Etymologically emirate or amirate is the quality, office or territorial competence of any emir. In English, the term is pronounced or in American English; the United Arab Emirates is a federal state that comprises seven federal emirates, each administered by a hereditary emir, these seven forming the electoral college for the federation's President and Prime Minister. As most emirates have either disappeared, been integrated in a larger modern state or changed their rulers' styles, e.g. to malik or sultan, such true emirate-states have become rare. Furthermore, in Arabic the term can be generalized to mean any province of a country, administered by a member of the ruling class of a member of the royal family, as in Saudi Arabian governorates. A list of present independent Emirates. Kuwait, emirate since 1757 Qatar, emirate since 1878 United Arab Emirates, united since 1971- Emirate of Abu Dhabi Emirate of Ajman Emirate of Dubai Emirate of Fujairah Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah Emirate of Sharjah Emirate of Umm al-Quwain A list of emirates that have either ceased to exist, are not recognized and hold no real power, or were integrated into another country and preserved as "traditional states" arranged by location and in order of the date of the first leader styled "emir."
Emirate of Córdoba, modern Spain and Portugal 756-929 Emirate of Badajoz, modern Portugal and western Spain 1009-1151 Emirate of Almería, region of Almería and Cartagena in modern Spain off and on 1013-1091 Emirate of Jerez, towns of Jerez de la Frontera and Arcos de la Frontera in modern southern Spain 1145-1147 Emirate of Granada, modern southeast Spain 1228-1492 Emirate of Crete, modern Greece, 824 or 827/828 to 961 Emirate of Bari, city of Bari in southern Italy 847-871 Emirate of Malta, 870-1091 Emirate of Sicily, Sicily 965-1072 Emirate of Darband, Azerbaijan 869 — 1075 The Emirate of Armenia, Caucasus 637-884 Emirate of Tbilisi, modern Georgia 736-1080, nominally to 1122 North Caucasian Emirate and Dagestan in the Caucasus 1919-1920 Caucasian Emirate, Caucasus 2007- Emirate of Mosul, modern Iraq 905-1096, 1127-1222, 1254-1383, 1758-1918 Emirate of Melitene, modern central Turkey mid-ninth century to 934 Emirate of Amida, modern Eastern Turkey 983-1085 Karaman Emirate, south-central Anatolia 1250-1487 Ottoman Empire, Middle East, considered an emirate off and on before the title of sultan was adopted, 1299-1383 Emirate of Aydin, state composed of Oghuz Turks in modern Turkey from the early 14th century to 1390 Emirate of Dulkadir, modern Eastern Turkey 1337-1522 Emirate of Ramazan, modern Eastern Turkey 1352-1608 Timurid Emirates, Timur's empire and the minor emirates left behind after the fall of the Timurid dynasty in the Middle East, 1526-c.1550 Soran Emirate, modern northern Iraq 1816–35 Az Zubayr, town in Basra Governorate, Iraq during 19th century Emirate of Transjordan, modern Jordan 1921–46 Uyunid Emirate, the modern Arabian Peninsula 1076–1253 Emirate of Beihan, modern southern Yemen 1680-1967 Emirate of Diriyah in modern Saudi Arabia and UAE 1744-1818 Emirate of Nejd, eastern Arabia 1818–91 Emirate of Dhala, modern southern Yemen early 19th century to 1967 Emirate of Jabal Shammar, northcentral Arabia 1836-1921 Emirate of Nejd and Hasa, central Arabia 1902–21 Idrisid Emirate of Asir, Jizan in modern southwestern Saudi Arabia 1906–34 Emirate of Mecca, Hejaz of modern Saudi Arabia 1916–24 Emirate of Bahrain, 1971–2002 The Al-Qaeda Emirate in Yemen in the interior of Yemen affiliated with Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula Emirates of Saudi Arabia, the thirteen provinces of Saudi Arabia Emirate of Bukhara, modern Uzbekistan 1785–1920 Emirate of Afghanistan, Afghanistan 1823–1929 Khotan Emirate, 1933 northwest China, merged into First East Turkestan Republic Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Taliban state in Afghanistan 1996–2001 Islamic Emirate of Waziristan, western Pakistan 2004–2014 Emirate of Nekor, Rif region of modern Morocco 710-1019 Emirate of Ifriqiya, Aghlabid Ifriqiya within modern Tunisia, Sicily and Libya 800-909 Emirate of Tunis, Hafsid Ifriqiya within modern Tunisia and Libya 1229-1574 Zab Emirate, modern Algeria circa 1400 Emirate of Trarza, modern southwest Mauritania 1640s-1910s Emirate of Harar, modern Ethiopia 1647-1887 Emirate of Cyrenaica, modern eastern Libya 1949-1951 Fika Emirate, northeastern Nigeria 15th century - Gwandu Emirate, northwestern Nigeria 15th century to 2005 Kebbi Emirate, northwestern Nigeria 1516- Borgu Emirate, westcentral Nigeria, formed from Bussa Emirate 1730–1954 and Kaiama Emirate 1912–54, unified 1954- Gumel Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1749- Yauri Emirate, northwestern Nigeria 1799- Gombe Emirate, northeast Nigeria 1804- Kano Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1805- Bauchi Emirate, northeast Nigeria 1805- Daura Emirate, northcentral Nigeria off and on 1805- Katagum Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1807- Zaria Emirate, northcentral Nigeria 1808- Potiskum Emirate, northeastern Nigeria 1809- Adamawa Emirate, eastern Nigeria and into western Cameroon 1809- (integrated where prese
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Fujairah is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates, the only one of the seven that has a coastline on the Gulf of Oman and none on the Persian Gulf. The capital is Fujairah City. Fujairah, dominated by the Sharqiyin tribe, sits at the mouth of the important trade route, the Wadi Ham, through the mountains to the interior and the Persian Gulf Coast. Known as the Shamaliyah, the east coast of what is now the UAE was subject to Muscat until 1850, when it was annexed by Al Qasimi of Sharjah, in an agreement made between Sheikh Sultan bin Saqr Al Qasimi and the Sultan of Muscat; the Shamaliyah was governed by Al-Qasimi Wali at Kalba although seceded and in 1901 Sheikh Hamad bin Abdullah Al Sharqi, chief of the Sharqiyin, declared independence from Sharjah. This was recognised by a number of the Trucial Sheikhs and by Muscat, but not the British, who were provoked by the independently minded ruler. At this time, Fujairah consisted of some 150 houses and 3,000 date palms and its people lived through pearling and date cultivation.
