Charles III, Duke of Savoy
Charles III of Savoy, often called Charles the Good, was Duke of Savoy from 1504 to 1553, although most of his lands were ruled by the French between 1536 and his death. He was a son of Philip the Landless, an aged younger son of the ducal family. His grandparents were Duke Louis of Savoy and Anne of Cyprus, as a child, there were next to no expectations for him to succeed to any monarchy. He was christened as a namesake of the then-reigning Duke, Charles I of Savoy, Charless father was not the heir general of the deceased duke, only the male heir. Jerusalem and certain other claims and possessions could go to a different heir, Charless father was not ready to relinquish those, and he took such titles to his own titulary, staking a claim. He had Yolande marry his son, Philibert the Handsome, in 1496, in 1497, Charless half-brother Philibert succeeded their father as Duke of Savoy, etc. Philibert however died childless in 1504, and now Charles succeeded, Charles faced down challenges to his authority, including from Philibert Berthelier.
After Yolandes death in 1499, the de jure rights of Jerusalem, Charles however, as some sort of heir-male, took those titles, which his successors used. In 1713, Charless great-great-great-grandson Victor Amadeus II of Savoy received confirmation to that title from the Kings of Spain and France, in response to the riots between Catholic and Protestants within Geneva, Charles launched a surprise attack in July 1534, but his army was beaten back. A second siege in October 1535 was attempted, and again Charles army was defeated when forces from Berne arrived to assist Geneva, Charles was allied with the Habsburg camp in Western European politics, where Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V battled for ascendancy. France invaded Savoy in 1536, and held almost all of Charles possessions and he spent the rest of his life practically in exile, at the mercy of relatives. He died in 1553 and was succeeded by his surviving child. He was the duke who imprisoned François Bonivard, the prisoner of Chillon in 1530, Charles married Beatrice of Portugal, daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Maria of Aragon.
Beatrice was both first cousin and sister-in-law of the Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million, in 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, many of Turins public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion, the city used to be a major European political center.
Turin was Italys first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, from 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italys best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, in addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana. Turins attractions make it one of the worlds top 250 tourist destinations, Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the worlds 78th richest city by purchasing power, as of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, the Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.
In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibals forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum, both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurinis country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans created a military camp, the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the path of the Roman citys decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani. The Porta Palatina, on the side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral
Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry
Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry was the daughter of King Francis I of France and Claude, Duchess of Brittany. Margaret was born at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 5 June 1523 the youngest daughter and child of King Francis I of France and Claude, Duchess of Brittany. Margaret was very close to her aunt, Marguerite de Navarre, who took care of her and her sister Madeleine during her childhood. Near the end of 1538, her father and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, agreed that Margaret should marry Charles son, the agreement between Francis and Charles was short-lived and the marriage never took place. On 29 April 1550 at the age of 26 she was created suo jure Duchess of Berry, the husband selected for her was Philips ally, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, Prince of Piedmont. At the time, Margaret was described as having been a lady of excellent breeding. The wedding took place in tragic circumstances, a lance wielded by his opponent the Count of Montgomery accidentally struck his helmet at a point beneath the visor and shattered.
The wooden splinters deeply penetrated his eye and entered his brain. Close to death, but still conscious, the ordered that his sisters marriage should take place immediately, for fear that the Duke of Savoy might profit from his death. The ceremony did not take place in Notre Dame Cathedral as had been planned, instead it was a solemn, subdued event conducted at midnight on 9 July in Saint Pauls, a small church not far from the Tournelles Palace where Margarets dying brother was ensconced. Among the few guests was the French queen consort Catherine de Medici who sat by herself, King Henry died the following day. Margaret and her husband had one surviving child, Charles Emmanuel I of Savoy who was born in January 1562. He married Infanta Catherine Michelle of Spain, the daughter of King Philip by his marriage to Margarets niece, Margaret died on 14 September 1574 at the age of 51. She was buried in Turin at the Cathedral of Saint Giovanni Battista, peace of Cateau Cambrésis Duke of Berry
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg, called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most influential royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740, from the sixteenth century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they maintained close relations. The House takes its name from Habsburg Castle, a built in the 1020s in present-day Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, by Count Radbot of Klettgau. His grandson Otto II was the first to take the name as his own. The House of Habsburg gathered dynastic momentum through the 11th, 12th, by 1276, Count Radbots seventh generation descendant Rudolph of Habsburg had moved the familys power base from Habsburg Castle to the Duchy of Austria. Rudolph had become King of Germany in 1273, and the dynasty of the House of Habsburg was truly entrenched in 1276 when Rudolph became ruler of Austria, which the Habsburgs ruled until 1918.
A series of dynastic marriages enabled the family to expand its domains to include Burgundy and its colonial empire, Hungary. In the 16th century, the separated into the senior Habsburg Spain and the junior Habsburg Monarchy branches. The House of Habsburg became extinct in the 18th century, the senior Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700 and was replaced by the House of Bourbon. It was succeeded by the Vaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine, the new successor house styled itself formally as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, although it was often referred to as simply the House of Habsburg. His grandson Radbot, Count of Habsburg founded the Habsburg Castle, the origins of the castles name, located in what is now the Swiss canton of Aargau, are uncertain. There is disagreement on whether the name is derived from the High German Habichtsburg, or from the Middle High German word hab/hap meaning ford, the first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.
The Habsburg Castle was the seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. The Habsburgs expanded their influence through arranged marriages and by gaining political privileges, in the 13th century, the house aimed its marriage policy at families in Upper Alsace and Swabia. They were able to high positions in the church hierarchy for their members. Territorially, they often profited from the extinction of other families such as the House of Kyburg. By the second half of the 13th century, count Rudolph IV had become one of the most influential territorial lords in the area between the Vosges Mountains and Lake Constance
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two and a half years after Elizabeths birth. Annes marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, edwards will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Marys reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels, in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, one of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England and it was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir to continue the Tudor line.
She never did, despite numerous courtships, as she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, in government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was video et taceo, in religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, by the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. Englands defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history, Elizabeths reign is known as the Elizabethan era. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity.
Such was the case with Elizabeths rival, Queen of Scots, after the short reigns of Elizabeths half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard and she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Henrys second wife, Anne Boleyn, at birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. She was baptised on 10 September, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, the Duchess of Norfolk, Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragons death from natural causes. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession, eleven days after Anne Boleyns execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Prince Edward, in 1537
Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy
Charles Emmanuel I, known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was nicknamed Testa dfeu for his rashness and military aggression and he was born in the Castle of Rivoli in Piedmont, the only child of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry. He became duke on 30 August 1580, well-educated, and intelligent, he spoke Italian and Spanish, as well as Latin. He proved an able warrior although short and hunchbacked, being ambitious and confident, he pursued a policy of expansion for his duchy, seeking to expand it into a kingdom. In the autumn of 1588, taking advantage of the civil war weakening France during the reign of his first cousin Henry III, he occupied the Marquisate of Saluzzo, which was under French protection. The new king, Henry IV, demanded the restitution of land, but Charles Emmanuel refused. The broader conflict involving France and Spain ended with the Peace of Vervins, after the Duke started talks with Spain, Henry threatened to return to war until, with the Treaty of Lyon, Saluzzo went to Savoy in exchange for Bresse and other territories over the Alps.
By terms of the treaty, the eradication of Protestants was to be carried on in the duchy, in 1602 Charles Emmanuel attacked the city of Geneva. On 11 December that year he led his troops to the city during the night, the Savoyard cuirassiers were ordered to dismount and climb the city walls in full armour as a shock tactic. However, the alarm was raised by a watchman and Genevas militia rose to meet the invaders. The attempted raid was a failure, and 54 Savoyards were killed. Charles Emmanuels army retreated in a panic and the Savoyard prisoners were executed, the heavy helmets worn by Charles Emmanuels troops, which featured visors made in crude imitation of a human face, were henceforth known as Savoyard helmets after this notorious incident. A number of suits of armour were captured by the Swiss. The Geneva militias successful defence of the walls is still celebrated as an act of heroism during the annual festival of LEscalade. Nevertheless, Charles Emmanuel obtained the help of French troops to free Alba from the Spaniards and his sister Christine Marie was married to Charles Emmanuels son, Victor Amadeus in 1619.
In the First Genoese-Savoyard War of 1625, Charles Emmanuel tried with the help of France to obtain access to the Mediterranean Sea at the expense of Genoa, after Spanish intervention, the status-quo was restored in the Treaty of Monçon. However, when the French occupied Casale Monferrato during the War of the Mantuan Succession, when Richelieu invaded Piedmont and conquered Susa, the duke changed sides again and returned to an alliance with France. The French troops, soon backed by army, occupied Pinerolo
Turin Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Turin, northern Italy. Dedicated to Saint John the Baptist, it is the seat of the Archbishops of Turin and it was built during 1491–98 and is adjacent to an earlier campanile built in 1470. Designed by Guarino Guarini, the Chapel of the Holy Shroud was added to the structure in 1668–94, the church lies in the place where the theatre of the ancient Roman city was located. The original Christian sacred house included three churches, dedicated to the Holy Saviour, Saint Mary of Dompno and, the main of three, St. John the Baptist. According to some sources, the consecration was carried on by Agilulf. Here, in 662, Duke of Turin was assassinated in the church by a follower of Godepert, the three churches were demolished between 1490 and 1492. The new cathedral, again entitled to St. John the Baptist, was begun in 1491 under design of Amedeo de Francisco di Settignano, known as Meo del Caprino, the bell tower, remained the one erected in 1469, which is still visible today.
Filippo Juvarra brought some modifications in the 17th century, pope Leo X officially confirmed it as metropolitan see in 1515. Quadris design was based on a project by Carlo di Castellamonte. In 1667 Guarino Guarini was called in to complete the project, the dome, whose works dragged for 28 years, was completed in 1694 under the direction of Marie Jeanne of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel IIs widow. The cathedral is the place of Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati, Turin native, avid athlete. He was beatified by John Paul II in 1990, while the chapel of the Holy Shroud behind the cathedral was undergoing renovation during 2009, the Shroud was kept in a small chapel within the cathedral. Several royal consorts and princesses are buried here
Hesdin is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. The N39, from Arras to Montreuil, used to be the main thoroughfare of the town, in the 1950s, a circular route was created to help traffic flow. A second bypass was built in the 1980s, taking all through traffic away from the town centre. The Canche river flows through the centre of Hesdin, Hesdin was a fief of the counts of Artois, vassals of the Counts of Flanders until 1180. When Philip, count of Flanders gave Artois as dowry to his niece Isabella of Hainault when she married Philip Augustus of France in 1180, the unfortified village of Vieil-Hesdin was built on the original site. In 1639 the French laid siege to Hesdin and under Louis XIII, though Hesdin has an ancient name and 16th century structures, there is nothing left of the medieval town. The most recent and resourceful book on the history of Hesdin is Promenades dans Hesdin by Regis Deparis In 2014 Hesdin elected a 22-year-old law student, Stéphane Sieczkowski-Samier, Hesdin is dominated by the central square, the Place dArmes overlooked by the 16th-17th-century town hall.
The contemporary Church of Notre Dame was begun in 1565 and completed in 1685, ernulf de Hesdin, important Domesday landholder and participant in the First Crusade. Jacquemart de Hesdin and painter to the duc de Berry Loyset Liédet, Netherlandish miniaturist, the Abbé Prévost, celebrated novelist known worldwide for his Manon Lescaut, was born in Hesdin. In the first two weeks of August the town has the fete of the Cochon Rose which includes a variety of including a Sunday Brocante which is the biggest in the region. London Borough of Havering in London, England Heusden-Zolder, Belgium Communes of the Pas-de-Calais department INSEE commune file Hesdin on the Insee website Hesdin on the Quid website Hesdin
Henry II of France
Henry II was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, as a child and his elder brother spent over four years in captivity in Spain as hostages in exchange for their father. Henry pursued his fathers policies in matter of arts, wars and he persevered in the Italian Wars against the House of Habsburg and tried to suppress the Protestant Reformation, even as the Huguenot numbers were increasing drastically in France during his reign. Henry suffered a death in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the Eighth Italian War. The kings surgeon, Ambroise Paré, was unable to cure the infected wound inflicted by Gabriel de Montgomery and he was succeeded in turn by three of his sons, whose ineffective reigns helped to spark the French Wars of Religion between Protestants and Catholics.
Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris and his father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by the forces of his sworn enemy, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and held prisoner in Spain. To obtain his release, it was agreed that Henry and his brother be sent to Spain in his place. They remained in captivity for four years. Henry married Catherine de Medici, a member of the family of Florence, on 28 October 1533. The following year, he became involved with a thirty-five-year-old widow. They had always very close, she had publicly embraced him on the day he set off to Spain. Diane became Henrys mistress and most trusted confidante and, for the next years, wielded considerable influence behind the scenes. Extremely confident and intelligent, she left Catherine powerless to intervene and she did, insist that Henry sleep with Catherine in order to produce heirs to the throne. When his elder brother Francis, the Dauphin and Duke of Brittany, died in 1536 after a game of tennis and he succeeded his father on his 28th birthday and was crowned King of France on 25 July 1547 at Reims Cathedral.
Henrys reign was marked by wars with Austria and the persecution of Protestants, Henry II severely punished them, particularly the ministers, for example by burning at the stake or cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies. Even those only suspected of being Huguenots could be imprisoned and it strictly regulated publications by prohibiting the sale, importation or printing of any unapproved book. It was during the reign of Henry II that Huguenot attempts at establishing a colony in Brazil were made, persecution of Protestants at home did not prevent Henry II from becoming allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552. Simultaneously, the continuation of his fathers Franco-Ottoman alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France, an early offensive into Lorraine was successful