Lefkada known as Lefkas or Leukas and Leucadia, is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea on the west coast of Greece, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Lefkada, it is situated on the northern part of the island 1 hour by automobile away from Aktion National Airport. The island is part of the regional unit of Lefkada. Lefkada measures 35 kilometres from north to south, 15 kilometres from east to west; the area of the island is about 302 square kilometres, the area of the municipality is 333.58 km2. Its highest point is the mountain Stavrota, 1,158 metres above sea level, situated in the middle of the island; the east coast section of the island has small resorts of Lygia and Perigiali, all north of Nidri, the largest resort on the island. It is set in a sheltered location with views across to Skorpios and other small islands, as well as the Greek mainland; the main coastal road from Lefkada to Vasiliki runs through the village, although a bypass has now been completed which skirts the village to the west.
There are regular car ferries to Kefalonia and Meganissi. 20 kilometres south of Nidri is the resort of a windsurfing center. There are ferries to Ithaca from Vasiliki. South of Vasiliki is Cape Lefkada, where the Greek female poet Sappho leapt to her death from the 30 m high cliffs; the famous beach of Porto Katsiki is located on Lefkada's west coast. Lefkada was attached to mainland Greece; the Corinthians dug a trench in the 7th century BC on its isthmus. The island has a typical Mediterranean climate: hot summers and cool winters in the mountains; the myth about Sappho's suicide at Cape Lefkada is related to other myths linking the island to the ancient Greek goddess of love, to Odysseus, the hero of Homer's Odyssey. The German archaeologist Wilhelm Dörpfeld, having performed excavations at various locations of Lefkada, was able to obtain funding to do work on the island by suggesting that Lefkada was Homer's Ithaca, the palace of Odysseus was located west of Nydri on the south coast of Lefkada.
There have been suggestions by local tourism officials that several passages in the Odyssey point to Lefkada as a possible model for Homeric Ithaca. The most notable of these passages pushed by the local tourism board describes Ithaca as an island reachable on foot, the case for Lefkada since it is not an island, that it was connected to the mainland by a narrow causeway. According to Strabo, the coast of Acarnania was called Leucas in earlier times; the ancient sources call Leucas a Corinthian colony with a Corcyraen participation. During the Peloponnesian War Leucas had joined the Spartan Confederation. Lefkada was part of the Despotate of Epirus until 1295 when it passed from Despot Nikephoros I to his son-in-law John Orsini; the Castle of Santa Maura, as the island became known as, was first built in the beginning of the 14th century. The Orsini family lost Lefkada in 1331, to the Angevins. In 1343, Walter of Brienne granted the Santa Maura castle to Venetian Graziano Giorgio. Between 1343 and 1348, Serbian ruler Stefan Dušan invaded Albania and Thessaly, conquering all except for Vonitsa and Santa Maura.
In 1362, Leonardo I Tocco seized Vonitsa. In 1479, the Ottomans conquered Lefkada, rebuilt the castle on a large scale; the Venetians held Lefkada between 1500 and 1503, during the Ottoman-Venetian War, after which it was returned to Ottoman rule by peace treaty. Ottoman rule was interrupted by Venice in 1684, with the Ottomans surrendering it after a 16-day siege, was thus again part of the Ionian Islands under Venetian rule; the Ottomans called it Ayamavra, from Greek Agia Maura, ruled it between 1479–1502, 1504–1684 and 1715-1716. The Venetians extensively modified the castle in the early 18th century, the British made some modification in the 19th century. In 1800, the Septinsular Republic was established, a Russian protectorate under de jure Ottoman suzerainty; the Russian Empire employed troops recruited from fugitive klephts and armatoloi in the Ionian Islands of Lefkada. Among these were captains Anastasios Tselios and Apostolos Levendakis, the latter who in 1802 offered to raise a company of 60 fighters on Lefkada to support the Russians.
In 1815, Great Britain set up the United States of the Ionian Islands as a protectorate which lasted until 1864, when the islands were ceded to Greece. One of the seven island states was Lefkada; the first museum in Europe for Lafcadio Hearn, born on the island and is named after it, was inaugurated in Lefkada on July 4, 2014, as Lafcadio Hearn Historical Center. It contains rare books and Japanese collectibles; the visitors, through photos and exhibits, can wander in the significant events of Lafcadio Hearn's life, but in the civilizations of Europe and Japan of late 18th and early 19th centuries through the open mind of his lectures and tales. The municipalities of Kumamoto, Shinjuku, Toyama University, Koizumi family and other people from Japan and Greece contributed to the establishment of Lafcadio Hearn Historical Center; the present municipality Lefkada was formed at the 2011 local
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This
Kamyanyets is a town in the Brest Region of Belarus and the center of the Kamyenyetski Rajon. The town is located in the northwestern corner of Brest Region on the Lyasnaya river, about 40 km north from Brest. In 2002, the population was about 9,000 people. Through Kamyanyets flows the river of Leśna Prawa, it was first mentioned in the Halych-Volhynian Chronicle in 1276, when a castle with a keep, the tower of Kamyenyets, was being constructed on this spot, to protect the northern boundary of Volhynia from the raids of invaders. This site on the stony steep bank of the Liasnaja River had attracted Oleksa, the prominent builder and architect of Volhynia, he showed the site to Vladimir Vasilkovich, the Prince of Volhynia, who appreciated the place and ordered Oleksa to build a castle with a keep on the spot. A town appeared around the fortification; the tower is called Bielaja Vieža, which means White Tower or White Fortress in Belarusian, because after its foundation it was tiled in white. The neighboring primeval forest of Belavezhskaya Pushcha received its name, which means White Tower, through association with the tower.
However, today the color of the castle is brick-red, having weathered through the ages, not white. The original name of the town comes from the Slavic word kamennyj which means stony in English, as it was founded atop a stony rise. In 1366, it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in 1376 it was burnt by Teutonic Crusaders but rebuilt. In 1503, local townsfolk received a limited self-administration right, used by 1795, when it was annexed by Russia. In 1588 and 1659, the town was devastated with plague. In the 19th century and the first four decades of the 20th century, local Jewish community was the most active part of the townsfolk. Memories of the town are included in Yechezkel Kotik's memoir, published in English as Journey To a Nineteenth Century Shtetl: The Memoirs of Yekhezkel Kotik. In the years 1921-1939 in Poland. In 1939, it was occupied by Soviet Union and appended to Soviet Belarus. During the Nazi occupation of 1941 - 1944, most local Jews were killed. After the World War II, the town developed as a minor center of the food processing industry.
The main historical attraction is the donjon. There are St Simeon's Orthodox church; the building of a synagogue. Since 2009, there has been an annual historical Belaja Vezha Festival organized by local people. Kamenets - Belarus at its BEST! Kamenets Tower Photos on Radzima.org personal webpage
George Castriot, known as Skanderbeg, was an Albanian nobleman and military commander who led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in what is today Albania and North Macedonia. A member of the noble Castriot family, he was sent to the Ottoman court as part of the Devshirme, where he was educated and entered the service of the Ottoman sultan for the next twenty years, he rose through the ranks, culminating in the appointment as sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Dibra in 1440. In 1443, he deserted the Ottomans during the Battle of Niš and became the ruler of Krujë, Modrič. In 1444, he was appointed the chief commander of the short-lived League of Lezhë that consolidated nobility throughout what is today Northern Albania. Thus, for the first time Albania was united under a single leader. Skanderbeg's rebellion was not a general uprising of Albanians, because he did not gain support in the Venetian-controlled north or in the Ottoman-controlled south, his followers included, apart from Albanians Slavs and Greeks.
Despite this military valor he was not able to do more than to hold his own possessions within the small area in nowadays northern Albania where all of his victories against the Ottomans took place. His rebellion was a national rebellion; the resistance led by him brought Albanians of different regions and dialects together in a common cause, helping define the ethnic identity of the Albanians. Skanderbeg's military skills presented a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion, he was considered by many in western Europe to be a model of Christian resistance against Muslims. For 25 years, from 1443 to 1468, Skanderbeg's 10,000 man army marched through Ottoman territory winning against larger and better supplied Ottoman forces, for which he was admired. Skanderbeg always signed himself in Latin: Dominus Albaniae, claimed no other titles but that in documents. In 1451, he recognized de jure the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Naples over Albania through the Treaty of Gaeta, to ensure a protective alliance, although he remained a de facto independent ruler.
In 1460–61, he participated in Italy's civil wars in support of Ferdinand I of Naples. In 1463, he became the chief commander of the crusading forces of Pope Pius II, but the Pope died while the armies were still gathering. Together with Venetians he fought against the Ottomans during the Ottoman–Venetian War until his death in January 1468, he ranks high in that military history, as the most persistent opponent of the Ottoman Empire in its heyday, ever-victorious. The original, Latin form of the surname, Castrioti, is rendered in modern Albanian historiography as Kastrioti. In correspondence with Slavic regions, Đurađ and Đorđe are used for his first name. In 1450 his full name was written in Old Slavic Cyrillic as Đurađ Kastriot. Gjergj is the Albanian equivalent of the name George. Charles du Fresne, writing in Latin, used Georgius Castriotus Scanderbegus in his work. C. C. Moore in his biographical work on Skanderbeg used Castriot; the surname is derived from the Latin castrum via the Greek word κάστρο.
According to Fan Noli, the surname is a toponym, of Kastriot in modern northeastern Albania. The Ottoman Turks gave him the name اسکندر بگ İskender bey or İskender beğ, meaning "Lord Alexander", or "Leader Alexander", rendered as Scanderbeg or Skanderbeg in the English versions of his biographies, Skënderbeu is the Albanian version. In the 1450 letter in Slavic and Cyrillic sent to Ragusa by Skanderbeg, he was signed as "Скедерь бегь", in 1459 as "Скендьрь бегь". Latinized in Barleti's version as Scanderbegi and translated into English as Skanderbeg, the combined appellative is assumed to have been a comparison of Skanderbeg's military skill to that of Alexander the Great. In 1463, his name was written in Latin as Zorzi Castrioti. There have been many theories on the place. One of the main Skanderbeg biographers, Frashëri, among other, interpreted Gjon Muzaka's book of genealogies, sources of Raffaele Maffei, the Ottoman defter of 1467, placed the birth of Skanderbeg in the small village of Sinë, one of the two villages owned by his grandfather Paul Castriot.
Fan Noli's placement of the year of birth in 1405 is now agreed upon, after earlier disagreements, lack of birth documents for him and his siblings. His father John Castriot held a territory between Lezhë and Prizren that included Mat, Mirditë and Dibër in north-central Albania, his mother was Voisava. The most common view holds that she was a Slavic princess from the Polog region, interpreted as her being a possible member of the Serbian Branković family or a local Bulgarian noble family. Skanderbeg had three older brothers, Stanisha and Constantine, five sisters, Jelena, Angelina and Mamica. According to the geopolitical contexts of the time, John Castriot changed allegiances and religions when allied to Venice as a Catholic and Serbia as an Orthodox Christian. John Castriot became a vassal of the Sultan since the end of the 14th century, and, as a consequence, paid tribute and provided military services to the Ottomans. In 1409, he sent Stanisha, to be the Sultan's hostage. According to Marin Barleti, a primary source and his three older brothers, Reposh and Stanisha, were taken by the Sultan to his court as hostages.
However, according to do
Colonel-in-Chief is a ceremonial position in a military regiment. It is in common use in several Commonwealth armies, where it is held by the regiment's patron a member of the royal family; the position was used in the armies of several European monarchies. A Colonel-in-Chief has a purely ceremonial role in their regiment; the Norwegian Army has taken a more whimsical approach to the position, appointing the penguin Sir Nils Olav as a Colonel-in-Chief. A Colonel-in-Chief was the ceremonial head of a regiment a member of a European country's royal family; the practice extends at least back to 1740 in Prussia when Frederick II held that position in the newly created Garde du Corps, an elite heavy cavalry regiment. By the late 19th Century the designation could be given to the children of royalty; the German Kaiser Wilhelm II carried the title to an extreme, holding it in dozens of German and Austro-Hungarian, British and Portuguese regiments. In addition, his mother, wife and daughters were full or deputy Colonels-in-Chief of various units.
In modern usage, the Colonel-in-Chief of a regiment is its patron, who has a ceremonial role in the life of the regiment. They do not have an operational role, or the right to issue orders, but are kept informed of all important activities of the regiment and pay occasional visits to its units; the chief purpose of the Colonel-in-Chief is to maintain a direct link between the regiment and the royal family. Some artillery regiments have a Captain-General instead of a Colonel-in-Chief, but the posts are the same; the position of Colonel-in-Chief is distinct from the other ceremonial regimental posts of Colonel of the Regiment and Honorary Colonel, which are retired military officers or public figures with ties to the regiment. Colonels-in-Chief are appointed at the invitation of the regiment. While it is traditional for a royal personage to hold the position, it is at the discretion of the regiment or corps whom they invite; as of 2015, most Colonels-in-Chief in the British Army are members of the British royal family.
However, two foreign monarchs hold the position: The King of Jordan - The Light Dragoons The Queen of Denmark - The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment In the past non-royal persons have held, or been invited to hold, the post of Colonel-in-Chief. The Duke of Wellington was Colonel-in-Chief of the regiment that bore his name, whilst Winston Churchill was Honorary Colonel of the 4th Queen's Own Hussars, the regiment he served in before entering politics; the Governor General of Canada Adrienne Clarkson was invited to be Colonel-in-Chief of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, while the Royal Australian Army Medical Corps decided to ask the Governor-General of Australia to serve as its Colonel-in-Chief. These exceptions, however, do not change the raison d'être of the post, to serve as a personal link between regiment and Monarch; the role has spread to other armies in the Commonwealth of Nations, at least in countries which have royal families. Royal Australian Armoured Corps - The Prince of Wales Royal Australian Infantry Corps - The Queen Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery - The Queen Corps of Royal Australian Engineers - The Queen Royal Australian Corps of Signals - The Princess Royal Royal Australian Corps of Transport - The Princess Royal Royal Australian Army Medical Corps - The Governor-General of Australia Royal Australian Army Ordnance Corps - The Queen Royal Australian Army Nursing Corps - The Queen Corps of Royal Australian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers - The Duke of Edinburgh Royal Australian Army Educational Corps - The Duchess of Gloucester Royal Australian Corps of Military Police - The Duchess of Cornwall The Royal Bermuda Regiment - The Duchess of Gloucester The Royal Canadian Dragoons - The Prince of Wales Lord Strathcona's Horse - The Prince of Wales The Governor General's Horse Guards - The Queen 8th Canadian Hussars - The Princess Royal The Queen's York Rangers - The Duke of York The Prince Edward Island Regiment - The Earl of Wessex South Alberta Light Horse - The Countess of Wessex The Saskatchewan Dragoons - The Earl of Wessex The King's Own Calgary Regiment - The Queen The Royal Canadian Regiment - The Duke of Edinburgh Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry - The Rt Hon Adrienne Clarkson Royal 22e Régiment - The Queen Governor General's Foot Guards - The Queen The Canadian Grenadier Guards - The Queen The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada - The Duchess of Cornwall The Black Watch of Canada - The Prince of Wales The Royal Regiment of Canada - The Prince of Wales The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry - The Duke of Edinburgh The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment - The Earl of Wessex The Lincoln and Welland Regiment - The Countess of Wessex The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada - The Duke of York The Grey and Simcoe Foresters - The Princess Royal The Lorne Scots - The Duke of Kent Stormont and Glengarry Highlanders - The Queen Le Régiment de la Chaudière - The Queen The Princess Louise Fusiliers - The Duke of York The Royal New Brunswick Regiment - The Queen The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa - The Duke of Edinburgh The Royal Winnipeg Rifles - The Prince of Wales The Essex and Kent Scottish - Prince Michael of Kent 48th Highlanders of Canada - The Queen The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada - The Queen The Royal Regina Rifles - The Princess Royal The Rocky Mountain Rangers - The Queen The Loyal Ed
The kea is a species of large parrot in the family Nestoridae found in the forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. About 48 cm long, it is olive-green with a brilliant orange under its wings and has a large, curved, grey-brown upper beak; the kea is the world's only alpine parrot. Its omnivorous diet includes carrion, but consists of roots, berries and insects. Now uncommon, the kea was once killed for bounty due to concerns by the sheep-farming community that it attacked livestock sheep. In 1986, it received full protection under the Wildlife Act; the kea nests in burrows or crevices among the roots of trees. Kea are known for their intelligence and curiosity, both vital to their survival in a harsh mountain environment. Kea can solve logical puzzles, such as pushing and pulling things in a certain order to get to food, will work together to achieve a certain objective, they have been filmed using tools. The kea was described by ornithologist John Gould in 1856, its specific epithet, the Latin term notabilis, means "noteworthy".
The common name kea is from Māori an onomatopoeic representation of their in-flight call – ‘keee aaa’. The word "kea" is both plural; the genus Nestor contains four species: the New Zealand kaka, the kea, the extinct Norfolk kaka, the extinct Chatham kaka. All four are thought to stem from a "proto-kākā", dwelling in the forests of New Zealand five million years ago, their closest relative is the flightless kakapo. Together, they form the parrot superfamily Strigopoidea, an ancient group that split off from all other Psittacidae before their radiation; the kea weighs between 800 grams and 1 kilogram. It has olive-green plumage with a grey beak having a long, curved upper beak; the adult has dark-brown irises, the cere and legs are grey. It has orange feathers on the undersides of its wings; the feathers on the sides of its face are dark olive-brown, feathers on its back and rump are orange-red, some of the outer wing are dull-blue. It has a short, bluish-green tail with a black tip. Feather shafts project at the tip of the tail and the undersides of the inner tail feathers have yellow-orange transverse stripes.
The male is about 5% longer than the female, the male's upper beak is 12–14% longer than the female's. Juveniles resemble adults, but have yellow eyerings and cere, an orange-yellow lower beak, grey-yellow legs; the kea is one of ten endemic parrot species in New Zealand. The kea ranges from lowland river valleys and coastal forests of the South Island's west coast up to the alpine regions of the South Island such as Arthur's Pass and Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park associated throughout its range with the southern beech forests in the alpine ridge. Apart from occasional vagrants, kea are not found in the North Island, although fossil evidence suggests a population lived there over 10,000 years ago; the population was estimated at between 1,000 and 5,000 individuals in 1986, contrasting with another estimate of 15,000 birds in 1992. The kea's widespread distribution at low density across inaccessible areas prevents accurate estimates. Current population estimates suggest that between 7000 individuals are left.
At least one observer has reported that the kea is polygynous, with one male attached to multiple females. The same source noted that there was a surplus of females. Kea are live in groups of up to 13 birds. Isolated individuals respond well to mirror images. In one study, nest sites occur at a density of one per 4.4 km2. The breeding areas are most in southern beech forests, located on steep mountainsides. Breeding at heights of 1600 m above sea level and higher, it is one of the few parrot species in the world to spend time above the tree line. Nest sites are positioned on the ground underneath large beech trees, in rock crevices, or dug burrows between roots, they are accessed by tunnels leading back 1 to 6 m into a larger chamber, furnished with lichens, moss and rotting wood. The laying period reaches into January. Two to five white eggs are laid, with an incubation time of around 21 days, a brooding period of 94 days. Mortality is high among young kea, with less than 40% surviving their first year.
The median lifespan of a wild subadult kea has been estimated at five years, based on the proportion of kea seen again in successive seasons in Arthur's Pass, allowing for some emigration to surrounding areas. Around 10% of the local kea population were expected to be over 20 years of age; the oldest known captive kea was 50 years old in 2008. An omnivore, the kea feeds on more than 40 plant species, beetle larvae, other birds, mammals, it has been observed breaking open shearwater nests to feed on the chicks after hearing the chicks in their nests. The kea has taken advantage of human garbage and "gifts" of food; the controversy about whether the kea preys on sheep is long-running. Sheep suffering from unusual wounds on their sides or loins were noticed by the mid-1860s, within a decade of sheep farmers moving into the high country. Although some supposed the cause was a new disease, suspicion soon fell on the kea. James MacDonald, head shepherd at Wanaka Station, witnessed a kea attacking a sheep in 1868, similar accounts were widespread.
Prominent members of the scientific community accepted that kea attacked sheep, with Alfred Wallace citing this as
Herceg Novi is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen. It is the administrative center of the Herceg Novi Municipality with around 33,000 inhabitants. Herceg Novi was known as Castelnuovo between 1482 and 1797, when it was part of Ottoman Empire and the Albania Veneta of the Republic of Venice, it remains a Latin titular see as Novi. Herceg Novi has had a turbulent past, despite being one of the youngest settlements on the Adriatic. A history of varied occupations has created a blend of diverse and picturesque architectural style in the city. In Montenegrin, the town is known as Herceg Novi or Херцег Нови. Archeological findings from Luštica peninsula and Vranjaj cavern imply that the area was populated in Neolothic and early Bronze Age. In 3rd century BC, after beating the Illyrians, the area was ruled by Roman Republic. After the split of the Roman Empire, the area fell under rule of Western Roman Empire. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area was dominated by Byzantine Empire.
Slavic tribes began inhabiting these lands in 7th century AD. During these times the small settlement was part of Byzantine-held Dračevica district, which in turn belonged to Principality of Travunija. In 10th century Dračevica comes under the control of various Dioclean/Zetan dukes, who were in turn incorporated into Kingdom of Serbia ruled by the Nemanjić dynasty. After the death of Emperor Stefan Dušan, Serbian Empire begins to fracture into smaller principalities and districts, Dračevica being administered by great duke Vojislav Vojinović. After the rulership of Vojinović, the area, along with most of modern Montenegro, comes under the rule of Balšić noble family; the medieval town was founded on a small fishing village as a fortress in 1382 by the first King of Bosnia, Stefan Tvrtko I Kotromanić and was named Sveti Stefan. After the death of Tvrtko, Duke Sandalj Hranić of the Herzegovinian Kosačas acquired Sveti Stefan. During his reign, the town picked up trading salt; when Hranić died, his nephew, Herzog Stjepan Vukčić Kosača inherited it.
During the reign of Duchy of Saint Sava, the town grew in importance and became Stjepan's seat, getting a new name in the process: Herceg Novi. Herzog Stjepan founded Savina monastery; the Turks conquered Herceg Novi in 1482, ruled for 200 years, until 1687. They built Kanli Tower on the upper edge of the city. However, there was a short pause between 1538 and 1539 when it was held by the Spaniards before they were defeated in the Siege of Castelnuovo. In their brief overlordship, the Spanish built a Hispaniola fort above the city, well-preserved today. Venice gained control of the city and included it into Albania Veneta, an administrative unit on the territory of present-day coastal Montenegro. In Venice, the city was known as Castelnuovo; the Venetians refortified the old town walls and towers and reinforced the fortress with a Citadella tower. On 24 August 1798, Herceg Novi was annexed by Habsburg Austria but was ceded to Russia as per the Treaty of Pressburg on 26 December 1805; the Russians occupied Herceg Novi between 28 February 1806 and 12 August 1807.
On 7 July 1807, Herceg Novi was ceded to Napoleon I Bonaparte's French Empire as per the Treaty of Tilsit. Official French rule over Herceg Novi began on 12 August 1807; the city was part of Dalmatia until 14 October 1809, when it was annexed to the newly created Illyrian Provinces. Herceg Novi, as well as the rest of the Bay of Kotor, was overtaken by Montenegrin forces in 1813, it was under control of a temporary government based in Dobrota between 11 September 1813 and 10 June 1814, supported by Montenegro. The appearance of Austrian forces in 1814 caused the Prince-Bishop of Montenegro to turn over the territory to Austrian administration on 11 June. After Herceg Novi was retaken, as well as the rest of the bay, it became part of the Dalmatian crownland; the bay was under Austro-Hungarian control until 1918. In 1900, the two names ERZEG NOVI and CASTELNUOVO PRESSO CATTARO were used in bilingual cancellations; the Kingdom of Montenegro attempted to retake the Bay of Kotor during World War I, it was bombarded from Lovćen, but by 1916 Austria-Hungary defeated Montenegro.
On 7 November 1918, the Serbian Army entered the bay and were greeted by the people as Slavic liberators. The bay became a part of the self-proclaimed State of Slovenes and Serbs. Within a month, this region united with Serbia as part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929; the bay was a municipality of Dalmatia until it was, like all historic entities, abolished in 1922. It was incorporated from 1929 style Zeta Banate. Herceg Novi was annexed by Mussolini's fascist Italy during World War II in 1941, it became a part of the province of Cattaro. Herceg Novi was retaken by Yugoslav Partisan forces on 10 September 1943. Within Tito's Communist reformed Yugoslavia, Herceg Novi became part of the People's Republic of Montenegro, it would follow its fate at the dismemberment of Yugoslavia into the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003, as that fell apart in 2006 into independent Montenegro. It once was a Catholic bishopric. In 1933 the diocese was nominally restored by establishing in the Latin Church of the Catholic Church a titular bishopric of Novi, listed as suffragan of the Archdiocese of Doclea (which in Classical times controlled its region in the Roman