Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California. It is named after philosopher George Berkeley, it borders the cities of Oakland and Emeryville to the south and the city of Albany and the unincorporated community of Kensington to the north. Its eastern border with Contra Costa County follows the ridge of the Berkeley Hills; the 2010 census recorded a population of 112,580. Berkeley is home to the oldest campus in the University of California system, the University of California and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, managed and operated by the University, it has the Graduate Theological Union, one of the largest religious studies institutions in the world. Berkeley is considered one of the most liberal cities in the United States; the site of today's City of Berkeley was the territory of the Chochenyo/Huchiun band of the Ohlone people when the first Europeans arrived. Evidence of their existence in the area include pits in rock formations, which they used to grind acorns, a shellmound, now leveled and covered up, along the shoreline of San Francisco Bay at the mouth of Strawberry Creek.
Other artifacts were discovered in the 1950s in the downtown area during remodeling of a commercial building, near the upper course of the creek. The first people of European descent arrived with the De Anza Expedition in 1776. Today, this is noted by signage on Interstate 80, which runs along the San Francisco Bay shoreline of Berkeley; the De Anza Expedition led to establishment of the Spanish Presidio of San Francisco at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. Luis Peralta was among the soldiers at the Presidio. For his services to the King of Spain, he was granted a vast stretch of land on the east shore of San Francisco Bay for a ranch, including that portion that now comprises the City of Berkeley. Luis Peralta named his holding "Rancho San Antonio"; the primary activity of the ranch was raising cattle for meat and hides, but hunting and farming were pursued. Peralta gave portions of the ranch to each of his four sons. What is now Berkeley lies in the portion that went to Peralta's son Domingo, with a little in the portion that went to another son, Vicente.
No artifact survives of the Domingo or Vicente ranches, but their names survive in Berkeley street names. However, legal title to all land in the City of Berkeley remains based on the original Peralta land grant; the Peraltas' Rancho San Antonio continued after Alta California passed from Spanish to Mexican sovereignty after the Mexican War of Independence. However, the advent of U. S. sovereignty after the Mexican–American War, the Gold Rush, saw the Peraltas' lands encroached on by squatters and diminished by dubious legal proceedings. The lands of the brothers Domingo and Vicente were reduced to reservations close to their respective ranch homes; the rest of the land was parceled out to various American claimants. Politically, the area that became Berkeley was part of a vast Contra Costa County. On March 25, 1853, Alameda County was created from a division of Contra Costa County, as well as from a small portion of Santa Clara County; the area that became Berkeley was the northern part of the "Oakland Township" subdivision of Alameda County.
During this period, "Berkeley" was a mix of open land and ranches, with a small, though busy, wharf by the bay. In 1866, Oakland's private College of California looked for a new site, it settled on a location north of Oakland along the foot of the Contra Costa Range astride Strawberry Creek, at an elevation about 500 feet above the bay, commanding a view of the Bay Area and the Pacific Ocean through the Golden Gate. According to the Centennial Record of the University of California, "In 1866…at Founders' Rock, a group of College of California men watched two ships standing out to sea through the Golden Gate. One of them, Frederick Billings, thought of the lines of the Anglo-Irish Anglican Bishop George Berkeley,'westward the course of empire takes its way,' and suggested that the town and college site be named for the eighteenth-century Anglo-Irish philosopher." The philosopher's name is pronounced BARK-lee, but the city's name, to accommodate American English, is pronounced BERK-lee. The College of California's College Homestead Association planned to raise funds for the new campus by selling off adjacent parcels of land.
To this end, they laid out a plat and street grid that became the basis of Berkeley's modern street plan. Their plans fell far short of their desires, they began a collaboration with the State of California that culminated in 1868 with the creation of the public University of California; as construction began on the new site, more residences were constructed in the vicinity of the new campus. At the same time, a settlement of residences and various industries grew around the wharf area called "Ocean View". A horsecar ran from Temescal in Oakland to the university campus along; the first post office opened in 1872. By the 1870s, the Transcontinental Railroad reached its terminus in Oakland. In 1876, a branch line of the Central Pacific Railroad, the Berkeley Branch Railroad, was laid from a junction with the mainline called Shellmound into what is now downtown Berkeley; that same year, the mainline of the transcontinental railroad into Oakland was re-routed, putting the right-of-way along the bay shore through Ocean View.
There was a strong prohibition movement in Berkel
Michael David Watt is an American bassist and songwriter. He is best known for co-founding and playing bass guitar for the rock bands Minutemen and Firehose, he is the frontman for the supergroup Big Walnuts Yonder, a member of the art rock group Banyan and involved with several other musical projects. From 2003 until 2013, he was the bass guitarist for The Stooges. CMJ New Music called Watt a "seminal post-punk bass player." Readers of NME voted Mike Watt one of the "40 Greatest Bassists Of All Time" and LA Weekly awarded him the number six spot in "The 20 Best Bassists of All Time."In November 2008, Watt received the Bass Player Magazine lifetime achievement award, presented by Flea. Watt was born in Virginia; when he was young, Watt's family moved to San Pedro, where he became good friends with D. Boon. Watt and Boon picked up guitar, respectively. Watt was a fan of T. Rex and Blue Öyster Cult, while Boon's exposure to rock music was limited to Creedence Clearwater Revival, another Watt favorite.
In 1978, Watt and Boon formed a band called The Reactionaries with drummer George Hurley and vocalist Martin Tamburovich. The band became Minutemen with another drummer named Frank Tonche, who only lasted two shows with the group. After signing with SST Records in 1980, Minutemen began touring releasing a number of albums along the way, their music was based on the speed and intensity of punk, but included elements of jazz and funk. Born with Osgood–Schlatter disease, Watt had surgeries on both knees in the early 1980s which limited touring in 1981. Watt wrote all of the music for What Makes a Man Start Fires? as he was laid up after one of his knee surgeries, living with his mother at the time and needed to keep himself occupied. In 1984, Watt met Black Flag bassist Kira Roessler during a Black Flag/Minutemen tour, they soon became romantically involved, subsequently began collaborating on songs, including material on Minutemen's final album 3-Way Tie. They formed a two-bass duo and have since recorded and released three records.
Minutemen ended tragically on December 22, 1985, when Boon was killed in an automobile crash while driving to Arizona with his girlfriend. Their fifth full-length album, 3-Way Tie had been scheduled for release at the time of the accident. In the documentary film We Jam Econo, Watt mentioned that the last time he saw Boon, he had received lyrics for 10 songs from critic and songwriter Richard Meltzer for a planned collaboration with Minutemen. Minutemen were planning to record a triple album with the working title 3 Dudes, 6 Sides, 3 Studio, 3 Live as way to counteract bootleggers. After Boon's death, Watt was profoundly depressed. Sonic Youth invited Watt to hang out with them in New York City in 1986. Watt cites this period as critical in inspiring his post-Minutemen career saying, "The first thing I did was Thurston asked me to play bass on Evol; that was man. Like,'What, you want me to play without D. Boon?'"Subsequently, Ed Crawford, a Minutemen fan who drove to San Pedro from Ohio, persuaded the Watt/Hurley rhythm section to continue playing music.
Firehose was formed soon after. Following three releases on SST, Firehose was signed to Columbia Records by A&R man Jim Dunbar. Shortly after the release of 1993's Mr. Machinery Operator, the band decided to call. Watt and Kira married in 1987. However, both their friendship and Dos have remained intact. After working with Firehose, Watt began a solo career, his first album, Ball-Hog or Tugboat?, featured appearances from dozens of musicians, including Henry Rollins, Eddie Vedder, J Mascis, Carla Bozulich, Evan Dando, members of Sonic Youth, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Frank Black, Soul Asylum, Jane's Addiction, the Beastie Boys and the Screaming Trees. The album and its supporting tour were Watt's first taste of mainstream fame, when Vedder and Dave Grohl of Nirvana were part of his touring group. After Vedder returned to his Pearl Jam commitments and Grohl began working with his new band Foo Fighters, Watt formed his only four-piece touring group to date, The Crew Of The Flying Saucer, featuring guitarist Nels Cline and two drummers.
In 1996, Watt contributed bass lines to two songs on Porno for Good God's Urge. He subsequently ended up being the bassist for the tour, he made an appearance in an episode of Cartoon Network's Space Ghost Coast to Coast. In 1997, Watt released Contemplating the Engine Room, a punk rock song cycle using naval life as an extended metaphor for both Watt's family history and the Minutemen; the album, critically well received, features the trio of musicians Nels Cline on guitar, Stephen Hodges on drums, Watt as the only singer. Watt went on to play in such groups as Banyan and Hellride, a sometime live outfit that plays cover versions of Stooges songs, he played in The Wylde Ratttz with Sonic Youth's Thurston Moore and The Stooges' Ron Asheton, recording a song for the film Velvet Goldmine. Watt recorded a bass line to send to the Pennsylvania space-folk
Field recording is the term used for an audio recording produced outside a recording studio, the term applies to recordings of both natural and human-produced sounds. Field recording of natural sounds called phonography, was developed as a documentary adjunct to research work in the field, foley work for film. With the introduction of high-quality, portable recording equipment, it has subsequently become an evocative artform in itself. In the 1970s, both processed and natural phonographic recordings, became popular. "Field recordings" may refer to simple monaural or stereo recordings taken of musicians in familiar and casual surroundings, such as the ethnomusicology recordings pioneered by John Lomax, Nonesuch Records, Vanguard Records. Field recording involves the capture of ambient noises that are low level and complex, and, in response, the requirements from the field recordist have pushed the technical limits of recording equipment, that is, demanding low noise and extended frequency response in a portable, battery-powered unit.
For this reason, field recordists have favoured high-quality recorders and microphone pre-amplifiers. The history of the equipment used in this area tracks the development of professional portable audio recording technology. Field recording is recorded in the same channel format as the desired result, for instance, stereo recording equipment will yield a stereo product. In contrast, a multitrack remote recording captures many microphones on multiple channels to be creatively modified and mixed down to a specific consumer format. Field recording experienced a rapid increase in popularity during the early 1960s, with the introduction of high-quality, portable recording equipment; the arrival of the DAT in the 1980s introduced a new level of audio recording fidelity with extended frequency response and low self-noise. In addition to these technologies, other popular means for field recording have included the analog cassette, the DCC, the MiniDisc; the latest generation of recorders are digital-based.
It is possible to use personal electronic devices, with software, to do field recording and editing. Newly developed techniques include the creative placement of microphones, the diffusion of captured sounds, individual approaches. Field recording was a way to document oral presentations, ethnomusicology projects. Field recording is an important tool in bioacoustics and biomusicology, most in research on bird song. Animals in the wild can display different vocalizations from those in captivity; the use of field recordings in avant-garde, musique concrète, and, more Ambient music was evident from the birth of recording technology. Most noteworthy for pioneering the conceptual and theoretical framework with art music that most embraced the use of raw sound material and field recordings was Pierre Schaeffer, developing musique concrète as early as 1940. Further impetus was provided by the World Soundscape Project, initiated by Canadian composer R. Murray Schafer in the 1970s. Field recordings are now a common source material for a range of musical results, from contemporary musique concrète compositions to film soundtracks, video game soundtracks, effects.
Chris Watson of Cabaret Voltaire, is now the world's leading exponent of this art, with his recordings used for David Attenborough's series for the BBC, programmes for BBC Radio, many other outlets. Another notable application of field recordings as of contemporary music is its inclusion in some vaporwave tracks recordings of public areas such as malls or grocery stores to add atmosphere; the sounds recorded by any device, transferred to digital format, are used by some musicians through their performance with MIDI-interfaced instruments. A contemporary artist with great success for his compositions is Christian Fennesz. In addition, electronic musicians, such as DJ Throwing Shade, have been using field recordings to create music that has "someone playing an instrument in real life, something which cannot be re-created in the same way through synthesised sounds". Earlier innovators who are noted for the importance and boldness of their projects are Luigi Russolo, who, in 1913, with his manifesto, L'arte dei rumori, gave musical value to environmental noise.
He designed and built the Intonarumori—the first instruments for making noise. Francesco Balilla Pratella utilized the Intonarumori in his opera, L'aviatore Dro, written in close collaboration with Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Radio documentaries use recordings from the field, e.g. a locomotive engine running, for evocative effect. This type of sound functions as the non-fictional counterpart to the sound effect. During the early years of commercial recordings, the speeches of politicians sold well, since few people had radios; the HMV catalogue for 1914–1918 lists over a dozen such records. The last time such records sold well was in 1965, when the LP, The Voice of Churchill, reached number 7 in the UK album charts; this was after Churchill's death. Biomusic Lowercase The Freesound
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Beastie Boys were an American hip hop group from New York City formed in 1981. The group comprised Adam "MCA" Yauch and Adam "Ad-Rock" Horovitz; the Beastie Boys were formed as a four-piece hardcore punk band, the Young Aborigines, in 1979 by Mike D, MCA, John Berry and Kate Schellenbach. They appeared on the compilation cassette New York Thrash, contributing two songs from their first EP, Polly Wog Stew, in 1982. Berry was replaced by Horovitz. After achieving local success with the 1983 experimental hip hop single "Cooky Puss", the Beastie Boys made a full transition to hip hop, Schellenbach left the group soon after, they toured with Madonna in 1985 and a year released their debut album Licensed to Ill. It was followed by Paul's Boutique, Check Your Head, Ill Communication, Hello Nasty, To the 5 Boroughs, The Mix-Up, Hot Sauce Committee Part Two; the Beastie Boys have sold 26 million records in the United States and 50 million records worldwide, making them the biggest-selling rap group since Billboard began recording sales in 1991.