Since the absorption of Kalba by Sharjah in 1952, the Shamaliyah is shared by the emirates of Fujairah and Sharjah. In 1952, Fujairah entered into treaty relations with Britain, becoming the last of the emirates to join the Trucial States. Having withheld this recognition for over fifty years, the British government only granted it because the oil exploration company Petroleum Concessions Limited needed to sign a concession with a recognised ruler. On 2 December 1971, Fujairah joined the United Arab Emirates. Archaeological finds in the emirate of Fujairah point to a history of human occupation and trading links stretching back at least 4,000 years, with Wadi Suq burials located at Bithnah and the Qidfa' Oasis. A third millennium BCE tower was used to construct the Portuguese fort at Bidiyah, identified with the Portuguese'Libedia', a fortress recorded in de Resende's 1646 map - the fortress itself has been carbon dated to 1450-1670. Fujairah is rich in late Islamic fortresses, as well as being home to the oldest mosque in use in the United Arab Emirates, Al Badiyah Mosque, built in 1446 of mud and bricks.
It is similar to other mosques found in Yemen, eastern Oman, Qatar. Al Bidyah Mosque lacks a minaret; the emirate of Fujairah covers 1,166 km2, or about 1.5% of the area of the UAE, is the fifth-largest emirate in the UAE. Its population is around 225,360 inhabitants; the weather is seasonal. The months of December to March are the coolest, with daytime temperatures averaging around 25 °C and venturing above 30 °C —with temperatures climbing to over 40 °C degrees in the summer; the winter period coincides with the rainy season and although by no means guaranteed, this is when Fujairah experiences the bulk of its precipitation. Rainfall is higher than the rest of the UAE because of the effect of the mountains that encircle the Emirate, because the prevailing winds are easterly bringing with them water-laden clouds off the warm Indian Ocean; the variability of the east coast climate is due to the presence of the Hajar mountain range. As with other mountainous areas, precipitation is higher, this allows for a more varied micro-environment in the area.
Tourist visitor numbers peak just before the school summer months. Fujairah had a population of 125,698 at the last census, held in 2005; the latest estimate of population is 152,000. Power is held by the ruler of Fujairah, His Highness Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi, in power since the death of his father in 1975; the Sheikh makes money himself through his own business, the government funds are used for social housing development and beautifying the city, although there is little distinction between the state and his personal wealth. The ruler can make any decisions regarding any aspect of law; the Sheikh and his immediate family heads the cabinet of Fujairah, a few members of respected local families make up the advisory committees. The Sheikh must ratify any decisions by the cabinet. After the ratification, such decisions may be enacted into law as Emiri decrees, which are effective immediately. 1879–1936: Hamad bin Abdullah Al Sharqi 1936–1938: Saif bin Hamad Al Sharqi 1938–1975: Mohammed bin Hamad Al Sharqi 1975–present: Hamad bin Mohammed Al Sharqi Fujairah's economy is based on subsidies and federal government grants distributed by the government of Abu Dhabi.
Local industries consist of stone crushing and mining. A resurgence in the construction activity helped the local industry. There is a flourishing free trade zone, mimicking the success of the Dubai Free Zone Authority, established around Jebel Ali Port; the federal government employs the majority of the native, local workforce, with few opening businesses of their own. Many of the locals work in the service sector; the Fujairah government prohibits foreigners from owning more than 49% of any business. The free zones have flourished due to the relaxation of such prohibition within the zones, as full foreign ownership is allowed there. Shaikh Saleh Al Sharqi, younger brother to the ruler, is recognized as the driving force behind the commercialization of the economy. Fujairah is a minor bunkering port with large scale shipping operations taking place every day. Shipping and ship related services are thriving
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph