BBC Four is a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation and available to digital television viewers on Freeview, IPTV, and cable. BBC Four launched on 2 March 2002, with a running from 19,00 to 04,00. The channel shows a variety of programmes including comedy, music, international film, original programmes, drama. An alternative to programmes on the mainstream TV channels and it is required by its licence to broadcast at least 100 hours of new arts and music programmes,110 hours of new factual programmes and to premiere twenty international films each year. BBC Four launched on 2 March 2002 at 19,00 GMT, BBC Four began originally as a late schedule to BBC Two, before it received its own channel, along with BBC Three. Curiously, BBC Four had to launch before BBC Three as a result of the government delaying approval plans, BBC Four would rebrand this channel, and bring it into line with the well recognised BBC One and Two brands at the same time. Planning for the new channel, along with the new BBC Three, had been in progress since October 2000, the BBC Four plans were approved earlier, and as a result launched before BBC Three.
BBC Four was different from the old BBC Knowledge, the channel would be more heavily promoted with more new and original programming and the channel would not be broadcast 24 hours a day. This was because on the Freeview digital terrestrial platform, BBC Four is broadcast in a statistically multiplexed stream in Multiplex B that timeshares with the CBeebies channel. As a result, BBC Four broadcasts from 19,00 to around 04,00 each night, with an hours down-time, on 12 May 2011, BBC Four was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 230. It moved to EPG211 to free up space for new channels, BBC Four forms part of the BBC Vision group, and as a result, the channel controller is answerable to the head of this executive department, Emma Swain, as of 2012. The channel direction is determined by the channels remit, set by royal charter and the governing body. On 20 January 2016, Kim Shillinglaw announced that she had decided to leave the BBC as the Controller of BBC Two & BBC Four, as a result of the reorganisation, the post of Controller BBC Two and Four will close after her departure in 2016.
On 16 July 2013, the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Four would be launched by early 2014, the channel launched on 10 December 2013, and rolled out nationwide up to June 2014. The channel broadcasts on the BBCs new HD multiplex on Freeview, prior to launch, the majority of BBC Fours HD output was broadcast on the BBC HD channel before its closure on 26 March 2013. The first evenings BBC Four programmes were simulcast on BBC Two, BBC Four further supports foreign language films with its annual World Cinema Award which has been running since 2004. On weekdays at 19,00 and weekends at 21,00 and it screens a number of documentaries such as The Century of the Self and The Trials of Henry Kissinger. The channel is home to many political travel shows such as Holidays in the Axis of Evil which features investigative journalism, drama has given the channel some of its most popular programmes, with The Alan Clark Diaries and Kenneth Williams, Fantabulosa
The Independent is a British online newspaper. The printed edition of the paper ceased in March 2016, nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet newspaper, but changed to tabloid format in 2003. Until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as free from party political bias and it tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues. The daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had a daily circulation of just below 58,000,85 per cent down from its 1990 peak. On 12 February 2016, it was announced that The Independent, the last print edition of The Independent on Sunday was published on 20 March 2016, with the main paper ceasing print publication the following Saturday. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format and it was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds.