With seven platinum-selling albums from 1986 to 2004, the Beastie Boys were one of the longest-lived hip hop acts worldwide. In 2012, they became the third rap group to be inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. In the same year, MCA died of cancer. In 2014, Mike D confirmed. Prior to forming the Beastie Boys, Michael Diamond was part of a number of bands such as the Walden Jazz Band, BAN, The Young Aborigines; the Beastie Boys formed in July 1981 when the Young Aborigines bassist Jeremy Shatan left New York City for the summer and the remaining members Michael Diamond, John Berry and Kate Schellenbach formed a new hardcore punk band with Adam Yauch called Beastie Boys. In an interview on The Tonight Show in October 2018, Mike D stated that the Beastie name is an acronym, it stands for "Boys Entering Anarchistic States Towards Inner Excellence". The band supported Bad Brains, the Dead Kennedys, the Misfits and Reagan Youth at venues such as CBGB, A7, Trudy Hellers Place and Max's Kansas City, playing at the latter venue on its closing night.
In November 1982, the Beastie Boys recorded the 7" EP Polly Wog Stew at 171A studios, an early recorded example of New York hardcore. On November 13, 1982, the Beastie Boys played Philip Pucci's birthday for the purposes of his short concert film of the Beastie Boys, Beastie. Pucci held the concert in Bard College's Preston Drama Dance Department Theatre; this performance marked the Beastie Boys' first on screen appearance in a published motion picture. Pucci's concept for Beastie was to distribute a mixture of both a half dozen 16 mm Bell & Howell Filmo cameras, 16 mm Bolex cameras to audience members and ask that they capture the Beastie Boys performance from the audience's own point of view while a master sync sound camera filmed from the balcony of the abandoned theater where the performance was held; the opening band for that performance was The Young and the Useless, which featured Adam Horovitz as the lead singer. A one-minute clip of Beastie was subsequently excerpted and licensed by the Beastie Boys for use in the "Egg Raid on Mojo" segment of the "Skills to Pay the Bills" long-form home video released by Capitol Records.
"Skills to Pay the Bills" went on to be certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America. Berry left the group in 1982 and was replaced by Horovitz, who had become close friends with the Beastie Boys; as of that year, the Beastie Boys band made a full transition to hip hop, was composed of three young Americans of Jewish descent: "Mike D", "MCA", "Ad-Rock". The band recorded and performed its first hip hop track, "Cooky Puss", based on a prank call by the group to a Carvel Ice Cream franchise in 1983, it was a part of the new lineup's first EP called Cooky Puss, the first piece of work that showed their incorporation of the underground rap phenomenon and the use of samples. It became a hit in New York underground dance clubs and night clubs. "Beastie Revolution" was sampled for a British Airways commercial. The Beastie Boys sued them over the use of the song. Due to the success of "Cooky Puss", they began to incorporate rap into their sets, they ended up getting an NYU student named Rick Rubin.
Soon thereafter, Rubin began producing records. He formed Def Jam Recordings with fellow NY University student Russell Simmons, approached the band about producing them for his new label. Around the same time, the band made a more complete switch over from a punk rock outfit to a three-man rap trio with drummer Kate Schellenbach leaving the group and Diamond and Horovitz each adopting their own hip hop monikers—Mike D, MCA and Ad-Rock respectively, they released the 12-inch single "Rock Hard" in 1984, which would be the second record released by Def Jam crediting Rubin as producer. In 1985, the band opened for John Lydon's post-Sex Pistols band Public Image Ltd. as well as supporting Madonna on her North American The Virgin Tour. Headlining with Fishbone and Murphy's Law with DJ Hurricane and in the year, the group was on the Raising Hell tour with Run-DMC, Whodini, LL Cool J, the Timex Social Club. With their exposure on this tour, the track "Hold It Now, Hit It" charted on Billboard's US R&B and dance charts.
The track "She's on It" from the Krush Groove soundtrack continued in a rap/metal vein while a double A-side 12", "Paul Revere/
Lo-fi is an aesthetic of recorded music in which the sound quality is lower than the usual contemporary standards and imperfections of the recording and production are audible. These standards have evolved throughout the decades, meaning that some older examples of lo-fi may not have been recognized as such. Lo-fi only began to be recognized as a style of popular music in the 1990s, when it became alternately referred to as DIY music. Harmonic distortion and "analogue warmth" are sometimes wrongly suggested as core features of lo-fi music, its aesthetic is defined by the inclusion of elements viewed as undesirable in professional contexts, such as misplayed notes, environmental interference, or phonographic imperfections. Pioneering, influential, or otherwise significant artists include the Beach Boys, R. Stevie Moore, Paul McCartney, Todd Rundgren, Daniel Johnston, Guided by Voices, Beck and Ariel Pink. Although "lo-fi" first appeared in the Oxford Dictionary in 1976, WFMU DJ William Berger is credited with popularizing the term in 1986.
At various points since the 1980s, "lo-fi" has been connoted with cassette culture, the DIY ethos of punk, indie rock, outsider music, slacker/Generation X stereotypes, cultural nostalgia. The notion of "bedroom" musicians expanded following the rise of modern digital audio workstations, in the late 2000s, lo-fi aesthetics served as the basis of the chillwave and hypnagogic pop music genres; the definition of "lo-fi" evolved continuously between the 2000s. In the 1976 edition of the Oxford Dictionary, lo-fi was added under the definition of "sound production less good in quality than'hi-fi.'" Before the 1990s, there was no appreciation for the imperfections of lo-fi music among critics, but this changed after the emergence of a romanticism for home-recording and "do-it-yourself" qualities. Afterward, "DIY" was used interchangeably with "lo-fi". Whoever popularized the use of "lo-fi" cannot be determined definitively, it is suggested that the term was popularized through William Berger's weekly half-hour radio show on the New Jersey-based independent radio station WFMU, titled "Low-Fi", which lasted from 1986 to 1987.
The program contents consisted of contributions solicited via mail and ran during a thirty-minute prime time evening slot every Friday. In the Fall 1986 issue of the WFMU magazine LCD, the program was described as "home recordings produced on inexpensive equipment. Technical primitivism coupled with brilliance."By the end of the 1980s, qualities such as "home-recorded", "technically primitive", "inexpensive equipment" were associated with the "lo-fi" label, throughout the 1990s, such ideas became central to how "lo-fi" was popularly understood. In 2003, the Oxford Dictionary added a second definition for the term—"a genre of rock music characterized by minimal production, giving a raw and unsophisticated sound". A third was added in 2008: "unpolished, amateurish, or technologically unsophisticated, esp. as a deliberate aesthetic choice." The notion of "bedroom" musicians expanded after the rise of laptop computers in many forms of popular or avant-garde music, over the years, there was an increasing tendency to group all home-recorded music under the umbrella of "lo-fi".
"Bedroom pop" loosely describes a music genre or aesthetic in which bands record at home, rather than at traditional recording spaces. It is connoted with DIY. By the 2010s, journalists would indiscriminately apply "bedroom pop" for any music that sounded "fuzzy". In 2017, About.com's Anthony Carew argued that the term "lo-fi" was misused as a synonym for "warm" or "punchy" when it should be reserved for music that "sounds like it's recorded onto a broken answering-machine." Lo-fi aesthetics are based on idiosyncrasies. More those that are viewed in the field of audio engineering as undesirable effects, such as a degraded audio signal or fluctuations in tape speed. Recordings deemed unprofessional or "amateurish" are with respect to performance or mixing. Musicologist Adam Harper identifies the difference as "phonographic" and "non-phonographic imperfections", he defines the former as "elements of a recording that are perceived as detrimental to it and that originate in the specific operation of the recording medium itself.
Today, they are the first characteristics people think about when the subject of'lo-fi' is brought up."Recording imperfections may "fall loosely into two categories and noise", in Harper's view, although he acknowledges that definitions of "distortion" and "noise" vary and sometimes overlap. The most prominent form of distortion in lo-fi aesthetics is harmonic distortion, which can occur when an audio signal is amplified beyond the dynamic range of a device. However, this effect is not considered to be an imperfection; the same process is used for the electric guitar sounds of rock and roll, since the advent of digital recording, to give a recording a feeling of "analogue warmth". Distortion, generated as a byproduct of the recording process is avoided in professional contexts. "Tape saturation" and "saturation distortion" alternately describe the harmonic distortion that occurs when a tape head approaches its limit of residual magnetization (a c
Lollapalooza is an annual 4-day music festival based in Chicago, Illinois at Grant Park. Performances include but are not limited to alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, hip hop, electronic music. Lollapalooza has provided a platform for non-profit and political groups and various visual artists; the music festival hosts more than 160,000 people each year. Conceived and created in 1991 by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell as a farewell tour for his band, Lollapalooza ran annually until 1997, was revived in 2003. From its inception through 1997 and its revival in 2003, the festival toured North America. In 2004, the festival organizers decided to expand the dates to two days per city, but poor ticket sales forced the 2004 tour to be cancelled. In 2005, Farrell and the William Morris Agency partnered with Austin, Texas–based company Capital Sports Entertainment and retooled it into its current format as a weekend destination festival in Chicago at Grant Park. In 2014, Live Nation Entertainment bought a controlling interest in C3 Presents.
In 2010 it was announced that Lollapalooza would debut outside the United States, with a branch of the festival staged in Chile's capital Santiago on April 2–3, 2011 where they partnered up with Santiago-based company Lotus. In 2011, the company Geo Events confirmed the Brazilian version of the event, held at the Jockey Club in São Paulo on 7 and 8 April 2012. In September 2013, Buenos Aires was selected as the third Lollapalooza in South America, starting on April 2014, in November 2014, the first European Lollapalooza was announced, held at the former Tempelhof Airport in Berlin; the word—sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced as lollapalootza or lalapaloosa—or "lallapaloosa" dates from a late 19th-/early 20th-century American idiomatic phrase meaning "an extraordinary or unusual thing, person, or event. Its earliest known use was in 1896. In time the term came to refer to a large lollipop. Farrell, searching for a name for his festival, liked the euphonious quality of the by-then-antiquated term upon hearing it in a Three Stooges short film.
Paying homage to the term's double meaning, a character in the festival's original logo holds one of the lollipops. The word has caused a slang suffix to appear in event-planning circles as well as in news and opinion shows, used synonymously with other suffixes like "a-go-go", "o-rama", etc; the suffix "palooza" is used to imply that an entire event or crowd was made over that term, e.g.: "Parks"-apalooza, popular Chicago sushi restaurant "Roll"-apalooza, etc. Inspired by events such as Britain's Reading Festival – which Lollapalooza cofounder Perry Farrell had been due to play in 1990 – Farrell, Ted Gardner, Don Muller, Marc Geiger conceived the festival in 1990 as a farewell for Farrell's band Jane's Addiction. Unlike previous festivals such as Woodstock, A Gathering of the Tribes and the US Festival, which were one-time events held at single venues, Lollapalooza toured across the United States and Canada from mid-July until late August 1991; the inaugural lineup was made up of artists from industrial music and rap.
Another key concept was the inclusion of nonmusical features. Performers such as the Jim Rose Circus Side Show, an alternative freak show, the Shaolin monks stretched the boundaries of rock culture. There was a tent for display of art pieces, virtual reality games, information tables for political and environmental non-profit groups, promoting counter-culture and political awareness. "Basically, I'm bored," Farrell said at the time. "I just want to see things that are unexpected and bizarre. The way Barnum & Bailey perceived putting on a show... well, they had a different angle." It was at Lollapalooza where Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation". The explosion of alternative rock in the early 1990s propelled Lollapalooza forward. Punk rock standbys like mosh pits and crowd surfing became part of the canon of the concerts; these years saw great increases in the participatory nature of the event with the inclusion of booths for open-microphone readings and oratory, television-smashing pits and tattooing and piercing parlors.
After 1991, the festival included a second stage for local acts. Attendee complaints of the festival included high ticket prices as well as the high cost for food and water at the shows; the festival played at the Alpine Valley festival in East Troy, Wisconsin on August 29, 1992, at World Music Theater in Tinley Park, IL, where concertgoers ripped up chunks of sod and grass and threw them at each other and at the bands, resulting in tens of thousands of dollars in damages to the venue. Grunge band Nirvana was scheduled to headline at the festival in 1994, but the band dropped out of the festival on April 7, 1994. Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain's body was discovered in Seattle the next day. Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, made guest appearances at several shows, including the Philadelphia show at FDR Park, speaking to the crowds about the loss singing a minimum of two songs. Farrell worked with rock poster artist Jim Evans to create a series of posters and the complete graphic decoration for the 1994 event, including two 70 foot tall Buddha statues that f