All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwells ownership, marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, and Whittam Smith took control of the paper. The paper was created at a time of a change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and ultimately defeated them in the Wapping dispute, production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition. As a result of controversy around Murdochs move to Wapping, the plant was effectively having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside, the Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his companys new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan It is, and challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years. Some aspects of production merged with the paper, although the Sunday paper retained a largely distinct editorial staff. It featured spoofs of the other papers mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, a number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony OReillys media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994, in March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into OReillys Independent News & Media, MGN, and Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, and in March 1998, OReilly bought the other 54% of the company for £30 million, brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, and Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure, Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in his book, My Trade
Shameless (UK TV series)
Shameless is a British adult comedy-drama series set in Manchester on the fictional Chatsworth council estate. Produced by Company Pictures for Channel 4, the series aired from 13 January 2004 to 28 May 2013. The comedy drama, centred on British working class culture, was accorded critical acclaim by various sections of the British media, including The Sun newspaper, the programme was created and partially written by Paul Abbott, who is the programmes executive producer. In 2005, the show won Best Drama Series at the BAFTA TV Awards, the network Showtime adapted the series into its own American version, which debuted in 2011. The first series of Shameless ran from 19 January to 24 February 2004, the first series chronicled the life of the Gallagher family and their neighbours. David Threlfall was cast as alcoholic father-of-six, Frank Gallagher, Anne-Marie Duff was cast as his eldest daughter and head of the family, Fiona. Jody Latham and Gerard Kearns played Gallagher brothers Lip and Ian, twin brothers Elliott and Luke Tittensor both took on the role of youngster Carl Gallagher, whilst Rebecca Ryan was cast as Debbie Gallagher, and Liam was played by Joseph Furnace and Johnny Bennett.
Other characters included James McAvoy as Fionas boyfriend Steve McBride, the Gallaghers next-door neighbours Kev and Veronica, were played by Dean Lennox Kelly and Maxine Peake. Maggie ONeill played agoraphobic Sheila Jackson, a love interest of Frank, appearing alongside her were Rebecca Atkinson as her 15 year old wayward daughter Karen and Steve Pemberton appeared in the first two episodes as Karens god-fearing father Eddie. Two other characters were introduced, local shopkeepers Kash and Yvonne Karib, played by Chris Bisson, the series debuted future regular cast members, including Jack Deam, as Veronicas arsonist brother Marty Fisher, their mother Carol, played by Marjorie Yates. The local pub landlady Jez, played by Lindsey Dawson, Samantha Siddall appeared in one episode as Mandy Maguire, whilst Anthony Flanagan and Warren Donnelly appeared together as local coppers PC Tony and Stan Waterman. The main storyline during the first series was the romance between Fiona and Steve, many other plots took centre stage throughout the series, in particular, the sexual affair between Frank Gallagher and Karen Jackson, who was dating Lip.
The storyline ended with a violent showdown between father and son, and Karen absconding from Chatsworth, the series concluded with a two-part story, which featured the return of the Gallaghers absent mother Monica, played by Annabelle Apsion, and Franks growing debts. The series concludes with Frank faking his own death to evade bailiffs and his debts and the announcement that Sheila. The 10-part second series began on 4 January 2005 and concluded on 8 March 2005, all cast members from the first series reprised their roles, and many recurring characters became regulars, such as Mandy Maguire, Carol Fisher and Marty Fisher. Midway through the series, James McAvoy left his role as Steve McBride, Tina Malone and Sean Gilder joined the cast as Mimi and Paddy Maguire, who would come to dominate the show in succeeding years. Sally Carman made her first appearance during this series as Kevs sister, in the final episode of the series, Anne-Marie Duff departed the series as Fiona Gallagher, in a plot that saw James McAvoy reprise his role as Steve for the final time.
The third series began on 3 January 2006 and ended on 21 February 2006, the series was reduced to eight episodes
Ronald William Ron Howard is an American actor and filmmaker. Howard is best known for playing two roles in television sitcoms in his youth and directing a number of successful feature films in his career. Howard first came to prominence playing young Opie Taylor in the sitcom The Andy Griffith Show for eight years, in 1980, Howard left Happy Days to focus on directing. His films include, the science-fiction/fantasy film Cocoon, the historical docudrama Apollo 13, the biographical drama A Beautiful Mind, in 2002, Howard narrated the Fox comedy series, Arrested Development, on which he would serve as producer and play a semi-fictionalized version of himself. In 2003, Howard was awarded the National Medal of Arts, asteroid 12561 Howard is named after him. He was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 2013, Howard has two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions in the television and motion pictures industries. Howard was born in Duncan, the son of Jean Speegle Howard, an actress, and Rance Howard, a director, a writer.
He has German, Scottish and Dutch ancestry and his father was born with the surname Beckenholdt, and had taken the stage name Howard by 1948, for his acting career. Rance Howard was serving three years in the United States Air Force at the time of Rons birth, the family moved to Hollywood in 1958, the year before the birth of his younger brother, Clint Howard. They rented a house on the south of the Desilu Studios. They lived in Hollywood for at least three years, before moving to Burbank, Howard was tutored at Desilu Studios in his younger years, and graduated from John Burroughs High School. He attended the University of Southern Californias School of Cinematic Arts, Howard has said he knew from a young age he might want to go into directing thanks to his early experience as an actor. In 1959, Howard had his first credited role, in The Journey. Howard played Timmy in Counterfeit Gun, Season 4, Episode 2 of the TV series, in 1960, Howard was cast as Opie Taylor in The Andy Griffith Show. Credited as Ronny Howard, he portrayed the son of the character for all eight seasons of the show.
He and Griffith remained close until Griffiths death nearly 45 years later, in the 1962 film version of The Music Man, Howard played Winthrop Paroo, the child with the lisp, the film starred Robert Preston and Shirley Jones. He starred in the 1963 film The Courtship of Eddies Father and he appeared as Barry Stewart on The Eleventh Hour, in the episode Is Mr. Martian Coming Back. In the 1970s, he appeared in at least one episode of The Bold Ones, Howard appeared on the 1969 Disneyland Records album The Story and Song from the Haunted Mansion
Falmouth is a town, civil parish and port on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. It has a resident population of 27,422. See also, Miss Susan Gays Falmouth chronology The name Falmouth is of English origin and it is claimed that an earlier Celtic name for the place was Peny-cwm-cuic which is the same as the anglicised Pennycomequick district in Plymouth. Falmouth was where Henry VIII built Pendennis Castle to defend Carrick Roads in 1540, the main town of the district was at Penryn. Sir John Killigrew created the town of Falmouth shortly after 1613, in the late 16th century, under threat from the Spanish Armada, the defences at Pendennis were strengthened by the building of angled ramparts. During the Civil War, Pendennis Castle was the second to last fort to surrender to the Parliamentary Army. After the Civil War, Sir Peter Killigrew received royal patronage when he gave land for the building of the Church of King Charles the Martyr, dedicated to Charles I, the Martyr.
The seal of Falmouth was blazoned as An eagle displayed with two heads and on each wing with a tower, the arms of the borough of Falmouth were Arg. The Falmouth Packet Service operated out of Falmouth for over 160 years between 1689 and 1851 and its purpose was to carry mail to and from Britains growing empire. As the most south-westerly good harbour in Great Britain, Falmouth was often the first port for returning Royal Navy ships, in 1805 news of Britains victory and Admiral Nelsons death at Trafalgar was landed here from the schooner Pickle and taken to London by stagecoach. On 2 October 1836 HMS Beagle anchored at Falmouth at the end of her noted survey voyage around the world and that evening, Charles Darwin left the ship and took the Mail coach to his family home at The Mount, Shrewsbury. The ship stayed a few days and Captain Robert FitzRoy visited the Fox family at nearby Penjerrick Gardens, darwins shipmate Sulivan made his home in the nearby waterside village of Flushing, home to many naval officers.
In 1839 Falmouth was the scene of a gold dust robbery when £47,600 worth of gold dust from Brazil was stolen on arrival at the port, the Falmouth Docks were developed from 1858, and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution opened Falmouth Lifeboat Station nearby in 1867. The present building dates from 1993 and houses Her Majestys Coastguard, the RNLI operates two lifeboats from Falmouth, Richard Cox Scott, a 17-metre Severn-class all-weather boat, and Eve Park, an Atlantic 75 inshore lifeboat. Near the town centre is Kimberley Park, the land pre-dates 1877, and is named after the Earl of Kimberley who leased the parks land to the borough of Falmouth. Today the park has exotic and ornate plants and trees, the Cornwall Railway reached Falmouth on 24 August 1863. The railway brought new prosperity to Falmouth, as it made it easy for tourists to reach the town and it allowed the swift transport of the goods recently disembarked from the ships in the port. The town now has three railway stations, Falmouth Docks railway station is the original terminus and is close to Pendennis Castle and Gyllyngvase beach
The Man in the High Castle (TV series)
The series is loosely based on the 1962 novel of the same name by American science fiction author Philip K. Dick. The pilot premiered on January 15,2015, and was Amazons most-watched since the series development program began. On February 18,2015, the series was picked up for a season. A second season of ten episodes premiered on December 16,2016, on January 3,2017, it was announced that Amazon had renewed the series for a third season. The central characters are Juliana Crain, Frank Frink, Joe Blake, John Smith, Nobusuke Tagomi, the series takes place in an alternate 1962. The film is entitled The Grasshopper Lies Heavy, and is part of a series of similar newsreels being collected by someone referred to as The Man in the High Castle. Juliana believes the newsreel reflects some sort of reality and that it is part of some kind of larger truth about how the world should be. Her boyfriend, Frank Frink, believes that the newsreel has no relation to real-life events, Juliana learns Trudy was carrying the film to Canon City, Colorado, in the Neutral Zone, where she was going to meet someone.
Juliana decides to travel there in Trudys place to find out what her half-sisters mission was, when she arrives in Canon City, she encounters Joe Blake. Blake is pretending to be a member of the resistance while he searches for the contact in Canon City. Nobusuke Tagomi is a high-ranking Japanese official in San Francisco and he meets in secret with Nazi official Rudolph Wegener, who is traveling incognito as Swedish businessman Victore Baynes. Tagomi and Wegener are concerned about the vacuum that will exist when the Reichs Führer Adolf Hitler dies. Wegener explains that Hitlers successor will want to use the Reichs nuclear bombs against Japan to gain control of the rest of the former United States. Currently, however and the Third Reich are engaged in a cold war full of tension but no open warfare, Frank Frink ends up being arrested when the Japanese and the Nazis become suspicious of Julianas activities. He is unable, even if he wanted to, to them the information the Japanese wanted. This leads Frink to plan to kill the visiting Crown Prince and Princess, Juliana Crain claims asylum in the Nazi Reich using their San Francisco Embassy so she can escape Japanese soldiers who hold her responsible for at least one murder.
Joe Blake himself discovers he was a product of the Lebensborn programme, John Smith is the only high-ranking Nazi official to be suspicious of the nature of Heusmanns sudden announcement. Upon learning this, the entire Volkshalle erupts in to a celebratory mood marked by repeated mass Nazi salutes of Himmlers men in general and John Smith in particular
Jamaica Inn (2014 TV series)
Jamaica Inn is a British drama television series that was first broadcast on BBC One for three consecutive nights from 21 to 23 April 2014. The three-part series, written by Emma Frost, is an adaptation of Daphne du Mauriers gothic novel Jamaica Inn, Jamaica Inn is set in 1821. It tells the story of Mary Yellan who is uprooted to live with her Aunt Patience after her mother dies, Mary finds Aunt Patience under the spell of her husband, Joss Merlyn after she arrives at Jamaica Inn. She soon realises that the inn has no guests and it is being used as the hub of Joss free trade, Mary becomes attracted to Jem Merlyn, Joss younger brother who is a petty thief. Mary meets Francis Davey, the vicar, and his sister Hannah. It was originally decided that the series would be filmed in Northern Ireland, an investment from Screen Yorkshire was provided for the series. The three-part series was commissioned by Ben Stephenson and Danny Cohen, terry Ramsey of The Daily Telegraph claimed Daphne du Mauriers story is a classic, but this hard-to-watch version is unlikely to have had people gripped.
David Stephenson of Daily Express agreed, disappointing BBC drama with mumbling dialogue, sean Harris addressed his reaction to the mumbling controversy in an interview after his BAFTA award for Best Actor in a Drama Series for Southcliffe. Jamaica Inn at BBC Programmes Jamaica Inn at the Internet Movie Database Jamaica Inn at Radio Times
Established in 1996, IndieWire is a film industry and review website. As of January 19,2016, Indiewire is a subsidiary of Penske Media and it has a staff of about 20, including publisher James Israel, and Editor-in-Chief Dana Harris. The indieWIRE newsletter launched on July 15,1996, billing itself as the news service for independent film. Initially distributed to a few hundred subscribers, the readership grew rapidly, in January 1997, indieWIRE made its first appearance at the Sundance Film Festival to begin their coverage of film festivals. It offered indieWIRE, On The Scene print dailies in addition to online coverage, while the style and look of the print dailies improved over the years, the nickname stuck. The website indieWire. com launched on January 12,1998, while met with cautious optimism by Wired magazine, the experiment failed and indieWIRE returned to a free service less than a year later. The site was acquired by Snagfilms in July 2008, on January 8,2009, indieWIRE editor Eugene Hernandez announced that the site was going through a re-launch that has been entirely re-imagined.
In 2011, with the launch of a redesign, the changed the formal spelling of its name from indieWIRE to Indiewire. In 2012, Indiewire won the Webby Award in the Movie, indieWIRE is said to cover lesser-known film events ignored from the mainstream perspective. In 2002, Forbes magazine recognized IndieWire, along with 7 other entrants in the Cinema Appreciation category, describing its best feature as boards teeming with filmmakers and its worst as glacial search engine. IndieWIRE has been praised by Roger Ebert, Kevin Smith, James Schamus, official website Snagfilms, the parent company
The White Queen (TV series)
The White Queen is a British television drama series in ten parts, based on Philippa Gregorys historical novel series The Cousins War. The first episode was premiered on BBC One on 16 June 2013 in the United Kingdom and it was first broadcast in the United States on Starz on 9 August 2013. The series is set against the backdrop of the Wars of the Roses, the story focuses on three women in their quest for power, as they manipulate events behind the scenes of history, Elizabeth Woodville, Margaret Beaufort, and Anne Neville. However, all three appear in all three novels that went to make up the television series. The final episode of The White Queen was aired on 18 August 2013, Two days later, it was confirmed that The White Queen would not be returning for a second series. In a statement to Broadcast, the BBC stated that the show was planned as a one-season series. In October 2013, The Telegraph reported that Starz is planning to develop a miniseries called The White Princess. Gregory confirmed that the project was underway in August 2015, on 7 February 2016, Gregory announced on Facebook that the sequel was officially confirmed to be in production, with the scripts being written.
The White Queen was nominated for three Golden Globe Awards, four Primetime Emmy Awards, and a Peoples Choice Award, rebecca Ferguson who portrays Elizabeth Woodville, the White Queen, is from Sweden. The budget was £25 million and took 120 days to shoot, consisting of 250 sets including, palaces, castles,12 state banquets, Two versions were made, one for the BBC and a more sexually explicit version for the US. A companion two-part documentary series, The Real White Queen and Her Rivals and it was broadcast on BBC Two on 17 and 24 July 2013. Executive producers, John Griffin, George Faber, Charles Pattinson for Company Pictures, Eurydice Gysel for Czar Television, Polly Hill for the BBC, Philippa Gregory, series lead writer, Emma Frost and produced by Company Pictures. Lisa McGee and Nicole Taylor are writers, James Kent directed the first three episodes. Other episodes were directed by Jamie Payne and Colin Teague, Jean Philippe Gossart. and David Luther. Additional filming took place at Rumbeke, in Damme, and at Ursel Airfield—23 locations for the first three episodes, the rest of the set was constructed at a nearby Philips factory.
The series received mixed reviews, with a critic rating of 7. The show currently holds a 79% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 20 reviews, the White Queen was nominated for several awards including three Golden Globe Awards, four Primetime Emmy Awards and a Peoples Choice Award for Favorite TV Movie/Miniseries. Sam Wollaston of The Guardian praised the characters, suggesting Janet McTeer stole the show
The Hollywood Reporter
Headquartered in Los Angeles, THR is part of the Hollywood Reporter-Billboard Media Group, a group of properties that includes Billboard and SpinMedia. It is owned by Eldridge Industries, a company owned by an executive of its previous owner. Under Janice Min, a faltering THR was relaunched in 2010 as a weekly print magazine with a revamped, continuously updated website, as well as mobile. THR was founded in 1930 by William R, billy Wilkerson as Hollywoods first daily entertainment trade newspaper. The first edition appeared on September 3,1930, and featured Wilkersons front-page Tradeviews column, the newspaper appeared Monday to Saturday for the first 10 years, except for a brief period, Monday to Friday from 1940. Wilkerson ran the THR until his death in September 1962, although his final column appeared 18 months prior, from the late 1930s, Wilkerson used THR to push the view that the industry was a communist stronghold. In particular, he opposed the screenplay writers trade union, the Screen Writers Guild, in 1946 the Guild considered creating an American Authors Authority to hold copyright for writers, instead of ownership passing to the studios.
Wilkerson devoted his Tradeviews column to the issue on July 29,1946 and he went to confession before publishing it, knowing the damage it would cause, but was apparently encouraged by the priest to go ahead with it. The column contained the first industry names, including Dalton Trumbo and Howard Koch, on became the Hollywood blacklist. Eight of the 11 people Wilkerson named were among the Hollywood Ten who were blacklisted after hearings in 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee. In 1997 THR reporter David Robb wrote a story about the newspapers involvement, for the blacklists 65th anniversary in 2012, the THR published a lengthy investigative piece about Wilkersons role, by reporters Gary Baum and Daniel Miller. The same edition carried an apology from Wilkersons son, W. R. Wilkerson III and he wrote that his father had been motivated by revenge for his thwarted ambition to own a studio. Wilkersons wife, Tichi Wilkerson Kassel, took over as publisher and she sold the paper on April 11,1988, to Affiliated Publications, parent company of Billboard Publications, for $26.7 million.
Robert J. Dowling became THR president in 1988 and editor-in-chief, Dowling brought in Alex Ben Block as editor in 1990, and editorial quality of both news and specials steadily improved. Block and Teri Ritzer dampened much of the coverage and cronyism that had infected the paper under Wilkerson. After Block left, former editor at Variety, Anita Busch, was brought in as editor between 1999 and 2001. Busch was credited with making the paper competitive with Variety, tony Uphoff assumed the publisher position in November 2005. Uphoff was replaced in October 2006 by John Kilcullen, the publisher of Billboard, Kilcullen was a defendant in Billboards infamous dildo lawsuit, in which he was accused of race discrimination and sexual harassment
In 1998 it became a subsidiary of Amazon Inc, who were able to use it as an advertising resource for selling DVDs and videotapes. As of January 2017, IMDb has approximately 4.1 million titles and 7.7 million personalities in its database, the site enables registered users to submit new material and edits to existing entries. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20,2017. Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb. A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. These badges range from total contributions made, to independent categories such as photos, bios, if a registered user or visitor happens to be in the entertainment industry, and has an IMDb page, that user/visitor can add photos to that page by enrolling in IMDbPRO.
Actors and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro. PRO can be accessed by anyone willing to pay the fee, which is $19.99 USD per month, or if paid annually, $149.99, which comes to approximately $12.50 per month USD. Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, director etc. that has an IMDb page. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page. Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Needham subsequently started an Actors List, while Dave Knight began a Directors List, and Andy Krieg took over THE LIST from Hank Driskill, which would be renamed the Actress List. Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late 1990, the lists included almost 10,000 movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein. On October 17,1990, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. arts. movies movie database